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2016

Labour Overview

Latin America and the Caribbean

ILO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean

Copyright © International Labour Organization 2016 First printing, 2016 Publications of the International Labour Office enjoy copyright under Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. Nevertheless, short excerpts from them may be reproduced without authorization, on condition that the source is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation, an application should be made to ILO Publications (Rights and Licensing), International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, or by email: [email protected] The International Labour Office welcomes such applications. Libraries, institutions and other users registered with reproduction rights organizations may make copies in accordance with the licences issued to them for this purpose. Visit www.ifrro.org to find the reproduction rights organization in your country. ILO 2016 Labour Overview Lima: ILO / Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2016. 132 p Employment, unemployment, labour market, economic growth, minimum wage, economic recession, poverty, future of work, informal employment, youth employment, labour statistics, Latin America, Central America, Caribbean. ISSN: 2305-0241 (printed version) ISSN: 2305-0276 (web version pdf) ILO Cataloguing in Publication Data The designations employed in ILO publications, which are in conformity with United Nations’ practice, and the presentation of material therein, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the International Labour Office concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors, and publication does not constitute an endorsement by the International Labour Office of the opinions expressed in them. Reference to names of firms and commercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by the International Labour Office, and any failure to mention a particular firm, commercial product or process is not a sign of disapproval. ILO publications and digital products can be obtained through major booksellers and local offices in several countries, or on request from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland or from: Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Las Flores 275, San Isidro, Lima 27, Apartado Postal 14-124, Lima – Peru. Catalogues and lists of new publications can also be ordered from the addresses mentioned or by e-mail at: [email protected] or [email protected] Visit our websites: www.ilo.org/publns or http://www.ilo.org/americas/publicaciones [regional website]. Printed in Peru

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ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Contents

CONTENTS FOREWORD

5

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

7

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

11

LABOUR REPORT

17

The global economic context

17

|| Economic and Labour Situation in the World’s Leading Economies 17 || 2016 Economic Context of Latin America and the Caribbean: from Slowdown to Contraction

18

|| Implications 24

The labour market in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2016

27

|| Main Annual Indicators with National Data: Abrupt Rise in Unemployment

27

|| Quarterly Short-term Trends: Labour Demand Weakens and Unemployment Rises

32

|| Decreasing Quality and Changing Composition of Employment

36

|| Wage Trends: Real Average Wages Fluctuate, with a Downward Tendency. Real Minimum Wages Continue to Rise 39 || Outlook 41

SPECIAL TOPIC › Some contributions to the future of work in Latin America and the Caribbean

45

EXPLANATORY NOTE

73

STATISTICAL ANNEX

81

Statistical annex NATIONAL

81

Statistical annex URBAN

99

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ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Foreword

FOREWORD This 2016 Labour Overview of Latin America and the Caribbean contains a summary of economic trends in the region’s countries and an analysis of their impacts on labour markets this year, as well as those expected in 2017. The region’s labour situation worsened in 2016: there was a sharp increase in unemployment, informality increased and the quality of employment deteriorated, as measured by various indicators, such as the increase in own-account work, the reduction of wage labour and a decrease in real wages. The predicted threat of setbacks in the progress made on social and labour issues during the decade of high growth shows up in the statistics in this 2016 Labour Overview as a disturbing pattern of negative impacts in multiple indicators. This report also describes a heterogeneous region, where economic growth is occurring at different rates, and where the effects on employment are also diverse. Regional averages are notably influenced by the situation in Brazil, where about 40 per cent of the region’s economically active population lives. Although some countries maintain relatively high GDP growth, others, such as Venezuela and Brazil, have registered a sharp contraction. Regional averages, however, show a real trend: in 2016, the unemployment rate increased in 13 of the 19 countries for which current information is available. Since 2011, Latin America and the Caribbean have been affected by an economic deceleration whose cumulative impacts on labour markets were described in the 2015 Labour Overview as a “slow-motion crisis”. This edition, however, shows that, since 2015, the deceleration has turned into a contraction of economic activity, making 2016 the region’s worst year so far this decade in economic terms. The average regional unemployment rate, which reached a historical low of 6.1 per cent in 2014, rose to 6.6 per cent in 2015. This was the first sign of a reversal in the trend of improvement in labour markets that began at the start of the twenty-first century. In 2016, the regional unemployment rate will average 8.1 per cent, an increase of 1.5 percentage points. This means that by the end of the year the number of unemployed people in the region will reach 25 million, some 5 million more than in 2015. A large proportion of the newly unemployed are women and young people. This 2016 Labour Overview also contains an estimate of regional unemployment for next year: the rate is expected to increase again in 2017, to 8.4 per cent. The quality of employment is also deteriorating. Informality in employment, which had decreased from the previous decade, began to rise again in 2015, according to the most recent available data. And this trend is likely to continue in 2016. If that is the case, about 134 million workers in the region could be employed informally. Another important indicator of the deterioration in the quality of jobs is that employees began to decrease and the proportion of own-account workers increased. Wages have also dropped since 2014. Although in different combinations and with different degrees of urgency, the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean face a dual challenge: they need urgent short-term responses to mitigate the negative social and labour impacts of the deceleration or contraction and return to a growth path, along with actions to address the structural problems of low productivity and the long-standing lack of diversification of production. This requires actions to stimulate new and more balanced drivers that promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable growth with full and productive employment and decent work for all, the challenge posed by Goal 8 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This requires responses that emerge from dialogue, with a shared vision and an appropriate balance between the short and long term. The role of social dialogue as a mechanism for democratic governance and the development of shared visions of national interest is more important than ever.

6

Foreword

This will require special efforts to re-establish trust between sectors and strengthen the abilities of institutions to meet different expectations and demands according to a widely shared vision. But that vision and those dialogues should not focus only on resolving a series of short-term problems. Emphasis must also be placed on long-term strategic tasks –ongoing efforts whose success will be measured over five– or ten-year cycles, not by the quarter or even by a term of government. For that reason the second part of this 2016 Labour Overview also looks to the future, with a special section on the future of work in Latin America and the Caribbean. This section identifies and analyses the main long-term demographic, economic, productive development and technological factors that are approaching and are already having an impact. Impact scenarios for these factors are analysed in areas such as the volume and composition of employment, labour relations, supply of and demand for skills, governance and institutions related to the labour market and social dialogue. The report concludes with a reflection: the future, in both the short and long term, is not predetermined; it will depend greatly on the ability of societies to provide appropriate collective responses to anticipated impacts and to orient and accelerate processes of change in a positive direction. There is no question that the deteriorating scenario documented in this Labour Overview calls for collective action by all stakeholders to find viable, effective solutions in a climate of social justice. José Manuel Salazar-Xirinachs ILO Regional Director for Latin America and the Caribbean

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ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Acknowledgments

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The ILO Regional Director for Latin America and the Caribbean, José Manuel Salazar-Xirinachs, would like to express his gratitude to the work team responsible for preparing the 2016 Labour Overview. This publication was coordinated by the ILO team of specialists –Juan Chacaltana, David Glejberman, Andrés Marinakis, Bolívar Pino, Claudia Ruiz, Kristen Sobeck and Juan Jacobo Velasco– who were responsible for the analysis and drafting of this report. Juan Chacaltana and Claudia Ruiz coordinated the preparation of the feature article on the future of work in Latin America and the Caribbean, with support from Daniela Campos. The programming team of the Labour Analysis and Information System for Latin America and the Caribbean (SIALC/Panama), especially Rigoberto García and Leo Mendoza, processed databases and provided most of the indicators for this report. Bolívar Pino, in collaboration with David Glejberman, took on the difficult task of ensuring the systematization and consistency of the indicators, as well as the analysis of the current labour situation. Waldo Mendoza provided inputs for the section on the macroeconomic context. Information from the World Employment and Social Outlook Report was used for the section on forecasts and the Global Wage Report provided input for the section on wages. Special thanks are due to the ILO colleagues who made comments on or provided inputs for the different sections of this Labour Overview: Patrick Belser, Guillermo Dema, Florencio Gudiño, Stefan Kuhn, Elva López, Yves Perardel, Anne Posthuma, Diego Rei, Gerhard Reinecke, José Ribeiro and Steven Tobin. The directors of ILO offices in the region and colleagues at the ILO Department of Statistics also offered valuable suggestions. Florencio Gudiño and Claudia Ruiz edited the report. Carola González and Mariella Mujica were responsible for layout, image and design, with oversight from Milagros Parodi and Luis Córdova, who was also in charge of disseminating the report to the media. The support services of the Regional Office, particularly colleagues in the Programming and Finance units, deserve special mention for their valuable collaboration at the different stages of preparing the report. Finally, the ILO would like to express its gratitude to the national statistical institutes of the region for their contributions to the development of the Labour Analysis and Information System for Latin America and the Caribbean. Their contributions make the annual publication of the Labour Overview possible.

Executive Summary /

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ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Executive Summary

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The labour overview in Latin America and the Caribbean worsened in 2016. The economic deceleration experienced in the region since 2011 became a contraction of the economy as of 2016, with a significant impact this year on labour markets in Latin America and the Caribbean. For the second year in a row, the average unemployment rate increased, from 6.6 per cent in 2015 to 8.1 per cent in 2016. This level of unemployment had not been seen since the beginning of the last decade and means that there are roughly 25 million unemployed people in the region (approximately 5 million more than in 2015). The quality of employment has also deteriorated: real wages have decreased, although real minimum wages have increased in some countries; informality has increased with a concomitant decrease in formalization of employment; the proportion of employees in the total work force has shrunk, and own-account work has risen.

Global uncertainty continues to have a negative impact on growth in Latin America and the Caribbean Expectations for recovery of growth in developed countries changed during the year, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States, where political developments led to greater uncertainty about the future of investments and trade. The result has been greater instability and lower-thanexpected economic growth in the most-developed countries, especially in Europe. This pattern is also seen in emerging countries. The performance of Latin American and Caribbean economies has been particularly negative. The contraction of regional GDP worsened in 2015 and a drop between 0.6 per cent and 0.9 per cent is estimated for 2016. Nevertheless, it is important to differentiate economic performance by country and sub-region. For the second year in a row, the strong recessions in Brazil and Venezuela affected the Latin American growth average, which was also exacerbated by economic contractions in Argentina and Ecuador. Meanwhile, Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico have shown positive economic growth overall, at levels similar to those of 2015, maintaining the pace of growth seen in recent years. Besides the deterioration in terms of trade, 2016 saw a significant contraction in effective demand in the region, due to a decrease in private consumption and public investment. The average fiscal deficit as a percentage of GDP increased significantly, mainly because of a decrease in income associated with lower growth, creating a climate of budget constraints which is very different from the situation experienced by the region during the crisis of 2008-2009. The region’s chances of resuming growth in the short and medium term will depend on both the regularization of internal political processes under way in various countries and the course of relations with the United States in terms of trade, finance and migration. Amid greater instability, volatility, budget constraints and more precarious socio-economic conditions, it is crucial to activate mechanisms of social dialogue, with a commitment from all parties to strengthen the quality, relevance and sustainability of policy responses.

Regional unemployment increases to levels not seen in more than a decade The regional unemployment rate increased again, this time sharply, rising from 6.6 per cent in 2015 to 8.1 per cent (preliminary estimate) in 2016 –an increase of 1.5 percentage points. These levels were not seen even during the international financial crisis of 2008-2009. The downward impact of deceleration/contraction on labour demand was considerable, and as a result, the regional employment-to-population ratio fell by nearly one percentage point. The recessive scenario also produced an increase in the flow of people outside the labour force seeking to return to the labour market to meet their needs; this translated into an increase in the participation rate, from 61.9 per cent in 2015 to 62.0 per cent in 2016 (preliminary estimate). The net effect of the sharp drop in labour demand and the slight increase in labour supply explains the increase of 1.5 percentage points in the unemployment rate, which reached 8.1 per cent.

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Executive Summary

In comparison to 2015, the increase in the unemployment rate in 2016 was more extensive in the region, rising in 13 of the 19 countries for which current information is available. Particularly notable are the increases in Brazil (2.9 percentage points) and Ecuador (1.2 percentage points). In the other six countries, the unemployment rate dropped, with the greatest decreases registered in Barbados (2.5 percentage points), Belize (2.1 percentage points) and Mexico (0.4 percentage points). Because Brazil’s unemployment rate represents a high proportion of the region’s economically active population, the sharp increase in this indicator largely explains the rise in the region’s average unemployment rate and this year’s increase in the number of unemployed people.

Unemployment by sub-regions The greatest effects of the deceleration/contraction have been concentrated in South America, where the unemployment rate increased by 2.0 percentage points, rising from 7.5 per cent to 9.5 per cent between the first three quarters of 2015 and the same period in 2016. However, in Central America and Mexico, the unemployment rate decreased slightly, from 4.6 per cent to 4.4 per cent. Unemployment also decreased slightly in the Caribbean, from 8.2 per cent to 7.9 per cent.

Unemployment affects women more than men Although the region’s unemployment rate during the first three quarters of 2016 increased sharply for both men (1.3 percentage points) and women (1.6 percentage points), compared to the same period in 2015, the greatest rise came in the unemployment rate for women, which neared double digits (9.8 per cent) for the first time in a decade. Nevertheless, increases in unemployment rates by sex are due to different dynamics. Although the increase among women was due to a drop in the employment-to-population ratio and an increase in the participation rate (more women entering the labour market), those two indicators dropped among men, but more for the employment-topopulation ratio than for the participation rate.

Youth unemployment increased The increase in youth unemployment in the region in 2015 was exacerbated in 2016, rising from 15.1 percent to 18.3 percent between the first three quarters of 2015 and the same period in 2016, although not all countries experienced increases in youth unemployment. The increase in youth unemployment during this period far exceeded the increase in this indicator for adults. As a result, the ratio between the unemployment rates of the two age groups increased to a factor of 3.1. For both young people and adults, the participation rate (labour supply) in the region held steady. The economic deceleration/contraction further reduced labour demand more for young people than for adults: while the employment-to-population ratio fell by 0.6 percentage points among adults, it dropped by 1.4 percentage points for young people. This confirms the pattern seen in other regions and during other episodes of decreased demand: young people are the first to be laid off during a deceleration and the last to be hired during the recovery.

The economic deceleration led to informality, more precarious employment and decrease of real wages The quality of employment has continued to deteriorate. Particularly critical was the increase in the informal employment rate in 2015, when at least 133 million workers were employed informally. In 2016, there was also a decrease in registered employment and a loss of salaried jobs, particularly in large enterprises. Own-account work increased, generally associated with lower-paying jobs and less access to social security coverage and labour benefits. If that trend continues, it is estimated that there could be 134 million informal workers in 2016. In addition to these changes, which are directly related to lower-quality employment, there is a growing regional trend toward increased employment in the service sector and a decrease in industrial employment, which continued in 2016.

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ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Executive Summary

The weak performance of the regional labour market was also reflected in a decrease in real average wages (-1.3 per cent) between 2014 and 2015, though there were significant differences in the behaviour of wages in different countries. Although information about real average wages is not available for 2016, the drop in wages in the registered or formal sector of the economy between the first three quarters of 2015 and the same period in 2016 could indicate that the drop in real average wages was accentuated in 2016. Nevertheless, thanks to adjustments in nominal minimum wages above inflation rates, real minimum wages have continued to increase in 14 of 16 countries for which information is available. On average, the real minimum wage increased by 4.4 per cent between the first three quarters of 2015 and the same period in 2016.

Outlook For 2017, it is estimated that the region’s average unemployment rate will rise to 8.4 per cent, compared to 8.1 per cent in 2016 and 6.6 per cent in 2015.

Labour Report /

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Labour Report

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

LABOUR REPORT The global economic context Economic and Labour Situation in the World’s Leading Economies According to the most recent forecasts of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew slightly less in 2016 (3.1 per cent) than in 2015 (3.2 per cent), continuing the downward trend seen thus far in the decade (Table 1). The world’s leading economies experienced a slowdown, which was especially evident in the United States (growth grew by 1 percentage point less in 2016) and the United Kingdom (0.4 percentage points less). The Eurozone will grow, but also less than in 2015. Italy, Spain and France will have GDP growth rates similar to those recorded in 2015, whereas economic growth in Germany will be an estimated 1.7 per cent, slightly above the 1.5 per cent of 2015. In the United Kingdom, GDP growth will decline from 2.2 per cent in 2015 to 1.8 per cent in 2016. In emerging and developing countries, the growth rate will increase slightly in comparison to 2015 (from 4.0 per cent to 4.2 per cent), mainly because, although the economy of Russia will contract again this year (-0.8 per cent), it will not do so to the extent it did in 2015 (-3.7 per cent). China will grow 6.6 per cent, less than the 6.9 per cent seen in 2015, confirming that the country is transitioning to a “new normal” of growth rates below those recorded during the past decade. In India, GDP growth will be the same as last year (7.6 per cent). The economy of sub-Saharan Africa will grow 2 percentage points less, from 3.4 per cent in 2015 to 1.4 per cent in 2016. By contrast, the Middle East, Northern Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan will experience stronger growth, from 2.3 per cent in 2015 to 3.4 per cent in 2016. The slowdown in the world’s leading economies is also reflected in a new reduction in the growth of global trade volume, from 2.6 per cent in 2015 to 2.3 per cent in 2016. TABLE 1. World: Annual GDP Growth, by Region 2010-2017 (Annual percentage change) Region

Years 2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016*

2017*

World GDP

5.4

4.2

3.5

3.3

3.4

3.2

3.1

3.4

Advanced Economies

3.1

1.7

1.2

1.2

1.9

2.1

1.6

1.8

United States

2.5

1.6

2.2

1.7

2.4

2.6

1.6

2.2

Euro Zone

2.1

1.5

-0.9

-0.3

1.1

2.0

1.7

1.5

Germany

4.0

3.7

0.7

0.6

1.6

1.5

1.7

1.4

Italy

1.7

0.6

-2.8

-1.7

-0.3

0.8

0.8

0.9

Spain

0

-1.0

-2.6

-1.7

1.4

3.2

3.1

2.2

France

2.0

2.1

0.2

0.6

0.6

1.3

1.3

1.3

Japan

4.7

-0.5

1.7

1.4

0

0.5

0.5

0.6

United Kingdom

1.9

1.5

1.3

1.9

3.1

2.2

1.8

1.1

Canada

3.1

3.1

1.7

2.2

2.5

1.1

1.2

1.9

Emerging and Developing Countries

7.5

6.3

5.3

5.0

4.6

4.0

4.2

4.6

Commonwealth of Independent States

4.7

4.7

3.5

2.1

1.1

-2.8

-0.3

1.4

4.5

4.0

3.5

1.3

0.7

-3.7

-0.8

1.1

9.6

7.9

7.0

7.0

6.8

6.6

6.5

6.3

China

10.6

9.5

7.9

7.8

7.3

6.9

6.6

6.2

India

10.3

6.6

5.6

6.6

7.2

7.6

7.6

7.6

Russia Developing Countries of Asia

Latin America and the Caribbean

6.1

4.6

3.0

2.9

1.0

0.0

-0.6

1.6

Brazil

7.5

3.9

1.9

3.0

0.1

-3.8

-3.3

0.5

Mexico

5.1

4.0

4.0

1.4

2.2

2.5

2.1

2.3

7.0

5.0

4.3

5.2

5.1

3.4

1.4

2.9

Sub-Saharan Africa

(continues...)

