CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
This chapter deals with the background of research, statements of problem, purposes and significances of research, definition of key terms, and organization of writing.
A. Background of Research Novel, as a genre of literature tells a story and portrays people in the society. The term „novel‟ is now applied to great variety of writings that have in common only the attribute of being extended works of fiction written in prose (Abrams, 1999: 190). Novel itself has elements which arrange it; they are intrinsic elements and extrinsic elements. One of the intrinsic elements of novel is theme. William Kenney (1966: 88) states that “to put the matter simply, theme is the meaning of the story”. Meanwhile, according to Abrams (1999: 23) “theme is ingredient of a literary work which gives the work unity.” Usually, theme talks about love, war, adventure, culture, religion, etc. The theme can be called as the reason for the author to write the novel. Thus, theme has the important position in the work especially in the novel because the theme in the novel is such the keys to understand the novel. Besides, all of the literary works have a theme because it is the intrinsic element which always exists in the story, not only in literary work that is written but also the story which is delivered by oral tradition. One of the
interesting themes that exist in American literature is about the lost generation which appears in Ernest Hemingway‟s novel The Sun Also Rises. The term “lost generation” was coined by Gertrude Stein, a lost generation writer herself, after World War I. It was between the first and second World Wars that these writers spent their time abroad (Tripodi & Gross, 2010: 1). It is called “the lost generation writer” because they had lost their belief in human progress (Czech, 2010: 1). The lost generation writers move to Paris and spent their time for writing because they are unhappy with American culture in literature and they change their style of writing. In the lost generation period, American people became the aimlessness people because they get bad experience when World War I was happened. World War I also causes many young American people in the post-World War I lost their American ideal (High, 1986: 143). Because of that, many American writers such as Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sherwood Anderson, etc. escape from America and go to Paris. World War I has undercut the notion of morality, faith, and justice. The men and women who experienced the war became psychologically and morally lost, and they wandered aimlessly in a world that appeared meaningless. The lost of morality, faith, and justice make American people do not know what they have to do and they become the aimlessness people. A lapse of moral standards coming between and constitution was not unnatural (Burlingame, 1960: 191). Those were happened in twentieth century. Many writers of literary work in the lost generation period are influenced by that condition, for example Ernest Hemingway‟s The Sun Also Rises, F. Scott
Fitzgerald‟s Great Gatsby, John Dos Passos‟s Manhattan Transfer, etc. Their works tell the story which are related to the theme of the lost generation. When at that period talked about the lost generation more, in fact, at this time many researchers still interested in analyzing this issue. The followings are the samples of research in relation to such issues: The first is the research about “Dekadensi Moral Generasi Muda Amerika Tahun 1920-an yang Tercermin dalam Novel The Beautiful and Damned Karya Fitzgerald” by Rizky Februansyah and Daryanto (2007). It talks about moral deviation of American youth toward moral and ethic code Puritan that had been deeply rooted in American life for hundreds of years. This research analyzes the impact of socio-cultural changes toward the youth‟s morality through the attitude of characters in the novel. While the second one is an essay by Albert Kwan (2010) entitled “The Common Themes of Alienation and Detachment and Their Effects on The Lost and Beat Generation”. It talks about literature emerged in an attempt to capture the attitudes, emotions, and opinions of their generation. This essay also describes about the themes of alienation and detachment in The Lost Generation period in Ernest Hemingway‟s novel The Sun Also Rises which influenced by World War I. It also explains more detail about the influences of writer‟s experience toward their work. Those two reviews above become the main inspiration of this research. Both of them analyze the novel which is written by the lost generation‟s writers, they are Ernest Hemingway and Fitzgerald. They talk about the influence of World War I toward the American people in the lost generation period, even
though in different way. The first research focuses on the impact of World War I to moral deviation of American youth which is describe in Fitzgerald‟s novel Beautiful and Damned. While, the second research focuses on the portray of the lost generation condition in Ernest Hemingway‟s novel The Sun Also Rises and its influences to American people after World War I happened. In relation to the explanation above, the theme of “the lost generation” in literature might be considered as quite rare to analyze. Although, the two reviews above describe about the same issue in this research, the researcher focuses on moral destruction which is happened in the lost generation period which portrayed by The Sun Also Rises novel. Then, it is related to the real condition of the lost generation period in real history. The research and essay above also talk about the destructiveness of moral, but they not describe it more detail. It makes this research different with the two reviews before. The twenties were strange and wonderful years in America. As Fitzgerald (in High, 1986: 143) stated in his word that “the uncertainties of 1919 were over, there seemed little doubt about what was going to happened. America was going on the greatest, gaudiest spree in history.” At this point in the time, America had become a great place in the end World War I and go into some area of business for increasing the economic system (Tripodi & Gross, 2010:1). In fact, the increasing of economic system in America is not experienced by all of the people in America especially by the poor. It also makes the rich is richer and the poor is poorer. The level of criminality and poverty more increase and morality go into destroy. This condition increased in serious condition when America‟s economy
was in crisis. In 1929, America‟s economy collapsed and starting the great depression (High, 1986: 143). It makes moral destruction more increase. In this research, moral destruction is the problem that will be analyzed. Moral concerns both behavior and character (Barcalow, 1985: 3). Thus, behavior and character are the basic tools to analyze moral, especially moral destruction. In literary term moral destruction usually called moral harm. Moral destruction closes to bad moral behavior because bad moral behavior‟s characteristic is destroying (Poespoprodjo, 1998: 123). There is no certain definition about moral destruction, but it can be defined as an action which can destroy the principle of right and wrong behavior in social environment. From the description above the researcher is interested to analyze moral destruction in The Sun Also Rises because this problem also becomes the same problem which happened in this time. Corruption, free sex, drunken, drugs, physical violation, etc., are some examples of moral destructions which happened at this time. Because of The Sun Also Rises comes to be representative of the condition in the lost generation period. This context makes the comprehension that there are the homologies between the story in the novel and the context of the lost generation. The term homology is derived from the term in biology and in genetic structuralism homology is equaled with correspondence, the quality of the relation which has structural characteristic (Ratna, 2004: 123). The explanations above become the main reason why the researcher analyzes The Sun Also Rises novel which is written by Ernest Hemingway and takes moral destruction as the problem to be analyzed.