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Labour Report

Years

Region

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016*

2017*

Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan and Pakistan

4.9

4.5

5.0

2.4

2.7

2.3

3.4

3.4

Global trade volume

12.4

7.0

2.8

3.5

3.8

2.6

2.3

3.8

International primary commodity price index (2005=100)

152.1

192.0

185.8

182.9

171.5

111.0

99.2

107.7

Source: IMF (2016). World Economic Outlook. Subdued demand: symptoms and remedies. October 2016. Washington D.C: IMF. Note: (*) Estimated for 2016 and 2017.

Unemployment rates also vary considerably by regions and countries. In the United States, the downward trend continues, falling to 4.9 per cent in the third quarter of 2016. This figure is similar to that recorded before the crisis (2007). In the European Union, the unemployment rate reached its highest level in 2013 and has since been declining gradually. In China, the unemployment rate of approximately 4 per cent has been stable for more than a decade (Figure 1). FIGURE 1. Quarterly Open Unemployment in Selected Countries. 2003 Q1-2016 Q3 (Percentages) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

Maximum Unemployment Rate

Euro Zone (19)

United States

2016-T3

2016-T1

2015-T3

2015-T1

2014-T3

2014-T1

2013-T3

2013-T1

2012-T3

2012-T1

2011-T3

2011-T1

2010-T3

2010-T1

2009-T3

2009-T1

2008-T3

2008-T1

2007-T3

2007-T1

2006-T3

2006-T1

2005-T3

2005-T1

2004-T3

2004-T1

2003-T3

2003-T1

0

China

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics (United States); Eurostat; National Statistics Office of China.

2016 Economic Context of Latin America and the Caribbean: from Slowdown to Contraction In Latin America and the Caribbean, 2016 began with clear signs of deterioration. The regional economy is expected to contract between 0.6 per cent (IMF) and 0.9 per cent (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean - ECLAC) this year. These figures fall considerably short of the 0.8 per cent growth forecast in October 2015, and represent a larger reduction than the slight decline observed in 2015.1 While in 2011 the regional economy grew at a faster pace than the world average, growth has slowed since 2012 and the gap has widened in recent years (Figure 2).

1

IMF (2015). World Economic Outlook. Adjusting to Lower Commodity Prices. October 2015. Washington D.C: IMF.

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Labour Report

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

FIGURE 2. World and Latin America and the Caribbean. GDP growth, 2010-2017 (Annual percentage change) 7

5.4

6

4.2

5

3.5

4

3.4

3.3

3.2

3.4

3.1

3 2

1.6

1.0

1

-0.03

-1

-0.5

-0.9

-2 2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

1.5

-0.6

0

2015

2016*

2017*

World

Latin America and the Caribbean (IMF) Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

Source: IMF (2016). World Economic Outlook. Subdued demand: symptoms and remedies. October 2016. Washington D.C: IMF; and ECLAC (2016). Actualización de Proyecciones de América Latina y el Caribe, 2016 - 2017. October 2016. Santiago de Chile: ECLAC. Note: (*) Estimated for 2016 and 2017.

The situation differs across subregions and countries (Table 2). In Central America, growth will reach approximately 3.8 per cent, and in Mexico, around 2.1 per cent, both percentages slightly below those of 2015. In South America, GDP will contract between 2.0 per cent (IMF) and 2.2 per cent (ECLAC). This subregion was affected by GDP decline in Brazil, of between 3.3 per cent and 3.4 per cent, and the deep recession in Venezuela, of between 8.0 per cent and 10.0 per cent. The situation in those two countries had an impact on the regional average for the second year in a row. In 2016, Argentina and Ecuador will join those countries as they will also experience negative growth. In the Caribbean, estimates vary between 0.3 per cent contraction in 2016, according to ECLAC, to 3.4 per cent growth, according to the IMF, depending on the group of countries included. (See note c, Table 2.) These differences will depend heavily on what occurs in Suriname, where the rate of contraction of the economy is expected to be between 7.0 per cent (IMF) and 4.0 per cent (ECLAC), and in the Dominican Republic, where growth is expected to reach an estimated 6 per cent. Both the IMF and ECLAC estimate that GDP will decline in Trinidad and Tobago this year. TABLE 2. Latin America and the Caribbean: GDP growth forecasts, by country and sub-region. 2014-2017 (Annual percentage change) IMF

ECLAC

2015

2016*

2017*

2015

2016*

2017*

Latin America and the Caribbean a/

0.0

-0.6

1.6

-0.5

-0.9

1.5

Latin America b/







-0.5

-0.9

1.5

Argentina

2.5

-1.8

2.7

2.4

-1.8

2.5

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

4.8

3.7

3.9

4.8

4.5

4.3

Brazil

-3.8

-3.3

0.5

-3.9

-3.4

0.5

Chile

2.3

1.7

2.0

2.1

1.6

2.0

Colombia

3.1

2.2

2.7

3.1

2.3

3.2

Costa Rica

3.7

4.3

4.3

3.7

4.2

4.1

Cuba







4.3

0.8

2.0

Dominican Republic

7.0

5.9

4.5

7

6.5

6.3

Ecuador

0.3

-2.3

-2.7

0.3

-2.5

0.2

El Salvador

2.5

2.4

2.4

2.5

2.2

2.3

Guatemala

4.1

3.5

3.8

4.1

3.3

3.4

Haiti

1.2

1.5

3.2

1.2

1.5

2.0

Honduras

3.6

3.6

3.7

3.6

3.5

3.7

Mexico

2.5

2.1

2.3

2.5

2.1

2.2

Nicaragua

4.9

4.5

4.3

4.9

4.5

4.5 (continues...)

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Labour Report

IMF

ECLAC

2015

2016*

2017*

2015

2016*

2017*

Panama

5.8

5.2

5.8

5.8

5.4

5.7

Paraguay

3.1

3.5

3.6

3

4.0

3.8

Peru

3.3

3.7

4.1

3.3

3.9

4.0

Uruguay

1.0

0.1

1.2

1

0.6

1.2

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

-6.2

-10.0

-4.5

-5.7

-8.0

-4.0

3.9

3.4

3.6

-0.5

-0.3

1.4

Antigua and Barbuda

2.2

2.0

2.4

4.1

3.5

3.0

Bahamas

-1.7

0.3

1.0

-1.7

0.5

0.9

Barbados

0.9

1.7

1.7

0.9

1.6

2.1

Belize

1.0

0.0

2.6

1.2

0.8

1.5

Dominica

-1.8

1.5

2.9

-1.8

4.2

1.2

Granada

6.2

3.0

2.7

5.1

1.9

2.9

Guyana

3.2

4.0

4.1

3

4.4

5.2

Jamaica

0.9

1.5

2.0

0.8

1.2

1.3

Saint Kitts and Nevis

5.0

3.5

3.5

3.8

4.7

3.0

Saint Lucia

2.4

1.5

1.9

2.4

1.2

2.0

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

0.6

1.8

2.5

1.6

2.3

1.8

Suriname

-0.3

-7.0

0.5

-2

-4.0

1.5

Trinidad and Tobago

Caribbean c/

-2.1

-2.8

2.3

-2.1

-2.5

0.8

Central America d/

4.2

3.9

4.1

4.7

3.7

4.0

South America e/

-1.3

-2.0

1.1

-1.7

-2.2

1.1

Source: IMF (2016). World Economic Outlook. Subdued demand: symptoms and remedies. October 2016. Washington D.C: IMF; and ECLAC (2016). Actualización de Proyecciones de América Latina y el Caribe, 2016 - 2017. October 2016. Santiago de Chile: ECLAC. Notes: a/ The ECLAC estimate includes 33 countries whereas the IMF estimate includes 32. b/ The ECLAC estimate is for the 20 countries mentioned in the table. c/ The ECLAC estimate is for the 13 countries mentioned in the table. The IMF estimate excludes Belize, Guyana and Suriname and includes the Dominican Republic and Haiti (12 countries). d/ The ECLAC estimate includes Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama (9 countries). The IMF estimate includes Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama (7 countries). e/ The ECLAC estimate includes 10 countries: Argentina, Bolivia (Pluri. State of), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of). The IMF estimate also includes Guyana and Suriname (12 countries). (*) Estimated for 2016 and 2017.

Growth rate gaps between Central and South America in 2016 are worthy of note: the former has an average growth rate of 3.8 per cent while the latter shows contraction of 2.1 per cent. The economies of Caribbean countries grew, with the exception of Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. Another way to understand the deterioration of the growth situation is to observe that of the 32 countries of the region, 22 reduced their growth forecasts throughout 2016 in comparison to 2015 projections, and just nine revised their forecasts upwards.2 The downward revisions affect labour market performance and the well-being of individuals. The ILO (2014) estimates that, for each tenth of a percentage point that the region fails to grow, 100,000 jobs will not be created.3 The downward adjustment of 1.4 percentage points between the 2015 (0.8 per cent) and 2016 (-0.6 per cent) forecasts represents 1.4 million jobs not created in 2016 (Figure 3).

2 3

IMF (2015, 2016) World Economic Outlook database. Washington, D.C: IMF ILO (2014). 2014 Labour Overview of Latin America and the Caribbean. Lima: ILO.

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FIGURE 3. Latin America and the Caribbean: GDP growth and forecasts made between October 2011 and October 2016. 2010-2020 (Annual percentage change) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

Oct-11

Oct-12

Oct-13

Oct-14

Oct-15

Oct-16

2020

Source: Database of World Economic Outlook. Washington D.C: IMF.

Several factors could explain the transition from slowdown to contraction beginning in 2015. Until 2015, the slowdown was strongly associated with the decline in commodity prices, especially in South America. In 2016, the decrease continues and, although a small uptick occurred mid-year, the net result pointed to a downward trend (Figure 4). The IMF’s Index of Primary Commodity Prices Indicators had a value of 111 in 2015 and 99 in 2016 (Table 1). The favourable economic performance in most Caribbean countries is associated with an increased tourist flow while the negative growth rates of some commodity-exporting countries, such as Trinidad and Tobago and Suriname, are explained by the decline in oil prices.4 FIGURE 4. Latin America and the Caribbean: International primary commodity price index. January 1992 – Septembre 2016 (2005=100) 250 200 150 100 50

Food

Metals

Oil

07/16

04/16

01/16

10/15

07/15

04/15

01/15

10/14

07/14

04/14

01/14

01/03 07/03 01/04 07/04 01/05 07/05 01/06 07/06 01/07 07/07 01/08 07/08 01/09 07/09 01/10 07/10 01/11 07/11 01/12 07/12 01/13 07/13 01/14 07/14 01/15 07/15 01/16 07/16

0

Commodities (inc. Oil)

Source: IMF Database (IMF Primary Commodity Prices).

Consequently, as Figure 5 shows, the region’s exports, particularly commodities –which rose considerably in 2010 and 2011 and then experienced a sharp decline in 2015, due mainly to falling prices5– will likely also contract in 2016, although to a lesser extent than in 2015.

4 5

IMF (2016). Regional Economic Outlook Update. Latin America and the Caribbean: Are Chills Here to Stay? October 2016. Washington D.C: IMF. The IMF reports that export volumes of goods and services will grow 3 per cent in 2016. IMF (2016), World Economic Outlook. Subdued Demand: Symptoms and Remedies. October 2016. Washington D.C.

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FIGURE 5. Latin America and the Caribbean: Growth in value of exports of goods and services. 2007-2016 (Annual percentage change) 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% 2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015 2016*

Source: ECLAC Database (ECLACSTAT). Note: (*)Estimated for 2016.

In commodity-exporting countries, the terms of trade play a decisive role in changing activity levels. Figure 6 shows the high degree of correlation between terms of trade (mostly exogenous to the region) and regional GDP growth. Note that this correlation weakens in the period 2012–2015, with the terms of trade decreasing more than GDP. FIGURE 6. Latin America and the Caribbean: GDP growth and terms of trade, 2000-2017 (percentange change) 12

7

2

-3

-8

GDP

2017*

2016*

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

-13

Terms of trade

Source: IMF (2016). World Economic Outlook. Subdued demand: symptoms and remedies. October 2016. Washington D.C: IMF. (*) Estimated for 2016 and 2017.

According to some studies, and as Figure 7 shows, from 2010 to 2014, domestic demand supported the growth of GDP, particularly consumption and increased public spending, with a negative contribution of net exports.

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FIGURE 7. Latin America and the Caribbean: contribution of aggregate demand components to GDP growth rate, 2000-2015 (percentages) 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Final consumption expenditure

Investment

Net exports

GDP

Source: ECLAC Database (ECLACSTAT).

This injection of effective demand disappeared in 2015, however, and continues to fall in 2016. The IMF expects public investment to contract by approximately -8 per cent6 this year. ECLAC reported that private consumption in 2015 decreased by 0.2 per cent and expects this indicator to continue declining this year.7 Additionally, net exports are expected to grow given that import values will decrease even more than export values.8 The IMF also estimates that the fiscal deficit as a percentage of GDP will reach 7.6 per cent, the highest level in recent years, which is attributed to a larger reduction in income than in public spending, even though several countries have adjusted fiscal spending. Specifically, government income –taxes, social contributions and other revenue– as a percentage of GDP will reach 26.9 per cent in 2016, 0.86 percentage points less than in 2015 and similar to the 2004 level. Total government spending –total spending plus net acquisition of non-financial assets– as a percentage of GDP will fall 0.45 percentage points, from 34.9 per cent in 2015 to 34.5 per cent in 2016.9 Together with a high fiscal deficit, public debt increased as a percentage of GDP (Figure 8), reaching its highest level since 2004. Although global financial markets are cautious and attentive to factors such as the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve System, some significant capital movements have been observed in the region.10 The economic policies of the United States and Brazil over the next few years will clearly affect these processes, in terms of trade as well as fiscal and monetary policy.

6 7 8

IMF (2016). World Economic Outlook. Subdued Demand: Symptoms and Remedies. October 2016. Washington D.C. ECLAC (2016). Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2016. Santiago: ECLAC. According to ECLAC, the first quarter of 2016 is projected to be the eighth consecutive quarter of decreasing investment, the fifth of falling private consumption and the second of declining government final consumption. ECLAC (2016), ibid. 9 IMF (2016), ibid. 10 ECLAC points to issuances of two major securities in April and May of 2016. The first was implemented by the Government of Argentina for US$ 16.5 million, and the second by the Brazilian state oil company, PETROBRAS, for US$ 6.75 million. This would indicate that even in a restrictive global financing context, some governments have identified capital inflow mechanisms. ECLAC (2016). Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2016. Santiago: ECLAC.

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FIGURE 8. Latin America and the Caribbean: gross public debt as a percentage of GDP, 20002016 (percentages) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016* Source: IMF (2016). World Economic Outlook. Subdued demand: symptoms and remedies. October 2016. Washington D.C: IMF. Note: (*)Estimated for 2016.

In sum, GDP contracted in 2015 (0.03 per cent) and it is expected that in 2016 the region will again experience a contraction of between 0.6 per cent (IMF) and 0.9 per cent (ECLAC). Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago, countries where GDP growth fell this year, contributed to this situation. Several factors explain the 2016 contraction: the effects of the continuing, significant decline in commodity prices in 2014, 2015 and 2016; the contraction of investment components, government spending and domestic consumption in aggregate demand; and political developments and the resulting uncertainty, which have negatively affected growth (especially in countries that heavily influence regional averages, such as Brazil). The contraction in 2016 has a direct negative impact on labour markets, as this report explains in the section on labour market performance.

Implications The economic slowdown observed since 2011, which accentuated in 2016, has a cumulative effect on several indicators. This impact is more severe than that recorded during the 2008-2009 global financial crisis (Table 3). Falling international commodity prices during this period have had the longest-lasting, strongest impact on the region since the early 1980s. TABLE 3. Latin America and the Caribbean: Comparison of the impact of the 2008-2009 global crisis and the 2011-2016 economic slowdown (Percentage change during the specified period) Global crisis

Economic slowdown

(2008-2009)

(2011-2016)

Export price index

-24.4%

-47.3%

Terms of trade

-4.8%

-15.9%

Commodity prices, without oil

-34.2%

-41.1%

Crude oil

-68.4%

-74.3%

Metals

-47.5%

-59.5%

Price of total commodities

Source: IMF (2016). World Economic Outlook. Subdued demand: symptoms and remedies. October 2016. Washington D.C: IMF; and ECLAC (2016). Estudio Económico de América Latina y el Caribe, 2016. Santiago de Chile: ECLAC.

These trends confirm that the region has not managed to escape the cycle of highly volatile growth that has characterized it for decades and that negatively affects labour market and social indicators.

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Labour Report

The economic slowdown in some countries and the contraction of economic activity in others have left much of the region with a reduced fiscal margin to implement reactivation policies. High inflation rates in large countries of the region also limit monetary policy space, and with it, domestic credit, private consumption and investment. The countries of the region must urgently address these issues in order to return to the path of growth needed to fulfil the commitments made, such as commitments to the Sustainable Development Goals and their indicators (Box 1).

||BOX 1. The Sustainable Development Goals and Their Performance Indicators The 2030 Agenda for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is a historic declaration by which countries undertook to achieve the implementation of “a comprehensive, far-reaching and peoplecentred set of universal and transformative goals and targets.” The main goal is to “transform our world” so that “no one is left behind”. The Declaration was adopted by Resolution of the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. It established 17 goals and 169 targets. The Declaration also appeals to the statistical community to define a global, regional and national monitoring system. The ECOSCO Statistics Commission of the United Nations called on the Inter-Agency and Expert Group to define the global framework for indicators to monitor progress. The process began in 2015 and the United Nations General Assembly is expected to give it final approval in 2017. The ILO actively participates in the tasks of the Inter-Agency and Expert Group as a specialized agency. In that capacity, it has promoted the incorporation of four strategic goals of the decent work agenda in the framework of global indicators. While Goal 8 (Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all) recognizes the promotion of decent work as a driver of inclusive growth, other goals include indicators to measure aspects related to social protection (SDG 1), gender equality (SDG 5) and migration (SDG 10), among other significant goals. The Indicators The approximately 240 indicators established are the tools chosen to monitor progress in achieving SDGs at the local, national, regional and global levels. The indicator global framework will be the international monitoring guide of the agenda while each region and country is asked to choose and adapt that framework to national characteristics. Follow-up is voluntary and led by each country. The High-Level Political Forum established in the Declaration will receive an annual progress report on the set of agenda targets from around the world. This report will contain all national indicators; however, thematically, it will cover different goals. In 2019, a special report on Goal 8 is planned. As the agenda is an ambitious effort, Goal 17 includes a target that calls for strengthening the statistics system with adequate financing so that the countries can produce and disseminate more and better data for SDG follow-up. Gaps exist in the level of methodological development and availability of data on the indicators. Accordingly, they have been classified in terms of certain criteria to make a roadmap for their development. The global framework will be periodically refined to promote inter-institutional cooperation to improve national production capabilities. The disaggregation of indicators required by the global system is particularly ambitious and will receive special attention so that the countries can ensure availability of detailed information. The ILO as the Custodian Agency of 13 Indicators The ILO emerges from this process as the custodian – responsible for compiling and assisting in the production – of 13 indicators, two of them with other agencies (UNICEF and the World Bank). However, there are indicators that are in the custody of another agency but that have a clear link with the decent work agenda (about 40 global indicators). (continues...)

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Labour Report

Table Box 1. List of Targets and Indicators of which the ILO is the Custodian TARGET

INDICATOR

CUSTODIAN

1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable

1.3.1 Proportion of population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work-injury victims and the poor and the vulnerable

ILO

5. 5 Ensure women's full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life

5.5.2 Percentage of women in managerial positions

ILO

8.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors

8.2.1 Annual growth rate of real GDP per employed person

ILO

8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage formalization

8.3.1 Proportion of informal employment in nonagriculture employment, by sex

ILO

8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

8.5.1 Average hourly earnings of female and male employees, by occupation, age and persons with disabilities

ILO

8.5.2 Unemployment rate, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training

8.6.1 Proportion of youth (aged 15-24 years) not in education, employment or training

8.7 Eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour

8.7.1 Proportion and number of children aged 5-17 years engaged in child labour, by sex and age

ILO

ILO-UNICEF

8.8.1 Frequency rates of fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries, by sex and migrant status 8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers

8.8.2 Increase in national compliance of labour rights (freedom of association and collective bargaining) based on ILO textual sources and national legislation, by sex and migrant status

ILO

8.b By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization

8.b.1 Total government spending in social protection and employment programmes as a proportion of the national budgets and GDP

ILO

10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

10.4.1 Labour share of GDP, comprising wages and social protection transfers

ILO

10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration

10.7.1 Recruitment cost borne by employee as a proportion of yearly income earned in country of destination

Source: ILO Department of Statistics.

ILO-World Bank

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Labour Report

The labour market in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2016 As discussed in this report, the slowdown became a contraction beginning in 2015, exacerbating the negative effects on the labour market that were first observed early last year. Specifically, the regional unemployment rate rose abruptly, a trend not observed since the 2009 global crisis, although differences among countries exist. Working conditions have also rapidly deteriorated, with a second annual decline in wages and –for the first time in many years– an increase in informality. These phenomena disproportionately affect youth and women. This section describes how the economic contraction of 2016 has affected key labour market indicators in the region, based on information up to the third quarter of the year. The report analyzes quarterly labour force participation and unemployment rates as well as employment-to-population ratios by subregion, gender and age. Other indicators covered include employment composition, quality, labour income and outlook. Up until 2014, the Labour Overview contained only urban data (main cities). Beginning in 2015, the report included information from countries with national coverage (both urban and rural areas) thanks to increased availability of data.11 The Statistical Appendices contain detailed national and urban data.

Main Annual Indicators with National Data: Abrupt Rise in Unemployment The most notorious development in labour markets of the region over the past year was the abrupt rise in unemployment. As at the third quarter of 2016, the unemployment rate in Latin America and the Caribbean increased by 1.4 percentage points, from 6.8 per cent to 8.2 per cent, compared with the same period in 2015 (Table 4).12 An increase of this magnitude was not observed even during the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. The unemployment rate trend is associated with changes in labour force participation rates and employment-to-population ratios. An increase in the labour force participation rate implies that more people are working or looking for work. This puts pressure on the labour market and may consequently raise the unemployment rate. Thus, this indicator reflects the labour supply.13 By contrast, an increase in the employment-to-population ratio places downward pressure on the unemployment rate and is associated with increased job creation. Accordingly, it is an indicator of labour demand. The data indicate that by the third quarter of 2016, the labour force participation rate rose from 61.5 per cent to 61.6 per cent and the employment-to-population ratio fell from 57.3 per cent to 56.7 per cent. Both trends drove the increase in the unemployment rate. If these trends continue, the unemployment rate will reach an estimated 8.1 per cent by the end of 2016, considerably higher than the 6.6 per cent recorded in 2015 (Table 4). This means that the number of unemployed in the region would rise from 20 million to 25 million.

11 Data are national unless otherwise specified. 12 The unemployment rate measures the percentage of unemployed individuals in the labour force (people who work or are actively looking for and are available to work). The labour force participation rate measures the percentage of people of working age (15 years and over) who work or who are looking for work whereas the employment-to-population ratio measures the percentage of employed people in the working-age population. For further information, see the Explanatory Note. 13 The increase in the labour force participation rate is not in itself a negative trend. In the medium term, its increase is associated with the incorporation of women into the labour market and its reduction is linked to the larger number of young people who decide to remain in school (although a reduction can also occur due to discouragement, in other words, that those seeking work abandon the labour market after a certain amount of time).

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Labour Report

TABLE 4. Latin America and the Caribbean (24 Countries): Key Labour Market Indicators at the National Level. 2006-2016 (Percentages) Labour force participation rate

Employment-topopulation ratio

Unemployment rate

2006

61.5

57.2

7.2

2007

61.6

57.6

6.7

2008

61.6

57.8

6.3

2009

62.0

57.6

7.3

2010

61.7

57.5

6.9

2011

61.6

57.7

6.4

2012

62.3

58.3

6.5

2013

62.0

58.2

6.3

2014

61.9

58.1

6.1

2015

61.9

57.9

6.6

2016 b/

62.0

57.0

8.1

2015 III

61.5

57.3

6.8

2016 III

61.6

56.7

8.2

Years Annual data a/

Average through the 3rd quarter c/

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Notes: a/ Data from 24 countries were used to calculate annual data. b/ Preliminary estimates. c/ Data from 20 countries were used to calculate through the 3rd quarter.

Table 4 also shows that in the medium term, employment-to-population ratios and labour force participation rates rose continuously from 2006 to 2012, when they reached their highest point in the decade. During the same period, the unemployment rate fell sharply (except for increases in 2009 and 2012). In 2013 and 2014, the decreases in the unemployment rate were smaller and occurred together with simultaneous reductions in labour force participation rates and employment-to-population ratios. In other words, during those years, the withdrawal of individuals from the labour force counteracted the slower pace of job creation, keeping unemployment rates in check. In 2015, the labour force participation rate remained stable while the employment-to-population ratio continued to decline, which led to an increase in the unemployment rate of 0.5 percentage points. In 2016, the scenario deteriorated. The employment-to-population ratio fell by 0.9 percentage points (the most dramatic drop in the available series) whereas the labour force participation rate remained nearly constant. Thus, there has been a continuous decline in labour demand, which became more evident in 2016.

Analysis by subregions and countries: deterioration of labour indicators in South America and the reduction in the unemployment rate in Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean Table 5 shows the varied performance of labour market indicators among the subregions of South America, Central America and Mexico and the Caribbean. Marked differences exist even within subregions. A first observation is that the effects of the slowdown are most evident in South America, where the unemployment rate rose 2.0 percentage points by the third quarter of 2016. Trends in labour market indicators throughout the region are similar to those in Brazil, due to the weight of that country in the weighted regional average (approximately 50 per cent of the unemployed). Indicators of the Southern Cone without Brazil or the Andean countries do not reflect such a marked deterioration in labour indicators. Thus, while in Brazil the unemployment rate increased by 2.9 percentage points, in the countries of the Southern Cone without Brazil, the figure was 1.8 percentage points and in the Andean countries, 0.4 percentage points. Both subregions experienced an upward pressure on

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ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

the unemployment rate due to increases in the labour force participation rate and declines in the employment-to-population ratio. In the subregion of Central America and Mexico, by contrast, the unemployment rate to the third quarter of 2016 fell by 0.2 percentage points. In Mexico, this reduction was generated by an increase in the employment-to-population ratio (0.3 percentage points). In Central America (without Mexico), the unemployment rate rose (0.2 percentage points) because the increase in the labour force participation rate (0.2 percentage points) exceeded that of the employment-topopulation ratio (0.1 percentage points). Finally, the Caribbean experienced a decline of 0.3 percentage points in the unemployment rate to the third quarter of 2016, reflecting a higher increase in the employment-to-population ratio (1.0 percentage points) than in the labour force participation rate (0.9 percentage points). TABLE 5. Latin America and the Caribbean (20 Countries): Key Labour Market Indicators, National Level by Subregion. January to September, 2015 and 2016 (Percentages)

Subregion

Labour force participation rate

Employment-to-population ratio

Unemployment rate

2015 III

2016 III

2015 III

2016 III

2015 III

2016 III

Latin America and the Caribbean

61.5

61.6

57.3

56.7

6.8

8.2

South America

62.3

62.5

57.7

56.6

7.5

9.5

Andean countries

66.0

66.2

61.8

61.6

6.5

6.9

Southern Cone countries

60.7

60.9

55.9

54.4

8.0

10.7

Southern Cone countries without Brazil

59.1

59.3

55.1

54.3

6.7

8.5

Brazil

61.2

61.4

56.1

54.4

8.4

11.3

Central America and Mexico

59.3

59.4

56.5

56.8

4.6

4.4

Mexico

59.6

59.7

57.0

57.3

4.4

4.0

Central America without Mexico

58.3

58.5

55.2

55.3

5.3

5.5

61.8

62.7

56.7

57.7

8.2

7.9

Caribbean countries

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries.

At the country level, the unemployment rate rose in 13 of the 19 countries studied between the third quarter of 2015 and the third quarter of 2016 (Figure 9). Jamaica, the Bahamas and Brazil have the highest unemployment rates, all in the double digits.14 On the opposite end of the spectrum are Guatemala, with an unemployment rate of 3.1 per cent, and Mexico, whose unemployment rate was 4.0 per cent, the lowest national rate since 2009.

14 In developing economies of the region, the relationship between GDP growth and unemployment (Okun’s Law) is weaker than in more advanced countries and sometimes occurs with lags. This phenomenon is explained by the existence of widespread informality and by the fact that in low-income countries, people cannot be unemployed and therefore must create their own jobs. For a recent discussion on Okun’s Law, see, for example, IMF (2012). World Economic Outlook: Coping with High Debt and Sluggish Growth. October 2012. Washington, D.C: IMF.

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Labour Report

FIGURE 9. Latin America and the Caribbean (20 Countries): National Unemployment Rate. January to September, 2015 and 2016 (Percentages) Brazil

+2.9

Argentina* Latin America and the Caribbean

+1.4

Ecuador

+1.2

Paraguay

2015 III

+1.1

Guatemala

2016 III

+0.7

Trinidad and Tobago

+0.7

Bahamas

+0.7

Uruguay

+0.6

Peru

+0.4

Colombia

+0.4

Panama

+0.4

Venezuela (Bol. Rep. of)

+0.2

Chile

+0.2

Honduras

+0.1

Costa Rica

-0.1

Jamaica

-0.2

Dominican Republic

-0.3

Mexico

-0.4

Belize

-2.1

Barbados

-2.5 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Note: (*) Data correspond to 31 urban clusters. The National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina (INDEC), in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for comparative purposes and labour market analysis in Argentina. See the Explanatory Note for further information.

An analysis of the changes in the three basic labour market indicators in each country shed light on these trends (Table 6).15 TABLE 6. Latin America and the Caribbean (20 Countries): Key Labour Market Indicators, National Level. January to September, 2015 and 2016 (Percentages) Labour force participation rate 2015 III

2016 III

Employment-to-population ratio 2015 III

2016 III

Unemployment rate 2015 III

2016 III

Latin America Argentina*



57.8



52.4



9.3

Brazil

61.2

61.4

56.1

54.4

8.4

11.3

Chile

59.6

59.4

55.8

55.5

6.4

6.6

Colombia

64.3

64.2

58.4

58.0

9.2

9.6

Costa Rica

61.7

57.8

55.7

52.3

9.6

9.5

Dominican Republic

52.1

53.5

49.0

50.4

6.0

5.7

Ecuador

66.3

68.5

63.5

64.8

4.2

5.4

Guatemala

60.4

61.5

58.9

59.6

2.4

3.1

Honduras

58.1

57.5

53.8

53.2

7.3

7.4

Mexico

59.6

59.7

57.0

57.3

4.4

4.0

Panama

64.2

64.4

60.9

60.8

5.1

5.5

Paraguay

66.6

66.4

61.8

60.9

7.2

8.3 (continues...)

15 The tables in the Statistical Appendices provide detailed information on unemployment rates, labour force participation rates and employment-to-population ratios by countries.

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ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Labour force participation rate

Employment-to-population ratio

Unemployment rate

2015 III

2016 III

2015 III

2016 III

2015 III

2016 III

Peru

71.3

72.4

68.4

69.3

4.0

4.4

Uruguay

63.6

63.4

58.9

58.4

7.4

8.0

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

64.3

63.0

59.6

58.3

7.3

7.5

Bahamas

73.0

76.9

64.3

67.1

12.0

12.7

Barbados

65.2

65.3

57.5

59.2

11.8

9.3

Belize

63.0

63.7

56.6

58.7

10.1

8.0

Jamaica

63.0

64.8

54.5

56.2

13.5

13.3

Trinidad and Tobago

60.9

60.1

58.8

57.6

3.4

4.1

61.5

61.6

57.3

56.7

6.8

8.2

The Caribbean

Latin America and the Caribbean

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Note: (*) Data correspond to 31 urban clusters. The National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina (INDEC), in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for comparative purposes and labour market analysis in Argentina. See the Explanatory Note for further information.

From Table 6 we can see that countries can be grouped according to changes in the three indicators (Figure 10). A first group is formed by countries where the unemployment rate increased. It has three sub-groups: }} Countries in which the employment-to-population ratio fell while the labour force participation rate rose, effects that were mutually reinforcing and that exerted upward pressure on the unemployment rate. Brazil and Panama are in this group. }} Countries that experienced decreases in the employment-to-population ratio that were not offset by the decline in the labour force participation rate, such as Chile, Colombia, Honduras, Paraguay, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela (above the 45-degree line and below the x-axis). }} Countries in which the employment-to-population ratio increased but was offset by the higher increase in the labour force participation rate (the Bahamas, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru). A second group of countries consists of those in which the unemployment rate fell (countries below the 45-degree line). Here there are two sub-groups: }} Countries in which the employment-to-population ratio increased significantly, counteracting the increase in the labour force participation rate (Barbados, Belize, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Mexico). }} The only exception in this second group is Costa Rica, where the reduction in the unemployment rate resulted from a decrease in the labour force participation rate that was larger than that of the employment-to-population ratio.

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Labour Report

Employment-to-population ratio (Change between 2015 III - 2016 III)

FIGURE 10. Latin America and the Caribbean (20 Countries): Effect of the Change in the Employment-to-Population Ratio and the Labour Force Participation Rate on the Unemployment Rate. January to September, 2015 and 2016 (Percentages) 4 Bahamas (h) 3 Ecuador (h) 2 Peru (h) Guatemala (h) 1 Brazil (h) -4

Panama (h)

Average (h) Paraguay (h) -3 -2 Honduras-1(h) Trinidad and Tobago (h)

Venezuela (h) Colombia (h) Uruguay(h) Chile (h)

0

Mexico (i)

0

1

Jamaica (i) Dominican Republic (i) Belize (i) Barbados (i) 2

3

4

-1 -2 -3

Costa Rica (i)

-4 -5

Labour force participation rate (Change between 2015 III - 2016 III) Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries.

Quarterly Short-term Trends: Labour Demand Weakens and Unemployment Rises In an analysis of short-term trends (quarterly), the economic slowdown has clearly had an impact on the labour market since 2013, when variations in the employment-to-population ratio became negative or close to zero in urban areas and nationwide (Figure 11). These contractions intensified, especially during the second half of 2015 and in the first three quarters of 2016. This was consistent with the GDP variations that became negative during the same period. FIGURE 11. Latin America and the Caribbean (12 Countries): Year-over-Year Change of GDP and the Urban Employment-to-Population Ratio. Quarters 2010 I to 2015 I (Year-over-Year Change in Percentage Points) 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4

I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Quarterly GDP Change Change in the National Employment-to-Population Ratio Change in Urban Employment-to-Population Ratio Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries.

Figure 12 shows that quarterly indicators at the urban and national levels followed similar trends. At the national level, a comparison of employment-to-population ratios in the same quarter of different

33

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years reveals that these ratios began to decline in the first quarter of 2013 (except for a minor uptick in the fourth quarter of 2013 and the first quarter of 2014). The labour force participation rate fell between the first quarters of 2013 and 2015 but began to increase in the first quarter of 2016. Both trends caused the unemployment rate to rise beginning in the fourth quarter of 2014. FIGURE 12. Latin America: Quarterly Rates of Unemployment, Labour Force Participation and Employment-to-Population Ratios, National and Urban Quarters 2012 I to 2016 III (Percentages) Urban Data (12 Countries)

65

National Data (11 Countries)

10

65

62

8

62

8

59

6

59

6

56

4

56

4

53

2

53

2

0

50

50

I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III 2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Labour force participation rate (left) Employment-to-population ratio (left) Unemployment rate (right)

10

I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III 2012

2013

2014

2015

0

2016

Labour force participation rate (left) Employment-to-population ratio (left) Unemployment rate (right)

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries.

The change in the unemployment rate by quarters reflects seasonality, but this has shifted in the past two years (Figure 13). Between 2012 and 2014, the rate tended to be higher in the first quarter and to decline toward the final quarter of each year. Nevertheless, this trend changed in 2015 given that the unemployment rate increased between the second and third quarters. At year-end, the rate for the fourth quarter was the same as in the second quarter. This trend was repeated in 2016: the rate fell 0.1 percentage points between the first and second quarters, and rose by 0.2 percentage points in the third quarter. FIGURE 13. Latin America and the Caribbean (11 Countries): Quarterly Change in the National Unemployment Rate. Quarters 2009 I – 2016 III (Percentages) 8,5

2016

8,0 7,5 2015

7,0 6,5

2012

6,0

2014 2013

5,5 I Quarter

II Quarter

III Quarter

IV Quarter

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries.

Analysis disaggregated by sex: women continue to return to the labour market Table 5 shows that labour indicators are less favourable for women than for men. Women had higher unemployment rates and lower rates of labour force participation and employment-to-population ratios. Although unemployment rates among women are higher than those among men, the decline in this rate recorded in the region between 2006 and 2014 proportionately favoured women (a drop of1.9 percentage points, compared with a drop of 0.5 percentage points for men). However, the increase in the unemployment rate between 2014 and 2015 affected women more than men. The labour force participation rate among women rose between 2006 and 2012 but fell in 2013 and 2014. In 2015, this rate resumed its long-term upward trend (0.3 percentage points), nearly reaching the level seen in 2012. In the case of men, the labour force participation rate steadily declined by 0.7 percentage points between 2012 and 2015.

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Labour Report

Employment-to-population ratio trends also varied by sex. In the case of men, this ratio has fallen continuously since 2012 (0.8 percentage points) whereas it has remained constant at approximately 45.8 per cent for women. TABLE 7. Latin America and the Caribbean (24 Countries): Key Labour Market Indicators, National Level, by Gender, 2006 and 2011-2016 (Percentages) 2006 Unemployment rate

2011

2012

2013

2014

Average through the 3rd quarter*

2015

2015

2016 8.2

7.2

6.4

6.5

6.3

6.1

6.6

6.8

Men

5.8

5.3

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.6

5.8

7.1

Women

9.2

8.0

7.9

7.6

7.3

7.8

8.2

9.8

61.5

61.6

62.3

62.0

61.9

61.9

61.5

61.6

Men

75.5

75.0

75.8

75.5

75.3

75.1

74.7

74.6

Women

48.5

49.0

49.7

49.6

49.3

49.6

49.3

49.7

57.2

57.7

58.3

58.2

58.1

57.9

57.3

56.7

Men

71.1

71.0

71.7

71.4

71.3

70.9

70.3

69.3

Women

44.2

45.1

45.8

45.8

45.8

45.8

45.2

44.9

Labour force participation rate

Employment-topopulation ratio

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Note: (*) Data from 20 countries were used to calculate through the 3rd quarter.