B. Statements of Problem The object which is going to be analyzed is about moral destruction in Ernest Hemingway‟s novel The Sun Also Rises. The Sun Also Rises describes the social life in the lost generation period. According to Peter B. High (1986: 146), “Ernest Hemingway also spoke for the Lost Generation. His first novel, The Sun Also Rises (1926) is a portrait of young adults in post-war era”. Furthermore, in this period of the society, especially the society of America becomes an aimlessness mankind. They had lost their purpose of life and they do not know what they have to do. This condition makes moral destruction increase anymore. Based on the background of problem above can be formulated into the four research questions as follows: 1.
What are the forms of moral destruction which are presented by Ernest Hemingway in The Sun Also Rises novel?
What are the factors that cause moral destruction in The Sun Also Rises novel?
What are the effects of moral destruction which are described in Ernest Hemingway‟s novel The Sun Also Rises?
What are the homologies between the story in the novel and the context of the lost generation?
C. Purposes and Significances of Research 1. Purposes of Research Based on the research question, hopefully the researcher is able to understand: 1) To find out the forms of moral destruction which are presented by Ernest Hemingway in The Sun Also Rises novel. 2) To find out the factors that cause moral destruction in The Sun Also Rises novel. 3) To describe the effects of moral destruction in Ernest Hemingway‟s novel The Sun Also Rises. 4) To explain the homologies between the story in the novel and the context of the lost generation. 2. Significances of Research Academically, this research is useful to be reference for the students of English Department who want to analyze the same problem, especially about moral destruction. This research also provide the literary society and other people as a unity who want to get the further analyzes about the relation between the textual structure of literary work, especially novel with the contextual structure such as society and culture by using the theory of genetic structuralism. Furthermore, this research hopefully can give the inspiration for the literary society especially the students of English Department to consider with the novel which describes the social phenomenon in the world because it is the interesting issue to be analyzed. Besides, using the genetic structuralism to analyze the
literary work can give us more information about the culture, society, and history which are presented by the story in that literary work.
D. Definition of Key Terms a. Moral destruction : in literary tem, moral destruction is usually called moral harm which will be analyzed in this research. Moral destruction in this case is drunk, free sex, betrayal, physical violence, dishonestly, etc., which happened in the lost generation period. It is called the lost generation because after World War I, American people became the aimlessness people and they lost their moral, faith, and justice. b. The Lost Generation: is the theme which appears in The Sun Also Rises novel. The term “The Lost Generation” was coined by an American writer living in France, Gertrude Stein, to refer to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris in the 1920‟s. Many young people in the postWorld War I period had “lost” their American ideals (High, 1986: 143). Thus, they are called “the lost generation‟s writer”.
Organization of Writing 1. Introduction This chapter deals with the background of research, statements of problem, purposes and significances of research, definition of key terms, and organization of writing.
2. Theoretical Bases of Moral Destruction This chapter reviews theories underlying and supporting the research including: a) the theories of moral include: the definition of moral and moral destruction, b) the theory of genetic structuralism include; the relation between the literary work and the real life, genetic structuralism as a literary criticism and the concept of homology, and c) Ernest Hemingway‟s sociohistorical context. 3. Methodology This chapter elaborates methodology of this research. It begins with the method of research, the data, sources of data, the technique of collecting data, the ends with technique of analyzing data. 4. Moral Destruction in Ernest Hemingway’s novel The Sun Also Rises This chapter provides data representation and discussion based on data that is taken from the novel and entire of theoretical books and other sources which supports this analyzes, such as theory of genetic structuralism by Lucien Goldmann, theory of moral philosophy by Emmet Barcalow, etc. 5. Conclusion and Suggestion This is the final chapter that provides the conclusion of the whole analysis and suggestion for better understanding.