Information up to the third quarter of 2016 in Figure 14 indicates that the unemployment rate among women increased again, by 1.6 percentage points (from 8.2 per cent to 9.8 per cent) while the unemployment rate among men rose by 1.3 percentage points (from 5.8 per cent to 7.1 per cent). FIGURE 14. Latin America and the Caribbean (20 Countries): Year-over-Year Change of Key Labour Market Indicators, National Level, by Gender, January to September, 2015 and 2016 (Percentage Points) Labour force participation rate Employment-to-population ratio Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Unemployment rate Total

Men

1.4

1.3

2

Women 1.6

1

0

0.4

0.1 -0.1

-1

-0.3

-0.6 -1.0

-2 Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries.

In the case of women, the rising unemployment rate is mainly explained by the increase of 0.4 percentage points in their labour force participation rate (from 49.3 per cent to 49.7 per cent) and the 0.3 percentage point decrease in their employment-to-population ratio (from 45.2 per cent to 44.9 per cent). Women’s labour market entry is a long-term trend that was interrupted in 2013 and 2014. In the case of men, the increased unemployment rate is due to a larger decline in the employmentto-population ratio (1.0 percentage points), which was not compensated for by the 0.1 percentage point reduction in the labour force participation rate.

Analysis disaggregated by age groups: Young people are more affected by the economic contraction than are adults The current economic crisis has affected youth more than adults, which reverses the trend during the period of economic growth, when youth benefited more than adults. In the period 2006-2014, the unemployment rate among youth aged 15 to 24 fell from 14.7 per cent to 13.7 per cent (a drop

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Labour Report

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

of 1.0 percentage point) while that of adults (25 years and over) decreased from 5.1 per cent to 4.4 per cent (a drop of 0.7 percentage points). Between 2014 and 2015, the youth unemployment rate increased by 1.0 percentage point, while the adult rate rose by 0.4 percentage points. The youth unemployment rate more than triples that of adults. The decline in the youth unemployment rate during the growth period was associated with a downward trend in the youth labour force participation rate, which reflected the fact that young people stayed longer in the education system.16 The youth labour force participation rate fell continuously between 2006 and 2015, from 54.7 per cent to 47.4 per cent, a drop of7.3 percentage points. Consequently, the youth labour supply declined and young people who joined the labour market later were more qualified than the previous generation. The employment-to-population ratio among youth also fell steadily during the same period (from 46.5 per cent to 40.5 per cent) but at a slower pace than the labour force participation rate, except in 2015. TABLE 8. Latin America and the Caribbean (19 Countries): Key Labour Market Indicators, National Level by Annual and Quarterly Periods, by Age Groups, 2006 and 2011-2016 (Percentages)

2006

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Average through the 3rd quarter* 2015

Unemployment rate

2016

7.2

6.4

6.5

6.3

6.1

6.6

6.8

8.2

Youth

14.7

13.8

13.8

13.7

13.7

14.7

15.1

18.3

Adults

5.1

4.5

4.6

4.6

4.4

4.8

5.1

6.0

61.5

61.6

62.3

62.0

61.9

61.9

61.5

61.6

Youth

54.7

51.7

49.5

48.5

47.8

47.4

47.4

47.5

Adults

68.5

68.6

67.5

67.5

67.4

67.5

67.3

67.3

57.2

57.7

58.3

58.2

58.1

57.9

57.3

56.7

Youth

46.5

44.5

42.7

41.8

41.3

40.5

40.3

38.9

Adults

64.9

65.4

64.3

64.3

64.3

64.2

63.9

63.3

Labour force participation rate

Employment-topopulation ratio

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Note: (*) 14 countries were considered for the calculation through the 3rd quarter.

As at the third quarter of 2016, the unemployment rate among youth was 18.3 per cent, following an increase of 3.2 percentage points compared with the same period of 2015 (Figure 15). This reflected a sharp decline in the employment-to-population ratio among youth (1.4 percentage points), which was reinforced by a slight increase in the labour force participation rate (0.1 percentage points). In the case of adults, the unemployment rate rose by 0.9 percentage points due to the decrease of 0.6 percentage points in the employment-to-population ratio and a stable labour force participation rate. FIGURE 15. Latin America (14 Countries): Year-over-Year Change of Key Labour Market Indicators, National Level by Age Groups. January to September, 2015 and 2016 (Percentages)

4

Labour force participation rate Total Youth Adults

Employment-to-population ratio Total Youth Adults

Unemployment rate Total Youth Adults 3.2

3 2

1.4 0.9

1 0.1 0 -1 -2

0.1

0.0 -0.6

-0.6 -1.4

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries.

16 ILO (2013). Decent Work and Youth in Latin America 2013. Lima: ILO. p. 27.

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Labour Report

Not all countries experienced increases in the youth unemployment rate (Table 3 of the National Appendix). It declined in Belize (1.4 percentage points), the Dominican Republic (0.4 percentage points), Jamaica (1.2 percentage points) and Mexico (0.8 percentage points). The current economic crisis is affecting youth more than adults in the labour market. This is exacerbated by the fact that youth are becoming more highly educated in the hope of obtaining a decent job in the future. This goal may remain unfulfilled if policies are not implemented to promote quality job creation for young people.

Decreasing Quality and Changing Composition of Employment Increase in informality Following nearly a decade of sustained decline, the non-agricultural informal employment rate rose in 2015. In 2009, the ILO recorded a rate of 50.1 per cent, which had decreased to 46.8 per cent by 2013.17 As Figure 16 shows, this reduction continued during 2014. However, in 2015, it increased to 46.8 per cent, the same level as in 2013. This indicator is calculated for 14 countries of Latin America. The calculation does not include the agricultural sector, where rates of informality are higher than those of other economic sectors. It is estimated that in 2015, at least 133 million workers had informal jobs. Given the trends observed, the informal employment rate is expected to continue to rise in 2016, at a higher rate. If this rate increases at the same rate as it did between 2014 and 2015, there will be some 134 million informal workers in 2016. FIGURE 16. Latin America (14 Countries): Change in Non-agricultural Informal Employment. 2009, 2011-2015 (Percentages) 60 50

50.1

48.0

47.8

46.8

46.5

46.8

2011

2012

2013

2014*

2015*

40 30 20 10

2009

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Note: (*) Preliminary data for 2014 and 2015.

Although this information is not yet available for 2016, the employment data recorded confirms this forecast. Indicators of formal employment by country rose rapidly in the previous decade, an increase that continued until 2015 (Table 9). In 2016, while this indicator continued to rise in most of the countries with available information, decreases were observed in Brazil (from 111 to 105) and Uruguay (from 114 to 112). The strong negative adjustment of employment recorded in Brazil was the main reason for the lower formalization of employment in the region this year.

17 ILO (2014). Thematic Labour Overview. Transition to Formality in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lima: ILO.

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TABLE 9. Latin America (10 Countries): Indices of Registered Employment. 2000, 2005 and 2010-2016, (2010=100) 2000

2005

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Brazil

68

79

100

105

109

111

112

Chile

63

75

100

106

112

116

118

Costa Rica

68

79

100

103

107

109

El Salvador

82

89

100

103

106

Guatemala

82

91

100

104

Mexico

87

89

100

Nicaragua

58

71

Panama

63

69

Peru

70

Uruguay

65

First semester* 2015

2016

110

111

105

120

121

123

111

113

112

116

111

114

115

--

--

107

110

112

114

--

--

104

109

113

117

122

120

125

100

108

117

126

133

145

139

156

100

110

118

123

126

127

--

--

75

100

105

110

113

115

116

112

113

72

100

105

109

111

112

110

114

112

Source: ECLAC (2016). Desafíos para impulsar el ciclo de inversión con miras a reactivar el crecimiento. Santiago de Chile: ECLAC. Note: (*) Information through the second quarter of the year.

Wage employment continues to decline and own-account employment rises The trend toward wage job creation, in both the public and private sectors, characterized the region in the past decade (Table 10).18 Between 2010 and 2013, the participation of wage-earners reached its highest level (from 63.6 per cent to 65.3 per cent). Nevertheless, this trend began to reverse in 2014 following the weakening of economies of the region. The share of wage employment in total urban employment fell from 65.3 per cent in 2013 to 64.8 per cent in 2014 and 64.1 per cent in 2015. Trends varied by enterprise size: establishments with six or more workers experienced an increase between 2010 and 2014 but a significant decline in 2015 (from 39.6 per cent to 38.7 per cent) while wage employment increased slightly in microenterprises between 2014 and 2015 (0.1 percentage points), as it did in state enterprises (0.2 percentage points). TABLE 10. Latin America (18 Countries): Composition of Urban Employment by Year and Status in Employment. 2000-2015 (Percentages) 2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Total Employed

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Employees (wage workers)

63.6

64.7

65.1

65.3

64.8

64.1

Public

12.9

13.1

13.0

13.0

12.6

12.8

Private

50.8

51.5

52.0

52.3

52.1

51.3

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

13.4

13.2

12.6

13.0

12.5

12.6

Establishments with six or more workers

37.4

38.3

39.4

39.3

39.6

38.7

26.2

25.8

25.8

25.8

26.2

26.9

4.4

4.0

4.3

4.2

4.2

4.2

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

3.2

2.9

3.1

3.0

3.0

3.0

Establishments with six or more workers

1.2

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

21.9

21.8

21.5

21.6

22.0

22.8

Non-employees (non-wage workers) Employers

Own-account Workers Professional, technical or administrative

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.1

3.3

3.5

Non-professional, technical or administrative

20.0

19.8

19.4

19.5

18.7

19.3

Domestic workers

7.3

7.0

6.6

6.5

6.4

6.4

Contributing family workers

2.4

2.1

2.1

1.8

2.0

1.8

Others

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.8

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries.

The increase in employment of non-wage workers (0.7 percentage points) absorbed the decline in wage employment. The share of employers has remained stable since 2013 but own-account 18 Previously, the ILO reported that between 2010 and 2013, when wage employment rose from 63.6 per cent to 65.1 per cent of total urban employment, other types of employment, with characteristics of less formal employment, decreased their share in total urban employment. The most dramatic decline was in the level of domestic work, which fell from 7.3 per cent to 6.5 per cent of total urban employment between 2010 and 2013. The categories of non-wage workers (26.2 per cent to 25.8 per cent) and contributing family workers (2.4 per cent to 1.8 per cent) also decreased during the same period. The decline in the percentage of domestic workers and contributing family workers, as well as the increase in employees, were positive signs, particularly because of their implications with regard to the quality of women’s employment.

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Labour Report

employment has been on the rise since 2012, with the largest increase occurring between 2014 and 2015 (0.8 percentage points). This increase was more evident in the category of technical or administrative non-professionals (0.6 percentage points) than in that of technical or administrative professionals (0.2 percentage points). The share of domestic work fell between 2010 and 2014 but remained stable in 2015. In the short term, with information from seven countries to the third quarter of 2016, the trends observed over the past year remained constant at the national level: wage employment declined, particularly in the private sector, which was absorbed by an increase in the share of own-account employment. FIGURE 17. Latin America (7 Countries): Year-over-Year Change of the Share of Status in Employment in National Employment. January to September, 2015 and 2016 (Percentage Points) 0.8

0.4

0.0

-0.4

-0.8

Total employees

Private employees

Public employees

Employers

Own-account workers

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Note: The selected countries are Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama and Peru.

The reduction in wage employment and the increase in own-account employment are negative signs in terms of employment quality. These trends are clearly associated with the deterioration of economic growth.19

Employment continues to be concentrated in the service sector The analysis of urban employment by sector indicates that the participation of the primary sector (agriculture, fishing and mining) declined steadily between 2010 and 2015, except in 2014, and currently stands at 5.1 per cent (Table 11).20 The participation of construction, one of the fastestgrowing sectors in terms of investment and job creation during the period of regional economic growth of the past decade, increased until 2014 but then declined slightly in 2015 (0.2 percentage points). Manufacturing has reduced its participation in urban employment since 2012. This longterm trend continued in 2015, with a decrease of 0.4 percentage points. The tertiary sector in Latin America continues the trend of the past decade and employs most urban workers. Community, social and personal services represented an average of 34.3 per cent of employment between 2010 and 2014, a figure that increased to 35 per cent in 2015. The participation of trade rose slightly between 2010 and 2015 (0.5 percentage points). Other service sectors have stagnated. The transportation, storage and telecommunications, and financial establishment sectors recorded percentages similar to those of the past five years (6.3 per cent and 3.8 per cent respectively).

19 For further information, see ILO (2016). Dilemas de la protección social frente a la desaceleración económica: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. Santiago de Chile: ILO. 20 Some farm workers live in urban areas close to agricultural zones. For more information, see ILO (2016). Thematic Labour Overview 3. Working in Rural Areas in the 21st Century. Reality and Prospects of Rural Employment in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lima: ILO.

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TABLE 11. Latin America (18 Countries): Composition of Urban Employment by Year and Economic Sector. 2010-2015 (Percentages)

Economic Sector

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Agriculture, fishing, mining

6.1

5.8

5.4

5.4

5.5

5.1

Electricity, gas, waterworks

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.5

Manufacturing

14.8

14.2

14.6

14.2

14.0

13.6

Construction

8.3

8.7

8.9

9.2

9.3

9.1

Trade

26.0

26.4

26.1

26.1

26.3

26.5

Transportation, storage and communications

6.0

6.3

6.3

6.4

6.2

6.3

Financial establishments

3.7

3.7

3.7

3.8

3.8

3.8

Community, social and personal services

34.3

34.2

34.3

34.4

34.3

35.0

Unspecified activities

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Note: Several countries modified their classifiers of economic activity (XXX) and of employment (XXXX)(CIUO).

In the short term, with information from nine countries for the third quarter of 2016, similar national trends are observed: falling employment in the manufacturing sector (0.5 percentage points) and in construction (0.2 percentage points). However, a slight increase in agricultural employment was recorded (0.2 percentage points). This increase occurred mainly in the Andean countries. FIGURE 18. Latin America (9 Countries): Year-over-Year Change in the Share of Selected Economic Sectors in National Employment. January to September, 2015 and 2016 (Percentage Points) 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 Agriculture

Manufacturing

Construction

Trade

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Note: The selected countries are Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru and Uruguay.

Wage Trends: Real Average Wages Fluctuate, with a Downward Tendency. Real Minimum Wages Continue to Rise Wage trends are associated with the economic cycle (Figure 19). During the economic boom, average wages of all employees rose significantly. According to the Global Wage Report,21 in 2006 and 2007, growth rates were 4.0 per cent and 2.9 per cent, respectively. Wages even grew during the 2008-2009 crisis, although at rates below 1 per cent, and reached 2.4 per cent in 2012. Nevertheless, the slowdown caused the real value of wages to fall by -0.2 per cent in 2014. This value declined even further in 2015, with a reduction of -1.3 per cent in the real wage.

21 ILO (2016), Global Wage Report 2016/17. Geneva: ILO.

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Labour Report

FIGURE 19. Latin America and the Caribbean: Change in Real Average Wages. 2006-2015 (Annual Percentage Change) 5 4

4.0 2.9

3

2.4

2 0.9

1

1.0

1.3

1.2

0.2

0 -0.2

-1 -2

-1.3 2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Source: ILO, based on information from the ILO’s global wage database. Note: The increase in the regional wage is calculated as a weighted average of year-over-year growth of the monthly real average wage. The explanation of the method and the lists of countries included, appears in Annex I of ILO (2014), Global Wage Report, 2014/15. Geneva: ILO.

Brazil and Mexico, the largest countries of the region with available information, strongly influence the regional average. In Brazil, real wages rose by 2.7 per cent in 2014 and fell by 3.7 per cent in 2015 whereas the opposite trend occurred in Mexico (a drop of 4.3 per cent in 2014 and a rise of 0.5 per cent in 2015). Information on the real average wage is still not available for 2016. However, information does exist on wages of the registered or formal sector for a group of countries. Comparing the data of the third quarters of 2016 and 2015 (Figure 20) reveals some increases –generally moderate– in this indicator in Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua and Uruguay. By contrast, reductions are observed in Brazil (2.1 percentage points), Colombia (1.3 percentage points) and Peru (0.5 percentage points). Considering the changes in Brazil and Mexico (the countries with the most weight in the regional average) as indicative of the changes in the overall economy (rather than only in the formal sector), the decline in the value of real wages will likely continue in 2016. FIGURE 20. Latin America (8 Countries): Year-over-Year Change of the Real Average Wage in the Formal Sector. January to September, 2015 and 2016 (Percentage Points) 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3

Brazil

Colombia

Peru

Mexico

Average 3rd Quarter 2015

Chile

Uruguay

Nicaragua Costa Rica

Average 3rd Quarter 2016

Source: ILO, based on official information from the countries.

Real minimum wages continue to rise. Between 2013 and 2014, this growth was 1.0 per cent, which fell to 0.2 per cent between 2014 and 2015. On average, until September 2016, real minimum wages grew by 4.4 per cent, compared with 2.2 per cent to the third quarter of 2015, due to nominal minimum wage adjustments superior to inflation rates. Figure 21 shows that this occurred in 13 of the 16 countries studied. In El Salvador, while there was no adjustment to the nominal minimum wage, deflation increased the value of the real wage. In the Dominican Republic and Paraguay, the

41

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real minimum wage fell by -0.3 per cent and -2.4 per cent, respectively. In Paraguay, the nominal minimum wage has not been adjusted since March 2014, while the Dominican Republic has not adjusted its minimum wage since June 2015 (adjustments every two years).22 FIGURE 21. Latin America (16 Countries): Changes in the Nominal and Real Minimum Wage. December 2015 to September 2016 (Annual Percentage Change) 16 12 8 4

Change in the real minimum wage

Peru

Brazil

Uruguay

Nicaragua

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Colombia

Chile

Panama

Honduras

Mexico

Guatemala

Ecuador

Costa Rica

Dominican Republic

Paraguay

-4

El Salvador

0

Change in the nominal minimum wage

Source: ILO, based on official information from the countries.

Given that the minimum wage increased in most of the countries in the region, how does the relative increase in real average wages compare? Despite the economic slowdown in the region, the minimum wage grew more than the average wage in most of the 11 countries with available information on the growth of the real average wage and the minimum wage, (Figure 22). FIGURE 22. Latin America (11 Countries): Changes in the Real Average Wage and the Real Minimum Wage. 2014-2015 (Annual Percentage Change) 8.0 Growth, real minimum wage

7.0

Dominican Republic

Nicaragua

6.0 5.0 4.0 Guatemala

3.0 2.0

Costa Rica Chile Uruguay Mexico

1.0

Ecuador

-6.0

-4.0

Brazil

-2.0

0.0

-1.0 -2.0

Colombia

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

Paraguay

Growth, real average wage

Source: ILO, based on official information from the countries and ILO (2016) Global Wage Report 2016/17. Geneva: ILO.

Outlook The economic slowdown in the region had a major impact on the labour market during the first three quarters of 2016. It is estimated that the average regional unemployment rate at year-end will be 8.1 per cent and will increase to 8.4 per cent in 2017 (Figure 23). At the end of 2016, the number of unemployed people in Latin America and the Caribbean will increase from 20 million to 25 million. In 2017, there will be an additional 1.3 million unemployed, for a total of 26.3 million unemployed people in the region.

22 The nominal minimum wage in Paraguay was adjusted in November 2016 and came into effect in December 2016. In Mexico, the nominal minimum wage was adjusted in December and will come into effect on 1 January 2017. These increases were not considered in the 2016 Labour Overview, which analyzes data up to September 2016.

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Labour Report

FIGURE 23. Latin America and the Caribbean: Change in GDP Growth and the Unemployment Rate. 2010-2017 (Percentages) 7 8.1

6

8.4

5

9 8

4 3

7

2 1

6

0 -1

5 2010

2011

2012

GDP Growth

2013

2014

2015

2016*

2017*

Unemployment Rate

Source: ILO, based on information from the household surveys of the countries, ILO data (to be published). World Employment and Social Outlook. Trends, 2017 Geneva: ILO and IMF (2016). World Economic Outlook. Subdued Demand: Symptoms and Remedies. October 2016. Washington D.C. Note: (*) Estimated for 2016 and 2017.

The rise in the unemployment rate is associated with employment growth trends (number of employed people), which vary by subregion (Figure 24).23 In Central America, the growth in the number of employed individuals fell sharply in 2013 (from 5.0 per cent to 1.0 per cent); however, this figure recovered between 2014 and 2016, to a rate of 2.4 per cent. Between 2017 and 2020, this rate is expected to fall to 1.8 per cent. In the case of the Southern Cone, in 2015, the number of employed did not grow and in 2016 it fell by 1.3 per cent. Beginning in 2017, the growth of the employed population is expected to progressively recover (together with a recovery of GDP growth in Brazil), increasing by 1.4 per cent in 2020. In the Caribbean, the growth rate of the employed population is expected to decrease from 1.7 per cent in 2014 to 0.9 per cent in 2020. In the Andean countries, the employed population grew at a relatively stable rate, reaching a maximum in 2014 (2.6 per cent), which is expected to decline to 1.4 per cent in 2020. FIGURE 24. Latin America and the Caribbean: Growth Rate of the Employed Population by Subregion. 2012-2020 (Percentages) 6% 4% 2% 0% -2%

2012

2013

Caribbean Andean Countries

2014

2015

2016*

Central America

2017*

2018*

2019*

2020*

Southern Cone Countries

Source: ILO (to be published). World Employment and Social Outlook. Trends 2017. Geneva ILO. Note: (*) Estimated for 2016-2020.

23 The employment-to-population ratio, which refers to the number of employed individuals in relation to the working-age population, should be differentiated from the number of employed individuals in absolute terms. For further information on these estimates, see the upcoming ILO publication, World Employment and Social Outlook. Trends 2017. Geneva: ILO.

Special Topic / Some contributions to the future of work in Latin America and the Caribbean

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ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Special Topic

SPECIAL TOPIC › Some contributions to the future of work in Latin America and the Caribbean1 1. Background The discussion on the future of work has attracted growing interest in academic and political circles around the world. Several studies point to trends that are changing the physiognomy of employment,2 including the speed of technological progress, something that affects nearly every area of people’s lives. Current discussions reveal optimism about growing opportunities but also concern about the impact of these changes on the volume and nature of employment. Aware of these challenges and the relevance of this discussion, in 2015, ILO Director-General Guy Ryder launched the Future of Work Centenary Initiative in the framework of celebrations of the organization’s upcoming 100th anniversary and its mandate to promote social justice. This initiative is generating numerous discussions and much information on this issue.3 Judging from the abundant documents and audiovisual materials produced recently, most of the analysis comes from more advanced countries and focuses on analysing labour changes and outlook there. Although there is consensus that technology lags somewhat behind in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, the question is: should politicians and social actors of the region also be concerned? Is this a priority issue in a scenario such as the current economic slowdown? Should politicians, social actors and other agents address factors besides technological revolutions when considering actions to improve work in the region? The economic slowdown is precisely the type of short-term trend that occurs in a productive structure in which technological progress and the division of labour have been highly unequal. In most countries of the region, this has created considerable economic dependency on certain commodities. While current policies focus on short-term recovery following the end of the cycle of high commodity prices and the imminent reduction in liquidity in financial markets, long-term scenarios should also be considered, particularly the future of work. This section analyses available information to shed light on possible future scenarios of work in the region and their causes, including the results of a survey of youth of the region. The goal is to contribute to the discussions of government and social actors in order to define actions that can be implemented now to help create a better future of work. Section 2 identifies and describes the main determinants of the future of work while Section 3 discusses some of the most important effects on the labour market, considering the volume of employment, labour relationships, skills, governance of the labour market, institutions and social dialogue. Finally, Section 4 draws conclusions and makes some policy recommendations.

2. Factors shaping the future of work Discussing the future of work implies making projections, a complex exercise that is not without risk. Even so, the trends in some elements help make projections in this area. Those that most affect the world of work include demographic trends, economic growth and productive development, and technological progress. Demographic trends tend to have a high degree of validity, even in the long term. Technological progress also seems inexorable, and although the speed and depth of technology adoption are difficult to predict, the historical lag of the region suggests some trends based on what is occurring in other parts of the world. Economic growth and the change in productive structures are difficult to predict, especially in this region, which has in the past been

1

2 3

This feature article of the 2016 Labour Overview was coordinated by Juan Chacaltana and Claudia Ruiz, with technical backstopping from Daniela Campos. It benefitted from the valuable contributions, comments and recommendations of José Manuel Salazar-Xirinachs, María Luz Vega, Janine Berg, Fabio Bertranou, Andrés Marinakis, Guillermo Dema, Fernando Vargas, María Arteta, María Prieto, María Marta Travieso, Roxana Maurizio, Julio Gamero, Carmen Benítez, Andrés Yurén and Florencio Gudiño. Data originate from the Labour Information and Analysis System of Latin America and the Caribbean (SIALC) and from baseline studies specially prepared for this report. See ILO (2015a), World Economic Forum (2016), World Bank (2016), OECD (2015), IDB (2016) and ECLAC (2016), among others. For more information, see ILO (2015a).

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Special Topic

characterized by a high degree of instability, sharply-delineated macroeconomic cycles and a lack of consensus on productive development policies.

2.1. Demographics In 1950, some 166 million people lived in Latin America and the Caribbean. By 2000, that figure had reached 522 million and in 2016 exceeded 600 million. More than 158 million of these are young people aged 15 to 29. In other words, over the past 65 years, the region quadrupled its population, adding more inhabitants than in the previous 500 years.4 The population of the region is expected to approach 800 million by 2060 before it starts to decline (Figure 1). FIGURE 1. Latin America and the Caribbean (33 countries): Demographic trends, 1950-2100 (Millions of people and percentages) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10%

Millions of people (l)

15-29 years (r)

2100

2090

2080

2070

2060

2050

2040

2030

2020

2010

2000

1990

1980

1970

1960

1950

5% 0%

Over 65 years (r)

Source: ILO, based on CELADE.

Some studies examining this phenomenon found that after the 1950s the demographic transition accelerated in several countries of the region, with a significant reduction in the mortality rate (associated with the expansion of health and social security systems) and a continuing high birth rate. That phenomenon produced a demographic window and increased the youth population as a share of the total population. The birthrate fell precipitously in the late 1980s, which led to a decline in the growth rate of the population and a shift in the demographics of the region. The percentage of youth as a share of the total population –which until the current decade has remained at approximately 30 per cent – will begin to decline, to 20 per cent in 2050 and 15 per cent in 2100. By contrast, the percentage of older adults (over age 65) will begin to increase rapidly, from less than 10 per cent currently, to 19 per cent in 2050 and more than 30 per cent in 2100. In 1950, just 4 per cent of the population was over age 65 (Figure 1). Several recent studies have documented the results of these trends: }} Education, training and skills development systems –whose coverage increased in recent decades– will need to be adapted to the new reality of a smaller youth population, in both proportional and absolute terms. These systems must be urgently adapted and modernized in the short and medium terms since currently and for at least the next two decades, the youth population will comprise between 20 per cent and 30 per cent of the total population. Additionally, enormous skills gaps persist. }} Health and pension systems face the challenge of serving the generation of Latin American and Caribbean residents that are approaching retirement age and have saved little for their retirement. In the region, just 45 of every 100 workers, on average, are contributing to or have enrolled in a pension plan.5

4

5

According to the Penn World Table (Feenstra et al. 2015), the population in three countries of Latin America (Brazil, Mexico and Peru) in about 1500 was 12 million, a figure that remained stable until the first decade of the nineteenth century. It then tripled during the first decade of the twentieth century. In 1900, the population of 23 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean was around 63 million. IDB, OECD and the World Bank (2015).

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ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Special Topic

}} The ageing of the population also means a sharp increase in occupations associated with the care and health economy in response to the doubling of the proportion of older adults between now and 2050 and continuing to grow thereafter. }} This change is also expected to affect the economy and productivity. The relationship between productivity, savings capacity and the lifecycle is well-known.6 The current demographic dividend will end by the close of the next decade.7 Undoubtedly, these demographic shifts will have a strong impact on the labour market. Demographic trends, with a time lag of approximately two decades, is the main determinant of the labour supply and one of the most important in terms of the need for job creation.

2.2. Economic growth and productive structure As Figure 2 shows, since the early 1960s, the region has experienced at least five growth phases: the two decades between 1960 and 1980, where average growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ranged from 5 per cent to 6 per cent; the so-called lost decade of 1980, in which average growth was between 1 per cent and 2 per cent (and per capita GDP growth was negative); the 15 years between 1990 and the crisis of 2007-2008, in which average growth stood at 3 per cent; the rapid post-crisis recovery until 2013; and the slowdown that began in 2014. Several internal and external macroeconomic factors contributed to this situation. There is extensive literature documenting the discussion on the nature of the economic crises of the region during the second half of the last century. These studies all recognize the dependence of the regional GDP on fluctuations in the global context, especially in terms of trade and commodity prices.8 FIGURE 2. Latin America and the Caribbean (42 Countries): Average annual growth, five-year periods, 1961-2021 (Annual percentage change) 7% %GDP Average 61-80 Average 81-15

6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0%

61-65 66-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91-95 96-00 01-05 06-10 11-15 16-21

Source: ILO, based on the World Bank (2016) and the IMF (2016). Note: Forecasts beginning in 2016 are from the IMF (2016).

It is not only growth itself that is important, but also how it occurs since this affects the intensity of use of labour, income distribution, the sustainability of growth and productivity. In terms of the structural change by sectors, since the 1960s, the sector composition of growth in Latin America and the Caribbean has slowly shifted toward an increased share of the tertiary sector (services) of the economy and a reduction in the primary sector (agriculture and mining). The weight of the secondary sector (manufacturing) has not changed substantially over the past 60 years. A closer analysis reveals considerable productive diversity within and between economic sectors (as well as between regions and territories) and a pattern of growth and accumulation that tends to concentrate production in the most productive segments and most employment in less productive sectors. The best jobs –more formal and with higher wages– are concentrated in higher-productivity sectors, which are fewer. Economic growth occurs mostly in these high-productivity sectors, which are insufficiently linked with the rest of the economy, where most jobs are.9

6 Saad et al. (2012). 7 Picado et al. (2008). 8 French-Davis (2015). 9 Infante et al. (2014) and Infante (2011).

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Discussions on the past, present and future of production in the region have stressed some key elements. Firstly, in the past, growth was based mainly on the accumulation of physical and human capital, with productivity growth making little contribution. This slow growth of productivity partly explains the lack of momentum observed when the “tailwinds” of high commodity prices and demand are absent. If the new normal of the global economy does not involve high commodity demand and prices, the logical conclusion is that productivity trends will largely determine future growth.10 In this regard, the region has an enormous challenge because productivity growth has been slow for decades and has not kept pace with more advanced economies. Labour productivity in the region continues to be 28 per cent that of the United States.11 Several studies highlight the fact that one of the key characteristics of the region, particularly in South America, is its focus on production and export of commodities or natural resources.12 This focus will likely continue over the next few decades, at least until countries implement solid, robust productive development policies that centre on diversification, innovation and the promotion of productivity.13 Secondly, effective production methods are changing rapidly. There is a marked global trend towards the fragmentation of productive processes and the resulting participation of regional production in worldwide supply chains,14 which have recently been complemented by the new productive paradigm some people refer to as the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which is discussed in the following section. Some 20.6 per cent of the global labour force participates in supply chains, a percentage that falls to approximately 15 per cent in emerging economies, including several in Latin America.15 Finally, the use of energy and the environmental impact of this use, as well as productive processes themselves, hinder change in production and growth. With regard to energy, evidence points to a series of changes that could potentially benefit Latin America and the Caribbean, especially in terms of the production and use of renewable energy. For example, the installed capacity of renewable energy in Brazil is expected to increase by 42 per cent by 2020; Mexico plans to increase its wind energy capacity fivefold; and Chile currently has two of the world’s largest solar energy plants, and thus hopes to be among the countries with the highest growth in that sector.16 Climate change and the degeneration of natural resources are major challenges of the twenty-first century due to their impact on the future of work and well-being. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the main source of greenhouse gas emissions is the energy sector (42 per cent), followed by agriculture (28 per cent) and by changes in the use of soil and forestry activities (21 per cent).17 This points to the urgent need for a rapid transition to a low-carbon economy.

2.3. Technology The pace and types of production are also affected by the introduction of new technologies. In the past, technology incorporation experienced a lag and unequally penetrated the productive structure, which was at the root of long-standing problems such as inequality and informality. The question is whether this will occur with the new technologies, which requires an analysis of the recent past and forecasts for the future. In Latin America and the Caribbean, there have been four technology waves18: }} The first was the use of computers, which began to become widespread in the region in the late 1980s. }} The second was the use of the Internet and information and communication technologies (ICTs) in addition to the use of computers. Although ICTs began in the early 1990s, their use became widespread only at the turn of the century.

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

OECD (2015). World Bank (2016). ECLAC (2015) and UNDP (2013). For more information on these policies, see Salazar–Xirinachs et al. (2014). This trend is associated with globalization. However, it should be noted that some experts have warned of a change in globalization trends (Wolf 2016). ILO (2015b). Beltrán (2015) and Solar (2015). Samaniego (2015). World Bank (2016).

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}} The third was the use of mobile phones, which began in the second half of the 1990s but experienced a quantitative leap in the first decade of the 2000s, so much so that there are currently more mobile phones than people in the region.19 }} The fourth wave, which has yet to occur but is expected to soon, is automation associated with the fourth industrial revolution. Figure 3 shows the change in the penetration of mobile telephony –which has been dramatic over the past decade –, that of the Internet –which has been slower– and an estimate of when the fourth wave may occur, beginning early in the next decade though the impact would be felt as from 2030. The fast pace of mobile telephone penetration can be partly explained by the fact that there was not an extensive landline network in the region. In the case of the Internet, penetration is slower and is accompanied by high levels of inequality in access, both for geographic and economic reasons. FIGURE 3. Latin America and the Caribbean (33 countries): Technology waves, 2000-2030 (Percentages) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

Mobile telephone subscriptions per every 100 inhabitants Percentage of the population that uses the Internet

2025

2030

Robots

Source: ILO, based on information from the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the International Federation of Robotics (IFR). Note: The trend of the fourth technology wave was estimated considering the growth rates of the total number of industrial robots in Asia and the lag in technology adoption in the region.

What impact will these new technologies have on the region? Simply put, the effects will occur in three main areas: the disruption of business models and the creation or destruction of jobs; the accelerated transformation of occupational and skills requirements; and income inequality.20 In terms of the net impact on employment, while this is not the first time “new” technologies have affected production and work,21 the current discussion focuses on two aspects of the issue. First, the new technologies have experienced exponential growth associated mainly with the speed at which they develop.22 For example, Ford (2015) states that from the time the first computer was created until 2014, computing capacity has doubled 27 times over. In terms of production, a new paradigm has emerged, which some are calling Industry 4.0. The convergence of technologies such as the Internet of things, artificial intelligence, 3D printing and human-cyber interactions characterizes this paradigm. This is revolutionizing product types, production and logistics.23 However, the scope and impact of these new technologies go beyond merely production since they are affecting and transforming practically all areas of people’s lives,

19 It is estimated that there are currently nearly 700 million mobile phone connections, more than the 630 million people living in the region (ITU 2016). 20 See Salazar-Xirinachs (2016). 21 Cahuc et al. (2014) report that in the past, the introduction of new crops and the use of fallow fields in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries increased agricultural production by hectare and by worker. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the use of steam, electricity and internal combustion increased the industrial production ratio relative to the amount of inputs used. At the end of the twentieth century, ITC innovations increased productivity in the services sector. 22 Several studies found that Moore’s Law (1965) is largely true. It affirms that the processing power of computers and information systems doubles approximately every two years. Others doubt that this can continue because of the physical limitations of these technologies, although they also recognize that this is not an impediment for other types of developments (WEF 2016b). 23 Some authors predict a new productive paradigm characterized by “distributed manufacturing”, the loss of importance of economies of scale for some activities and increasing network production rather than large conglomerates. Some manufacturing sectors of Latin America and the Caribbean are already exhibiting these tendencies.

50

Special Topic

even in regions with technology lags such as Latin America and the Caribbean.24 New generations cannot conceive of a world without these technologies, as older ones can. In order to achieve technological and productive development, as well as employment and employability agendas, countries of the region must urgently address education, training and on-the-job training of these new generations based on young people’s usage, exploitation and familiarization with the new technologies and their applications in all fields.

3. Effects on the labour market: Looking towards the future This section analyses some effects that the factors mentioned will have on some relevant areas of the labour market. Rather than assessing all labour market effects, this article focuses on some aspects with available information, such as the volume and composition of employment, the structure of skills and working conditions, taking into account possible disruptive consequences of technology.25 It also examines governance of the labour market, institutions and social dialogue.

3.1. Volume and composition of employment There are several methods for estimating the future volume of employment. To simplify the analysis, an aggregated approximation was used in which the pace of job creation and the variation in the economically active population (EAP) depend on demographic change, the economic growth rate and employment-output elasticity. Figure 4 shows a simplified exercise for analysing the change in the labour market of the region in recent decades. The EAP grew at a faster rate than usual, in keeping with demographic growth, especially between 1960 and 1990, when it exceeded 2.5 per cent annually. Following that period, it began to decline, a trend that is expected to continue. Around mid-century, demographic growth is expected to fall below 0.5 per cent.26 The figure also shows that until the mid-1970s GDP growth led to a rate of job creation that was slightly higher than that of demographic growth. Beginning in the 1980s, however, the scenario changed drastically: due to low economic growth, the region slipped into a period of slower job creation, thus widening the gap between labour supply and demand, a trend that continued until about the year 2000. After that time, moderately higher growth, coupled with lower labour force growth rates, reduced the pressure on labour markets. Although there is still a surplus of labour, the demographic pressure for job creation will be less in the future than it has been until now. FIGURE 4. Latin America (10 countries): Growth of the labour force and pace of job creation, 1950-2050 (Percentages) 4.0% 3.5%

Job creation EAP increase

3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 61-65 66-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91-95 96-00 01-05 06-10 11-15 16-20* 21-25* 26-30* Source: ILO, based on data from Maddison (2013), World Bank (2016), IMF (2016), CELADE (2015) and CEPALSTAT. Note: Includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. An annual GDP growth trend of 2.5 per cent for the 2016-2030 period and constant employment-output elasticity are assumed for the period.

24 Schwab (2016) states that technologies have changed consumption patterns, transportation and communications costs, production forms, forms of governing, national and international security, the sense of privacy and notions of ownership, time dedicated to reflection and leisure, the way in which people relate to others, etc. 25 Regarding the effects of technology on the labour market, several studies concur that technology to date has had a net complementary effect on work. In other words, while it has eliminated some jobs, it has created others, and more quickly. For further discussion, see Cahuc et al. (2014). 26 This scenario uses the labour force participation rates estimated by CELADE.

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Clearly these trends could shift if the economy grows more quickly or more slowly, or if it experiences a structural transformation, since this affects indicators associated with the relationship between employment and production, especially job-productivity, employment–output elasticity and the wage share of GDP.27 Over the long term, there has been a massive transfer of primary sector employment –especially agricultural– to the services sector, with few changes in the manufacturing sector (Figure 5). In other words, the composition of employment by economic sectors has experienced a major transformation. These trends toward declining agricultural employment and increased employment in the services sector are likely to consolidate in the future.28 FIGURE 5. Latin America (9 countries): Structure of employment by economic sector, 1960-2011 (Percentages) 100% 90%

Services

80% 70%

Transportation and communications

60%

Com, rest y hotels

50%

Construction

40%

Utilities

30%

Manufacturing

20%

Mining

10%

Agriculture

0% 1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2011

Source: ILO, based on information from Timmer et al. (2014).

The low economic growth in relation to the growth of the labour force and its need for quality jobs, as well as a productive structure with limited diversification and linkages help explain key features of labour markets in the region. Figure 6 presents long-term data on informality in Latin America, especially those associated with the informal sector and informal employment. Tokman’s findings (2004) showed that the informal sector grew quickly, especially between 1980 and 2000, a period in which, as previously stated, the scenario was one of very low economic growth coupled with high demographic growth.29 Informality began to diminish in the new millennium.30 FIGURE 6. Latin America and the Caribbean: Non-agricultural informal sector and informal employment, 1950-2015 (Percentages) 60

Informal employment

Percentage (%)

50 40

Informal sector

30 20 10 0

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Source: ILO, based on information from Tokman (2004) until 2000. For 2005 and 2010, sources are ILO (2014) and ILO (2015e). Information for 2015 originates from household surveys of the countries.

27 28 29 30

The use of variable elasticity by periods does not change the main result. See WEF (2016) for the cases of Brazil and Mexico. Vega (2005) also highlights the role of changes in labour law during this period. The ILO (2014) reports that during the period 2005-2013, non-agricultural informal employment decreased from 52 per cent to 47 per cent. Even so, a rate of 47 per cent means that in 2013 some 130 million workers in the region had an informal job, where significant gaps exist in productivity, working conditions and representation.

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The trend toward formalization of employment in the region is associated on the one hand with more vigorous job creation in a macroeconomic context characterized by high growth rates, and on the other with the implementation of public policies designed to reduce informal employment. According to the ILO (2014), policies applied by the countries of the region to promote formalization include increasing productivity; disseminating, simplifying and modifying legislation; generating incentives for registration and extending social protection; and modernizing oversight systems. Despite the positive trend that began in 2005, informal employment continues to characterize the labour markets in the region, although in different degrees and ways, depending on the country. Therefore, future trends of this phenomenon will depend mainly on growth rates, progress or lack of progress in terms of productive development and diversification, changes in the structure of employment, and specific policies for regulation and incentives. From a long-term perspective, it is natural to expect structural factors to have more weight. This analysis would not be complete without including the disruptive element of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the automation of production, which has a strong but unpredictable effect. Technology contributes to increased productivity and economic growth, thereby creating more jobs. However, it also poses the risk of replacing workers with new technologies. The recent global discussion has concentrated on this second effect. The well-known results of a study by Frey and Osborne (2013) led to the conclusion that 47 per cent of current jobs are at risk of being replaced due to computerization.31. The World Bank applied this methodology and estimated that in Latin America, the percentage would average around 49 per cent (the range fluctuates between 40 per cent and 64 per cent), adjusting for the technological lag of the region. (It would be 67 per cent if there were no lag).32 If technology does indeed reduce the number of jobs, this would be reflected in slow growth of employment in occupations that use technologies.33 To explore this idea, Figure 7 shows the change in employment between 1995 and 2015, according to skills levels (low, medium, high) and the skills required by the position (routine, nonroutine manual and nonroutine cognitive).34 The information shows that highly-skilled, nonroutine cognitive employment grew more than the average in the period 1995-2015. The problem is that those jobs do not account for most jobs in the region, which instead are concentrated in other categories: those that have grown the least, on average. Clearly, these trends can face resistance.35

31 Frey and Osborne (2013) use information from O*NET (Occupational Information from the U.S. Department of Labor), which includes the description of the tasks required in 900 occupations. 32 World Bank (2016). 33 Bessem (2015). 34 Routine tasks, both cognitive (for example, accepting bank deposits or calculating taxes) and manual (counting and packaging pills, cleaning a distribution centre, etc.) are the easiest to replace through technology. Nonroutine manual tasks (such as safely driving a truck or placing gems in a stone) are generally indifferent, while nonroutine cognitive tasks (diagnosing an illnesses, motivating personnel or students, creating a new dish) are very difficult to replace. However, technology can play a complementary role (based on Autor, Levy and Murnane 2003 and Levy and Murnane, 2013). 35 Méda (2016) indicates that every technological revolution has encountered resistance. For example, in the fifteenth century in Cologne, Germany, spinning wheels were prohibited due to the fear that they would replace manufacturing workers. In the nineteenth century, English artisans protested the use of industrial looms for fear of being replaced.

Special Topic

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

FIGURE 7. Latin America and the Caribbean (30 countries): Employment growth by tasks and type of skills, 1995-2015 (Percentages) Panel 1: Growth of Employment by Tasks

Annual growth rate (1995-2015)

4% Non-routine cognitive

3%

Routine Non-routine manual

2% 1% 0% 0%

20%

40% 60% 80% Percentage of workers (2015)

100%

Panel 2: Growth of Employment by Skills 4% High skill

Annual growth rate(1995-2015)

53

3% Low skill

Medium skill

2% 1% 0% 0%

20%

40% 60% 80% Percentage of workers (2015)

100%

Source: ILO, based on ILO (2015b).

The rapid transformation of occupations and the growing demand for new advanced skills –as well as the obsolescence of existing skills– make it imperative to modernize education and vocational training systems, as well as to focus on training for work with the necessary technical and socioemotional skills. The risk of increased inequality is derived from the fact that highly-qualified, “well-connected” workers tend to benefit from these changes while “unconnected” workers with limited skills tend to lose out. This also requires solutions to compensate them or counteract this skills-gap trend.

3.2. Work relations To the extent that forms of production are transformed –through globalization and, especially, through the adoption and dissemination of new technologies– new business models and ways of doing business emerge.36 Delocalization, production or work through digital platforms, collaborative economy and on-demand work, among others, are becoming commonplace terms. Just two decades ago, e-trade did not exist in the region. Today we could not conceive of the economy without it. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), in 2015 there were 50 million businesses operating through Facebook around the world, a figure that will surely increase over the next decade.37 Naturally, these transformations imply changes in labour relations and the way in which work is organized.38 Traditionally, the work relationship is based on three well-defined components: the existence of subordination; the economic consideration for the service rendered; and the existence of a defined workplace. These components have experienced rapid change. Studies on wage

36 Salazar-Xirinachs (2016). 37 OECD (2016a, b). New technologies are also transforming the ways in which people look for work. Worldwide, two CVs are added every second to LinkedIn. In Latin America, this network has some 63 million users, undoubtedly outnumbering those of public employment services of all the countries combined. These innovations were developed in a global context of economic growth and expansion of world trade. The question is whether these new business models will continue to grow at the same pace in a context of lower global growth. 38 For a comprehensive discussion on this topic, see ILO (2015d).

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employment or dependent relationships have widely researched the issue of subordination.39 Several authors have reported that the proportion of wage employment is falling in some advanced countries, a phenomenon associated with new forms of atypical employment.40 In Latin America and the Caribbean, however, there has been a long-term trend toward increased wage employment and a reduced percentage of own-account employment (Figure 8).41 In the region, this discussion is more closely associated with the structural mismatch between supply and demand for labour and the prevalence of informality than with the effect of technology and the limited development of production and labour markets. FIGURE 8. Latin America and the Caribbean (30 countries): Employment by status in employment. 1991-2019 (Millions) 350 300

Million

250 200 150 100 50 0 1991

1995

1999

2003

2007

2011

2015

2019

Employees Own-account and contributingfamily workers Total employment Source: ILO, based on ILO (2015b) and Torres (2016).

Another key topic in the international discussion is the existence of atypical forms of employment, including:42 work without contract, part-time or temporary employment, triangular work relationships, on-demand work, etc.4344 Worldwide, jobs with standard employment contracts represent less than a fourth of total employment.45 Figure 9 presents information on part-time and temporary employment and triangular work relationships for Latin America and the Caribbean.

39 There are fewer studies on payment methods and changes in the workplace. Chacaltana and Ruiz (2016) report a trend toward an increase of piece-rate pay and a reduction in payment for time in Peru. Other studies identify a growing delocalization of jobs. 40 ILO (2016a). 41 The data in the figure are from ILO long-term estimates (2015b), which moderate the short-term changes. While this provides an idea of long-term employment trends, it does not offer evidence of recent changes in employment. 42 According to the ILO (2015e), atypical forms of employment are defined as employment outside the typical relationship (full-time, indefinite and with a subordinate working relationship); in other words, temporary employment, temporary employment through an agency, ambiguous work relationships and part-time employment. 43 ILO (2016) and Maurizio (2015, 2016). 44 A variety of non-standard forms and classifications of employment exist. For example, a European Union typology distinguishes between employee sharing, job sharing, voucher-based work, internal consultancy, casual work, ICT-based and mobile work, portfolio work, collaborative employment and collaborative self-employment (Mandl et al. 2015). 45 ILO (2015b).

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FIGURE 9. Latin America and the Caribbean: Change in wage employment in different modalities, circa 2005 and 2015 (Percentages) Panel 1: with a contract (%)

Panel 2: with a temporary contract (%)

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

0

0 ~2005

~2015

~2005

~2015

Panel 3: part-time employment (per cent)

Panel 4: with a triangular work relationship ( per cent)

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

0

0 ~2005

~2015

~2005

~2015

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys. Notes: 1/ The panel for employment with a contract includes Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Paraguay and El Salvador. Percentages were calculated based on the total of employees who report having or not having an employment contract. 2/ The panel for temporary employment includes Bolivia, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay and Peru. Percentages were calculated based on the total employees who report having or not having an employment contract. 3/ The panel for part-time employment includes Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Paraguay and Uruguay. Percentages were calculated based on the total employees who declare work hours. 4/ The panel for employment in a triangular relationship was constructed based on the total of private employees who report having or not having a triangular employment relationship. Includes Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay.

Between 2005 and 2015, the proportion of employees with written contracts increased in several countries of the region. The second and third panel show that the share of temporary and part-time wage employment rose slightly in this period. Although dispersion increased, the last panel shows a slight reduction in triangular employment relationships, which stand at approximately 9 per cent in the countries for which information is available. Maurizio (2016) stressed that in the group of part-time workers, those who are involuntarily in that situation should be identified, a percentage that he estimates has sharply declined (from 44 per cent in 2004 to 28 per cent in 2012). Although several countries of the region have national laws –and have ratified international standards– that regulate these forms of employment,46 a concern associated with their growth is the extent to which they can affect working conditions. This is confirmed in the region, especially for temporary workers (Figure 10). In this case, Maurizio’s findings (2016) show that hourly wages are lower for these workers than for those who have indefinite contracts, by between 5 per cent and 15 per cent, depending on the country. Part-time workers show just the opposite trend: on average,

46 For example, unlike in the other countries in the region, in Ecuador, the Constituent Assembly Legislative Decree of 2008 prohibits outsourcing and labour intermediation, with the view that these contractual forms make employment more precarious, violate the principle of job stability, impede trade union organization and do not recognize international agreements. With regard to temporary contracts, in Peru, written contracts must stipulate the reasons for that type of work arrangement, its characteristics and duration. Nevertheless, reasons can vary considerably, with a wider variety of situations than in the other countries (Maurizio, 2016).

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there is no penalty but a bonus in their hourly wages, which are higher than for full-time workers.47 Maurizio (2016) states that the penalty in temporary employment occurs around the world, while evidence on the differences regarding part-time employment is mixed.48 FIGURE 10. Latin America (6 countries): Wage gaps between temporary and part-time workers, circa 2015 (Percentages)

60

40

20

0

-20 Temporary employment

Part-time employment

Source: ILO, based on data from Maurizio (2016). Note: Includes Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru. The gaps for temporary employment are calculated in relation to permanent employment (contract for an indefinite period). Gaps for part-time employment are calculated in relation to full-time employment.

The ILO (2016a) has warned that a macroeconomic consequence of the atypical contracts that generate less income for workers is that aggregate consumption may be affected since the wage share (or alternative forms of compensation) in production would tend to fall and would make it difficult to access key services such as credit, for example. The cause for concern lies in the fact that economic systems consist of a circular flow of revenue where both investment and consumption are important, and thus any hindrance to that circular flow would negatively affect the performance of the entire economic system. In general, this discussion recognizes that the new forms of employment bring both positive effects and increased access to employment opportunities, especially for youth, as well as increased flexibility and autonomy. At the same time, however, they can bring negative effects such as lower pay, income insecurity, limited access to social protection and other benefits, isolation, stress and a lack of boundaries between private and working lives,49 especially for women and other vulnerable groups such as ethnic minorities and migrants.50 These are the reasons why the new forms of employment require a revision of socio-legal principles of work and of what being an employer, firm or worker implies, and even of the very definition of work. For example, Prassl (2016) maintains that the functions of today’s employers –control over the beginning and end of the labour relationship, receiving the work and reaping its benefits, providing employment and pay, internally and externally administering the firm– can be performed by a platform or even by the final user. This points to the challenge of adapting legal frameworks to these new realities, especially with regard to working conditions, to ensure that this occurs with adequate protection.

47 These are regional averages, which suggest that this is not always the case. The Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR) reports the existence of cases of part-time employment where remuneration is proportionally lower than that of full-time employment. 48 Maurizio (2016) found that, despite labour laws in all countries studied here that stipulate that temporary workers should receive the same treatment as permanent workers in terms of wages, there are penalties for temporary employment . He hypothesizes that the use of temporary contracts can leave workers vulnerable to non-compliance with labour standards, which would be reflected in lower wages and more limited coverage of other labour rights. Additionally, temporary workers many not receive bonuses and prizes that firms award to their permanent employees. 49 Mandl et al (2015); Hwang (2016); Berg and Adams (2016). 50 ILO (2015e).

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In addition, the new technologies have the potential to generate stronger linkages among people –and among workers–, but at the same time tend to atomize labour relationships.51 Park (2016) believes that working hours, the workplace and wages have become increasingly individualized. The worker, he says, no longer thinks about colleagues but rather about competitors. He is responsible for both product and process. This has a number of implications on people’s lives, their social relations, and especially on collective bargaining mechanisms.52 Workers in atypical jobs can be deprived of the means to bargain collectively, whether because the law prohibits it or because the weak relationship with the employer impedes it. Strengthening freedom of association and collective bargaining is crucial given that it can help improve the working conditions of these workers, whether by guaranteeing a minimum number of hours, extending maternity protection or guaranteeing a healthy work environment, among others.53

3.3. Effects on the supply and demand for skills The OECD predicts that the contribution of demographics (slower growth of the labour force) and education (slower growth of years of education) will decline over the next few decades in its member countries, considering the advances recorded in these indicators in recent decades.54 In Latin America and the Caribbean, this scenario is unlikely. Although demographic trends toward ageing indicate that the number of potential users of education services will decline,55 rates of enrollment in higher education still lag considerably behind other regions, and thus there is room for convergence with the rest of the world. This is evident in Figure 11, which presents the gross enrollment rate in higher education for Latin America and the Caribbean compared with other countries and groups of countries. If the countries of the region follow the trends of those of the OECD, they would reach the current level of tertiary education of that group of countries by 2040. These projections do not take into account the known quality deficits of education in the region. FIGURE 11. Latin America and the Caribbean and the rest of the world: Gross rate of enrolment in tertiary education, 1971-2030 (Percentages) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1971

1980 Republic of Korea

1990

2000 World

2010

2020 LAC

2030 OECD

Source: ILO, based on data from UNESCO and the World Bank. Note: OECD estimate for 2020 and 2030 based on OECD (2008).

Predictions largely concur that the mismatch between skill supply and demand will continue in the future. A simple analysis of this phenomenon involves grouping labour force educational levels (supply) and jobs (demand) according to the skills required. Occupational group, which organizes 51 Van Wezel (2013) states that changes are observed in conflict resolution systems in the world of work. For example, many conflicts in the past adopted the form of strikes and mass protests while today people file individual complaints. 52 Howcroft and Bergall (2016) and de Stefano (2016). 53 ILO (2016a). 54 OECD (2015). 55 Currently, there are some 110 million children and young people of basic school age (6 to 16 years), and approximately 107 million of tertiary education age (17 to 24 years). In 2040, those numbers will have declined, in absolute terms, to 96 and 100 million, respectively (CELADE data).

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the tasks performed in each job by level of complexity, can be used to approximate the demand for skills. The supply of skills can be estimated by the educational level achieved (primary, secondary and tertiary). Figure 12 shows this trend set out by decades, starting in 1995. On the skills demand side, no substantial changes occurred. In 1995, nearly 65 per cent of employed individuals performed jobs that required a medium level of skill. A total of 19.2 per cent worked in jobs that required a low level of skill whereas 16.5 per cent were employed in jobs requiring a high level of skill. This has not changed significantly 20 years later. In 2015, the distribution of jobs by skill level was 19 per cent for low-level skills; 61 per cent for medium-level skills; and 20 per cent for high-level skills. Of the 102 million jobs created in the Latin American economy between 1995 and 2015, 18 million were low-skill jobs, 56 million were medium-skill and 26 million jobs required high-level skills. Important changes did occur in the skill supply, however. The percentage of the employed labour force that had completed tertiary education increased from 13 per cent in 1995 to 18 per cent in 2015. Factors such as an increase in primary, secondary and tertiary education enrolment largely explain this trend, as does the expansion of technical and university education in several countries of the region. The increase in the supply of workers with medium-level skills, however, has been insufficient to cover the high demand for work at this level, although the gap is expected to continue narrowing until 2025. The trends observed in these decades point to a scenario where the supply of skills has been adapting to demand, which has not shifted significantly in recent decades. To some extent, this may result from the natural interaction between supply of and demand for skills in the labour market, as well as increased access to the education system. FIGURE 12. Latin America and the Caribbean (16 countries): Change in skills supply and semand, 1995-2025 (Percentages) 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

1995

Low

Medium

High

2015

Low

Medium

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

2005

Low

0%

High

2025

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% High

Medium

Low

Medium

High

Source: ILO, based on KILM and ILO (2015). 2025 is an estimate based on trends of previous decades. The bars show the distribution of the employed labour force by level of skill required. The lines show the distribution of the labour force by educational level completed. Note: Includes Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Trinidad and Tobago.

The new technologies have generated several disruptive changes in education, including new forms of teaching (less based on face-to-face classroom models) and the linkage between education and vocational training systems with the world of work. In countries with high levels of inequality, which is the case of most of the countries of the region, this may create additional gaps between people with greater access to public and private education services and deprived populations. The wave of automation and penetration of digital and other technologies will in any case require a much better trained labour force than the current one. Today, few members of the labour force

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in the countries of the region are prepared for the new challenges, as is evident in Figure 13, which illustrates the percentage of the labour force that uses computers and the Internet. FIGURE 13. Latin America (4 countries): Workers who use computers and the internet. 2015 (Percentages) 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Use computers

Use the Internet

Use the Internet at work

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. Note: Figures for Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras and Paraguay.

A sample of four countries found that 35 per cent of the labour force uses computers and 41 per cent, the Internet. The difference is accounted for by mobile phone Internet access. Interestingly, less than a quarter of that 41 per cent, use the Internet for work. This suggests that few workplaces use these technologies in those countries. It also indicates that many workers access the Internet on their own, but use the computer or the Internet for other purposes (communication, information searches and others). In 2014, 78 per cent of the population of the European Union and 87 per cent of that of the United States used the Internet compared with 50 per cent of the Latin American population (ITU statistics). If today’s workers are not prepared now, will they be so in the future? In order to answer this question, we must note what is occurring with twenty-first century skills in education systems of the region.56 Little information exists on this topic, but with regard to basic education, the 2012 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) testing included a section on digital literacy. The results were surprising (Figure 14) .57 FIGURE 14. Latin America (3 countries): Gaps in PISA test ccores compared with OECD countries, 2012 (Percentage points) Digital reading

Reading

Math on computer

Science

Math

Task-oriented browsing

Overall browsing

0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 -0.25 -0.3 -0.35 Source: ILO, based on OECD data. Note: Simple averages of participating countries are compared. Chile, Colombia and Brazil participated. 56 Twenty-first century skills are a set of skills that enable people to develop and be successful in the information age. They include three types of skills: learning skills (critical thinking, creative thinking, collaboration, communication); literacy skills (information literacy, media literacy, technological literacy) and life skills (flexibility, initiative, social skills, productivity and leadership). 57 To evaluate student performance in digital reading and maths, the 2012 PISA exam included a series of questions to be answered using the computer. In the case of digital reading, the exam included typical texts that could be found online, which would require using tools such as hyperlinks, search buttons, etc. The maths assessment emphasized mathematical reasoning and involved the use of spreadsheets to collect data or create charts.

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The well-known gap between countries of Latin America and the Caribbean and those of the OECD in terms of basic skills (maths, reading and science, depicted by the yellow bars) declines slightly when the use of digital tools is included. This offers hope because it demonstrates the benefits of the new technologies (most likely acquired by the people evaluated, outside the education systems) for teaching. Nevertheless, Figure 14 also shows that the gaps widen considerably when more generic areas are considered, such as general Internet browsing or specific purpose-driven searches. Education systems have a long road ahead in this area. With regard to post-secondary (technical or university) education, information is also scarce. In several countries of the region, occupations associated with science, technology, engineering and maths currently represent only a small percentage of total university enrolment and the total employed population. This situation is unlikely to improve in the short term. The skills development offered by professional training institutes (PTIs) can serve as a tool to reduce the skills gap in the world of work, firstly by offering the technical skills required in the new occupations;58 and secondly, by facilitating the participation of firms in learning mechanisms that motivate young people’s participation in work and training. Although technical education enrolment rates are low in the region compared with Germany, Austria, Switzerland or Spain, which promote a better image of education for work and more effectively link the participation of firms, there are a growing number of workplace learning initiatives, which could be expanded in the future. PTIs increasingly take advantage of the new technologies for professional training. For example, in the region, public PTIs have greatly increased virtual education with the use of ICT: in 2015, more than four million people received training through this method.59 Additionally, many of the technical pedagogical innovations in the countries of the region in e-learning, the generation of virtual learning mechanisms, project-based training and innovative education environments originate from national training institutes.60 In addition to cognitive skills, recent studies have found that socioemotional and physical skills may be equally important skills for future (less routine) occupations. A report published by the CAF (2016) concluded that socioemotional skills –motivation, perseverance and the capacity to concentrate and establish effective interpersonal relationships– are the skills most closely correlated to labour participation and the probability of being employed. Furthermore, the study indicated that these skills can be obtained through educational institutions, the family, the physical and social environment and the world of work. It also found that they are unequally distributed among different socioeconomic groups. These are key elements to consider when defining what is and what will be “employability in the twenty-first century” and their effects on inequality in the region. Finally, the participants in the future of work will obviously be today’s youth. Two surveys explored the vision and opinions of young people on this issue. The first was a virtual survey of more than 1,500 young people aged 15 to 29 years from several countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Results showed that 62 per cent of survey respondents are confident about their employment future,61 32 per cent view it with uncertainty and 6 per cent with fear. However, the level of optimism declined the older the respondents were, from 80 per cent (15-17 years) to 52 per cent (24-29 years).62 With a view to confirming these findings, a structured questionnaire was given to 400 young men and women in Peru. Box 1 discusses the results of this survey.

58 Currently, more than 22 PTIs have personnel trained in these methods and there is a growing tradition of studies, which total more than 25. 59 ILO/Cinterfor (2016). 60 Fischer and Blumschein (2007). Some examples of these PTIs are SENAC, SENAI and SENAT of Brazil, SENCE of Chile, SENA of Colombia, INA of Costa Rica, INTECAP of Guatemala, HEART/NTA of Jamaica, INFOTEP of the Dominican Republic and SENATI of Peru. ILO/Cinterfor (2016) provides more information on these institutes. 61 It should be remembered that a virtual survey only reaches young people who use the Internet, which could influence results. 62 This contrasts with a U.S. survey that found that the current generation of young people is the first to have fewer opportunities than their parents (Fortune 2016).

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||BOX 1. Young people’s expectations about the future of work: The case of Peru The youth of today are the people who will participate in the future of work. To learn about their expectations, the ILO conducted a pilot survey of 400 young people in Peru’s three largest cities (Lima, Arequipa and Trujillo). The questionnaire included questions about future work scenarios, taking into account changes in demography, technology, the economy and labour relationships. A first key finding of the study is that nearly three-quarters of young men and women view their employment future with confidence and less than 10 per cent were fearful of the future (Figure B1). Nine of every 10 young people also believe that when they reach their parents’ age they will be in a better situation than their parents are. Figure B1. Peru: Young people’s’ perception of their employment future, by sex and age, 2016 (Percentages) 100% 80%

8.5 17.8

8.6 17.7

8.3 17.8

8.3 17.6

8.7 17.9

73.8

73.7

73.9

74.1

73.3

60% 40% 20% 0% Total surveyed

18-24 25-29 Age group

Woman

Man Sex

With considerable confidence With uncertainty

With fear

Source: ILO. The survey explored the perception of the youth population on four dimensions of their lives that could be affected in the future: work, study, social relations and family plans. Two of every three young people indicated that the greatest changes will occur in employment opportunities, with half believing that those changes will be positive. A possible conclusion is that young people largely believe that the process will create winners and losers in the world of work, with most convinced they will belong to the first group. How do young people plan to prepare for the future of work? More than 60 per cent of those surveyed indicated that the solution is to study more while 25 per cent planned to start their own business. Seventy-six per cent of the future entrepreneurs consider that technology will be very or extremely important for their business, especially in terms of trade. Young people believe that wage employment (currently 70 per cent of the employed survey respondents) will be less prevalent in 10 years’ time, while own-account employment will increase from 21 per cent to 36 per cent. Twelve percent of young people believe they will be employers 10 years hence. Nearly two-thirds hope to belong to a highly-skilled occupational group, considerably higher than the 25 per cent that are currently employed in that group. Young people expect that the most frequent payment method will be fixed pay for time, although there is a growing trend toward piece-rate pay or pay for work delivered, which could be associated with atypical forms of employment. The survey results also confirmed that young people prefer own-account employment as they imagine themselves having their own business 10 years from now (42 per cent), compared with the 6 per cent that have their own business today. This increase occurs at the expense of a decrease in work performed on company premises (from 75 per cent to 48 per cent). (continues...)

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Table B1. Peru: Current reality and 10-year expectations of several labour indicators. 2016 (Percentages)  

Now2/

In the future (10 years)3/

Status in employment Private-sector employee

70%

43%

Employer

1%

12%

Own-account worker

21%

36%

Occupational group1/ High skills

25%

64%

Medium skills

66%

34%

Low skills

9%

2%

Payment type Fixed pay (per time)

70%

61%

Fixed pay plus commissions

9%

12%

By piece or work delivered

19%

25%

Workplace Firm/employer premises

75%

48%

Own business, office or workshop

6%

42%

Home

4%

5%

No fixed location

12%

3%

ILO. Note: 1/ Occupational groups are determined based on CIUO-08 as follows: high-level category (1-3); medium-level category (4-8); low-level category (9). 2/ The percentages of the current situation were calculated based only on employed individuals. 3/ The percentages of the future situation were calculated taking into account the expectations of all survey respondents. In some cases, the percentages do not total 100 per cent because the “others” category was omitted. The survey also reveals that job-search methods are changing. Of the young people looking for work, 31 per cent do so through personal contacts, 31 per cent through an online or social media job placement service and 16 per cent through an employment agency. The 33 per cent of the young people seeking work through a virtual or social media service is higher than the 12 per cent who used this method to find their current job. In other words, traditional job-search mechanisms are rapidly transforming and this should be taken into account when designing labour market policies.

3.4. Governance of the labour market, institutions and social dialogue The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean face numerous challenges in the effective application of some international labour standards, as well as difficulties in enforcing current national legislation.63 Changing trends in production and work, weaknesses of the regulatory function of national governments in socioeconomic areas and the limited capacity of trade unions to engage in collective bargaining have been identified as key challenges. With regard to freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining, organizations of workers and employers have repeatedly reported that the violation of this fundamental right has led to the weakening of the system of labour relations in some national environments and has resulted in numerous complaints filed with the ILO. For workers’ organizations, this is the main problem the region faces in terms of compliance with the law and the application of international labour standards. The region has the largest number of complaints filed with the Committee on Freedom of Association. For example, in 2015, of the 44 new cases being processed in that Committee, 28 originated from the region while the other 16 came from the rest of the world. While this does not mean that violations of freedom of association are more common in this region than in others around the world, these complaints do underscore the fact that there is limited coverage of collective bargaining in most of the countries and sectors of the economies in the region, in addition to problems of freedom of association. Another challenge is associated with state capacity to detect, punish and remedy violations of labour standards, which in turn largely depends on the design and effectiveness of labour inspections. Currently, countries of the region have weak labour administrations, particularly in terms of labour inspections. This threatens their ability to effectively uphold the application of 63 See ILO (2016b).

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and respect for labour law. Not only are workers and employers unfamiliar with labour law; labour inspection also faces major challenges in (new and old) conditions of informality since workers are often not registered or organized. This has become even more of a problem given the proliferation of new forms of employment and the complexity of distribution channels. For employers and workers, a priority need is a labour administration and labour inspections capable of developing clear, efficient, predictable procedures that are fundamentally free of bias, particularly by inspection service staff. A culture of social dialogue is another pressing issue. Significant social conflict and high levels of distrust of government, public institutions and between sectors are characteristic of several countries of the region. There is not yet an institutionalized culture of dialogue to reduce social conflict. Rather, there is a culture of confrontation and situations of deep-rooted distrust. Some political analysts claim that the region is experiencing an “era of distrust,” and a period of “very complex governance”.64 Social dialogue has been one of the fundamental principles of the ILO since its establishment in 1919. It is the governance model that the ILO promotes to achieve increased social justice, job creation, healthy labour relationships and social and political stability.65 Social dialogue embodies the democratic principle that people affected by policies should have a voice in decision-making, and especially that it should be a means of economic and social progress because it can facilitate consensus on economic, social and labour policies, as well as improving the effectiveness of legislation and labour market institutions. Research on the economic effects of institutions for social dialogue, particularly collective bargaining, shows that when it works it produces positive results. This is confirmed in the negotiation of wages, for example, where appropriate social dialogue and collective bargaining are aligned with increases in productivity and generate a reduction in wage inequality. There is also rich international experience of social dialogue in job training to resolve qualifications bottlenecks, as well as to increase productivity, and in policies for productive development in general, in addition to its use in value chains, clusters or specific sectors. Considering the major and growing gaps in Latin America and the Caribbean in terms of productivity and the lack of productive development and diversification, it is crucial to strengthen channels for social dialogue to support productive development and increase qualifications, and to create said channels when necessary. An absence of organizations of workers and employers that are representative, free, organized and capable of action hinders the possibilities for relevant social dialogue. Therefore, the ILO should focus on promoting unionization to support social dialogue. Social dialogue is also a challenge when governments are not sufficiently committed to a genuine process of consultation or when there is little trust and credibility on the part of social actors.66 Changes in the world of work – associated with the discussion of the future of work – will undoubtedly affect these processes. The ILO (2016c) states that these changes have the potential to affect the social contract, which can be defined as “an implicit arrangement that defines the relationship between the government and citizens, between labour and capital, or between different groups of the population. Essentially, a social contract reflects a common understanding on how to distribute power and resources in order to achieve social justice.” Nevertheless, as Salazar-Xirinachs (2016) has stated, the pace of technology adoption and its impact, the possibility of having learning processes, productive development and structural transformation processes that are accelerated, sustained and inclusive, and the regulatory frameworks to cover the new business models and contracting arrangements, are not “forces of nature” over which there is 64 Zovatto (2015). 65 The strength of social dialogue, its relevance and usefulness have been recognized by a variety of universal instruments: the 1944 Declaration of Philadelphia, which forms part of the ILO Constitution; the 1998 Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work; and the 2008 Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization. Also relevant to social dialogue are the 2009 Global Jobs Pact and the following Conventions: 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize; 98 on the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining; 151 on Labour Relations (Public Service); 154 on Collective Bargaining; 135 on Protection of Workers’ Representatives; and 144 on Tripartite Consultation. In 2002, the International Labour Conference adopted a Resolution concerning tripartism and social dialogue, which states that social dialogue is “a central element of democratic societies”. In 2013, the ILO carried out an in-depth analysis of social dialogue for the recurrent discussions established in the ILO Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization (2008). 66 Social dialogue can take several forms, often depending on the national situation. Collective bargaining is clearly the crux of social dialogue, but organized consultations (for example, through economic and social councils), information exchanges and other forms of dialogue are also important. The circumstances of each case should be analysed to define the best strategy for promoting social dialogue that is tailored to the reality of each country.

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no control. In a broad sense, they are social and political institutions that provide the incentives and opportunities for innovation, both economic and social. Countries’ realities are strongly influenced by the political insight of key social actors and by the existence and quality of dialogue on public policies and public-private partnerships to achieve development objectives that integrate and define the mechanisms of governance of a society. In other words, the future of work should not be viewed as resulting from technological or other forces over which societies have no control. That future will depend greatly on the capacity of societies to provide appropriate collective responses to the effects that can be anticipated and to guide and accelerate positive change processes.

4. Conclusions and future agenda Several factors influence the future of work in Latin America and the Caribbean, some of which are characterized by trends with clear effects, such as demographics, while others are highly uncertain, both in terms of trends and impact. The latter include the development of new technologies, and the pace and depth of their adoption as well as the level to which countries can develop capacities for innovation. The other major determinant of the future of work in the region is the future of growth, production and productivity. In other words, the extent to which future growth will be sustained and inclusive, which is in turn strongly influenced by policies for productive development and diversification, and those that promote productivity growth. Technology is also generating important changes in business models and contracting methods, which, together with other factors, explain the trend towards non-standard forms of employment: }} Demographics offers two extremes, each with its opportunities and challenges: countries with a large youth population face the urgent challenge of generating quality jobs for these young people, taking advantage of the demographic window. Not taking advantage of the young labour force would be, at best, a lost opportunity for youth, for businesses and the growth and prosperity of societies. At worst, it could trigger instability, crime and citizen insecurity due to the existence of a frustrated youth population without opportunities. However, after the high birth rate of recent decades, growth of the working age population is expected to slow, easing the demographic pressure on job creation. Additionally, the populations of all countries of Latin America and the Caribbean will begin to age over the next few decades, although at different rates, in some cases at an accelerated rate, which is associated with a high demand for occupations and employment opportunities in the health and care sectors. However, the ageing of the population also implies high rates of dependency as well as increased demand for social security, which creates financial and management challenges for health and pension systems. Demographics thus becomes a key element in the design of labour, education, job training and social protection policies. }} It is unlikely that in the coming decades the prices of the region’s main export commodities will resume the trend observed in the past decade. However, in Latin America and the Caribbean, it is feasible that commodities could resume the trend that followed the reforms of the 1990s, to grow at approximately 2.5 per cent. This would be sufficient to incorporate the new generations into the labour market in the coming years, but insufficient to rapidly reduce the structural surplus of labour supply existing in the region at this moment, including both unemployment and informal employment. For example, the region would require a sustainable annual growth rate of approximately 3 per cent for at least two decades to incorporate the surplus labour force generated during the 1980s. }} A sustained growth scenario of 4 to 5 per cent would require starting new growth engines. This would only be possible through a combination of investment-enabling environments and solid policies for productive development and technological innovation that include modernization of the education and job training systems and their improved alignment with productive sectors and new technology trends, enhancing business ecosystems and new enterprises,67 and reducing gaps in basic infrastructure and logistics. Modern policies to promote clusters and insertion in global value chains could also play a key role in developing these new growth drivers and accessing the processes of learning, adoption of new technologies and innovation.68 67 See OECD-CAF-ECLAC (2016) and ILO-UNDP (2016). 68 See ILO (2016d) and Monge González and Salazar-Xirinachs (2016).

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}} Although working conditions improved during the last decade of economic growth, they fall short of those in more advanced countries. What is considered non-standard or atypical in other parts of the world is relatively common in some countries of the region. The countries of the region have many laws; their effective application, however, is pending. }} The emergence of new technologies makes all predictions more uncertain. Unlike other innovation episodes of the past, the risks are that automation will reduce the use of labour in production and will polarize the structure of demand for skills. If this occurs, it will reduce the amount of employment generated for each percentage point of economic growth and the time required to observe improvements will be even longer. In addition, if there is a massive transfer of workers with standard jobs to non-standard jobs, income levels could be threatened, which will affect aggregate consumption and the economic system itself. The new technologies also create important opportunities. In terms of manufacturing and related services, there is a possibility of a new small-scale production paradigm with a shorter cycle and that is better tailored to consumer demands. This will create major opportunities for competitiveness and productivity for small and medium-sized enterprises. A “distributed manufacturing” scenario is also possible, with less concentration in hierarchies of large corporations and a wider base in supply chains. While the “digital platform economy” entails risks, it also provides opportunities for increasing the number of suppliers and shortening supply chains, with the possibility of capturing more value in them. In summary, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the development and impact of new technologies. Beyond technology trends, much will depend on countries’ preparedness to adopt them, as well as their individual and collective capabilities to take advantage of them. However, the coming changes are not “forces of nature” over which societies have little influence. In a broad sense, social and political institutions will provide the incentives and opportunities for innovation, both economic and social. For this reason, policies must now be developed to address the potential negative consequences of the factors mentioned on the labour market. At the same time, the countries of the region should take advantage of opportunities and build capacities to maximize the potential for positive impact. It is in this context that the ILO’s Future of Work Centenary Initiative takes on crucial importance. This initiative involves four crucial conversations. }} Work and society: The analysis of the future of work in the region should consider that in addition to providing resources for material well-being, work also has a function of providing fulfilment as part of a larger group. For most adults, work defines their place in society. }} Decent jobs for all: The question is: where will the jobs come from and what will they be like for the seven million people of Latin America and the Caribbean who join the labour market each year? }} The organization of work and production: Production is organized in unprecedented forms. The new technologies enable different ways of connecting an individual who demands goods and an individual able to supply them. There is no employee or employer, no business or client, just two individuals whose relationship lasts for the duration of the transaction, whether commercial or labour. What are the consequences of this new organization of work on the number and quality of jobs, labour rights and social protection? How can the new forms of organization of work avoid threatening worker protection? }} The governance of work: Finally, how should society respond to the new and changing reality? How should governance and institutions of the world of work change? What are some creative ways to regulate and manage this new reality at the national and international levels? Through the identification of trends and the information provided, the ILO hopes that this feature article of the 2016 Labour Overview will contribute to the discussion of these topics among government officials, workers, employers, academics and politicians in the region.

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5. References Autor, D., Levy, F. and Murnane, R. (2003). “The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical exploration”. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. In: http://economics.mit.edu/ files/569 Beltrán, L. (2015). The future of energy: Latin America’s path to sustainability. PowerPoint presentation. Berg, J. and Adams, A. (2016). Income security for crowdworkers. PowerPoint presentation. Bessem, J. (2015). Learning by doing. In: http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2016/05/james_bessen_ on.html Cahuc, P., Carcillo, S., and Zylberberg, A. (2014). Labor Economics. The MIT Press. Chacaltana, J. and Ruiz, C. (2016). Futuro del trabajo: el caso peruano. Mimeograph. De Stefano, V. (2016). “Labour is not a technology” - the on-demand economy and the Declaration of Philadelphia, today. PowerPoint presentation. ECLAC (2015). Latin America and the Caribbean and China: towards a new era in economic cooperation. In:http://www.CEPAL.org/sites/default/files/publication/files/s1500388_in.pdf _____ (2016). Horizontes 2030: la igualdad en el centro del desarrollo sostenible. In: http://repositorio. CEPAL.org/bitstream/handle/11362/40159/S1501359_es.pdf?sequence=1 French-Davis, R. (2015). “Neostructuralismo y macroeconomía para el desarrollo”. In: Bárcena and Prado (Eds.) Neoestructuralismo y corrientes heterodoxas in América Latina y el Caribe a inicios del siglo XXI. Santiago de Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Fischer, M. and Blumschein, P. (2007). E-learning en la formación profesional, diseño didáctico de acciones de e-learning. Montevido: ILO/CINTERFOR. Ford, M. (2015). Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future. New York: Basic Books. Fortune (2016). Most Millenials Think They’ll Be Worse Off Than Their Parents. In: http://fortune. com/2016/03/01/millennials-worse-parents-retirement/ Frey, C., and Osborne, M. (2013). The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation. Oxford University. In: http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_ of_Employment.pdf Howcroft, D. and Bergvall-Kareborn, B. (2016). Making sense of crowdwork platforms. PowerPoint presentations. Hwang, D. (2016). Working conditions of platform workers in Korea. PowerPoint presentation. IDB - Inter-American Development Bank (2016). Empleos en tiempos inciertos. In: http://events. iadb.org/calendar/eventDetail.aspx?lang=es&id=5057 IDB, OECD and World Bank (2015). Panorama de las Pensiones: América Latina y el Caribe. In: http://publications.iadb.org/bitstream/handle/11319/6892/Panorama_de_las_Pensiones_ America_Latina_y_el_Caribe.pdf ILO (2014). Thematic Labour Overview: Transition to Formality in Latin America and the Caribbean. In: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/documents/publication/ wcms_315054.pdf _____ (2015a). Iniciativa del centenario relativa al futuro del trabajo. Memoria del Director General. In: http:// www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/ wcms_370408.pdf _____ (2015b). World Employment Social Outlook: The changing nature of jobs. Geneva: ILO. _____ (2015c). 2015 Labour Overview of Latin America and the Caribbean. Lima: ILO: In: http://www.ilo.org/ wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/documents/publication/wcms_435169.pdf _____ (2015d). El Futuro Incierto de las Relaciones Laborales. In: http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/revue/ download/pdf/134-1sumario.pdf

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_____ (2015e). Las formas atípicas de empleo. Geneva: ILO. Informe para la discusión en la Reunión de expertos sobre las formas atípicas de empleo. In: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/--ed_protect/---protrav/---travail/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_338262.pdf _____ (2016a). Non-standard employment around the world: understanding challenges, shaping prospects. Geneva: ILO: In: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/ documents/publication/wcms_534326.pdf _____ (2016b). Desarrollo productivo, formalización laboral y normas del trabajo: áreas prioritarias de trabajo de la OIT en América Latina y el Caribe. Lima: ILO. http://ilo.org/global/docs/WCMS_534139/ lang--en/index.htm _____ (2016c). Social Contracts and the Future of Work: Inequality, Income Security, labour Relations and Social Dialogue. The Future of Work Centenary Initiative. Issue Note Series 4. Geneva: ILO. _____ (2016d). Promoting Decent Work in Global Supply Chains in Latin America and the Caribbean: Key Issues, Good Practices, Lessons Learned and Policy Insights. ILO Americas, Technical Report N° 1. Lima: ILO. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/documents/ publication/wcms_503754.pdf ILO/CINTERFOR - Centro Interamericano para el Desarrollo del Conocimiento en la Formación Profesional (2016). El futuro de la formación profesional in América Latina y el Caribe in el S. XXI. Mimeograph. ILO/UNDP - International Labour Organization and the United Nations Development Program (2016). Promoción del Emprendimiento y la Innovación Social Juvenil in América Latina, Estudio Regional. In: http://www.ilo.org/global/docs/WCMS_533609/lang--es/index.htm Infante, R. (2011). América Latina en el umbral del desarrollo: un ejercicio de convergencia productiva. Santiago de Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean(ECLAC). In: http:// repositorio.CEPAL.org/handle/11362/35447 Infante, Chacaltana and Higa (2014). “Perú. Aspectos estructurales del desempeño macroeconómico. Situación actual, perspectivas y políticas”. In: Infante y Chacaltana (Eds.) Hacia un desarrollo inclusivo. El caso de Perú. Santiago de Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean(ECLAC) and International Labour Organization (ILO) Levy, F. and Murnane, R. (2013), Dancing with robots: human skills for computerized work. Third Way. Mandl, I; Curtarelli, M.; Riso, S.; Vargas, O. and Gerogiannis, E. (2015). New forms of employment. European Monitoring Centre on Change. In: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/ report/2015/working-conditions-labour-market/new-forms-of-employment Maurizio, R. (2015). Non-Standard forms of employment in Latin America. Prevalence, characteristics and impacts on wages. In: http://www.rdw2015.org/uploads/submission/full_paper/36/Nonstandard_forms_of_employment_Maurizio.pdf Maurizio, R. (2016). Características y tendencias de las relaciones de trabajo in América Latina. Mimeograph. Méda, D. (2016). The future of work: the meaning and value of work in Europe. ILO Research Paper N° 18. Ginebra: ILO. In: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---inst/documents/ publication/wcms_532405.pdf Monge González, R. and Salazar-Xirinachs, J.M. (2016). Políticas de clústeres y de desarrollo productivo en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco: Lecciones para América Latina y el Caribe. ILO, Technical Report N° 3. Lima: ILO. In: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/ documents/publication/wcms_522350.pdf Moore, G. (1965). Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits. In: http://www.cs.utexas. edu/~fussell/courses/cs352h/papers/moore.pdf OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2008). Higher Education to 2030 (Vol. 1): Demography. In: http://www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/ highereducationto2030vol1demography.htm _____ (2015). The Future of Productivity. Paris: OECD Publishing. _____ (2016a). New Markets and New Jobs. 2016 Ministerial Meeting on the Digital Economy. Cancún: OECD Digital Economy Papers.

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_____ (2016b). Skills for a Digital World. 2016 Ministerial Meeting on the Digital Economy. Cancún: OECD Digital Economy Papers. OECD-CAF-ECLAC (2016) Perspectivas Económicas de América Latina 2017: Juventud, Competencias y Emprendimiento. Paris: OECD Publishing. Park, J. (2016). Role and principles of labor law to regulate new employment relations: with focus on digital platform work. PowerPoint presentation. Picado, G; Mendoza, W. and Durán, F. (2008). Viabilidad de las pensiones no contributivas en el Perú: proyecciones demográficas y financieras. Lima: ILO Subregional Office for the Andean Countries and the United Nations Population Fund. UNDP - United Nations Development Program (2013). Export dependence and export concentration. In: http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Poverty%20Reduction/Inclusive%20development/ Towards%20Human%20Resilience/Towards_SustainingMDGProgress_Chapter1.pdf Prassl, J. (2016). The concept of the employer. Old problems, new perspectives. PowerPoint presentation. Saad, P., Miller, T., Martinez, C., and Holz, M. (2012). Juventud y Bono Demográfico en Iberoamérica. ECLAC. In: http://repositorio.CEPAL.org/bitstream/handle/11362/1495/S2012103_es.pdf?sequence=1 Salazar-Xirinachs J. M. (2016). El futuro del trabajo, el empleo y las competencias en América Latina y el Caribe. Pensamiento Iberoamericano, nº 2/2016, 3ª época. Madrid. Salazar-Xirinachs, J.M., Nubler, I., and Kozul-Wright, R. (2014). Transforming Economies: Making industrial policy work for growth, jobs and development. Geneva: ILO. In: http://www.ilo.org/global/ publications/books/WCMS_242878/lang--in/index.htm Samaniego, J. (2015). The Economics of Climate Change. What to Do? PowerPoint presentation. Schwab, K. (2016). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: what it means, how to respond. WEF. In: http://www. weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-torespond/ Solar, A. (2015). The future of energy. SunEdison experience in Chile. PowerPoint presentation. Tokman, V. (2004). Una voz en el camino. 40 años de búsqueda. Lima: ILO. Torres, R. (2016). El futuro del trabajo: tendencias emergentes y planteamientos para las políticas públicas. PowerPoint presentation. Van Wezel, K. (2013). Brotes incipientes en el mercado de trabajo: Una cornucopia de experimentos sociales. ILO. In: http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/dialogue/actemp/downloads/events/2013/symp/ greenshoots_labourmarket_sp.pdf Vega, M. (2005). La reforma laboral en América Latina. Quince años después. Lima: ILO. WEF - World Economic Forum (2016a). The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. In: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs.pdf _____ (2016b). Seven innovations that could shape the future of computing. In: http://www.weforum.org/ agenda/2016/09/7-innovations-that-could-shape-the-future-of-computing Wolf, M. (2016). The tide of globalisation is turning. Financial Times. In: http://www.ft.com/ content/87bb0eda-7364-11e6-bf48-b372cdb1043a World Bank (2016). World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends. In: http://www-wds.worldbank. org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/01/13/090224b08405ea05/2_0/ Rendered/PDF/World0developm0000digital0dividends.pdf Zovatto, D. (2015). Presentation, ILO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, Lima, 8 December, 2015. http://youtu.be/-HLv9cM6hHk

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Databases Used World Bank http://datos.bancomundial.org/ CELADE - ECLAC Population Division Estimaciones y proyecciones de población a largo plazo 1950-2100. In: http://www.ECLAC.org/es/ estimaciones-proyecciones-poblacion-largo-plazo-1950-2100 CEPALSTAT - Statistical and indicators database for Latin America and the Caribbean http://estadisticas.ECLAC.org/ Feenstra, R., Inklaar, R. and Timmer, M. (2015). “The Next Generation of the Penn World Table” forthcoming in American Economic Review. In: www.ggdc.net/pwt IMF - International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook Database. In: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2016/01/weodata/ index.aspx IFR - International Federation of Robotics http://www.ifr.org/industrial-robots/statistics/ ITU - International Telecommunication Union http://www.itu.int/in/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/default.aspx The Maddison-Project (2013) http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/home.htm OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). In: http://www.oecd.org/pisa/ KILM - Key Indicators of the Labour Market http://www.ilo.org/global/statistics-and-databases/research-and-databases/kilm/lang--in/index.htm Timmer, de Vries and K. de Vries (2014). “Patterns of Structural Change in Developing Countries.” GGDC research memorandum 149.  UNESCO - United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx United Nations Population Division. In: http://www.un.org/in/development/desa/population/

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EXPLANATORY NOTE The ILO prepares the tables in the Statistical Annexes using information from different official sources of statistics of Latin America and the Caribbean. These tables are one of the main inputs for the analysis of the labour report of the Labour Overview. When the first edition of the Labour Overview was published in 1994, household surveys in most of the countries of the region had geographic coverage limited to urban areas, many of which were restricted to the country’s leading cities or urban centres. To collect the largest amount of information possible and to place it in a comparative framework, the Labour Overview opted to generate a statistical series that referred to urban areas. Up until the 2014 edition, the Labour Overview maintained this urban series, although the report also addressed issues associated with national and rural labour markets. In 2015, the Labour Overview began to include a series with national data as a primary source for the regional labour market analysis, complemented by the traditional urban series. Additionally, while the content of the Labour Overview always considered a gender perspective, all key indicators contained in the Statistical Annex are now disaggregated by sex. In 2016, the ILO revised and updated the national and urban coverage series presented in the Statistical Annex. The main changes incorporated into this edition of the Labour Overview include: National series: }} The series was made more extensive with the inclusion of more years. }} Explanatory notes were revised, highlighting the ending dates and comparability of the series. }} New tables were added on labour force participation and unemployment rates and employment-to-population ratios disaggregated by sex and age groups (15 to 24 and 25 and over). Urban series: }} Series referring to cities or metropolitan regions were replaced by series with increased urban coverage (to the extent made possible by the labour force surveys of the countries) to give the urban series the broadest possible coverage. }} The specific changes were: }} Brazil: the urban series with coverage of six metropolitan regions analysed by the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) was replaced by the series of 20 metropolitan regions examined by the PNAD Continua (PNADC), a change incorporated into the series beginning in 2012. }} Chile: the national series in the urban appendix was replaced by a series of urban coverage. }} Colombia: the urban series with coverage of 13 metropolitan regions was replaced by the urban series composed of municipal capitals. }} Mexico: The aggregate series with coverage of 32 cities was replaced by the national urban series (high, intermediate and low levels of urbanization). }} Paraguay: The series with coverage of Asunción and the central department analysed by the Encuesta Continua de Empleo (ECE) was replaced by the national urban series examined by the Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH) beginning in 2010. }} Peru: The series with coverage of Metropolitan Lima (including the Constitutional Province of Callao) analysed by the Encuesta Permanente de Empleo (EPE) was replaced by the national urban series examined by the Encuesta Nacional de Hogares (ENAHO). }} The ILO likewise revised the explanatory notes in the urban series, highlighting ending dates and the comparability of the series. }} New tables were also included on labour force participation, unemployment rates and employment-to-population ratios disaggregated by age groups (15 to 24 and 25 and over).

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Below is a glossary of the concepts and definitions used, information sources, international comparability of the data, reliability of the estimates and overall considerations of the estimates published in the Statistical Annexes. The statistical information presented refers to national areas unless otherwise indicated.

I. Concepts and Definitions The national definitions of several concepts appearing in the Labour Overview are generally based on the standards of the International Conferences of Labour Statisticians (ICLS), although some are defined according to standards developed for this publication to the extent that the processes following national criteria imply a partial adherence to international standards. In 2013, the ICLS adopted the “Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization,” through which it revises and expands on the “Resolution concerning statistics of the economically active population, employment, unemployment and underemployment” adopted by the 13th ICLS (1982). Given that the countries of the region have not yet fully incorporated the provisions of the new resolution in effect into the conceptual framework of their surveys, the concepts and definitions detailed below largely maintain the conceptual framework of the 13th ICLS, although they do include elements of the new provisions. Employed persons are those individuals above a certain specified age who, during the brief reference period of the survey, were employed for at least one hour in: (1) wage or salaried employment, in other words, they worked during the reference period for a wage or salary, or who were employed but without work due to temporary absence during the reference period, during which time they maintained a formal tie with their job, or (2) own-account employment, working for profit or family income (includes contributing family workers), or not working independently due to a temporary absence during the reference period. It should be noted that not all countries require verification of formal ties with the establishments that employ those temporarily absent, nor do they necessarily follow the same criteria. Furthermore, some countries do not explicitly include the hour criterion but rather establish it as an instruction in the interviewers’ handbook. In the case of contributing family workers, these countries may establish a minimum number of hours to classify them as employed. Unemployed persons include individuals over a specified age that, during the reference period, (1) are not employed, (2) are actively searching for a job, and (3) are currently available for a job. It should be noted that not all countries of the region apply these three criteria to estimate the number of unemployed persons. Some countries include in the unemployed population individuals who did not actively seek employment during the established job-search period. The economically active population (EAP) or labour force includes all individuals who, being of at least a specified minimum age, fulfil the requirements to be included in the category of employed or unemployed individuals. In other words, it is the sum of the group of both categories. The employment-to-population ratio is the number of employed individuals divided by the working-age population multiplied by 100 and denotes the level of exploitation of the working-age population. The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed persons divided by the labour force multiplied by 100 and represents the proportion of the labour force that does not have work. The labour force participation rate is the labour force divided by the working-age population multiplied by 100 and represents the proportion of the working-age population or labour force that actively participates in the labour market. Wages and salaries refer to payment in cash and/or in kind (for example foodstuffs or other articles) that employees receive, usually at regular intervals, for the hours worked or the work performed, along with pay for periods not worked, such as annual vacations or holidays. Real average wages are the average wages paid to employees in the formal sector, deflated using the consumer price index (CPI) of each country. In other words, the nominal wage values published by official sources in local currency figures or as an index are deflated using the CPI for the national level or metropolitan area. Diverse data sources are used, including establishment survey sources, social security systems and household surveys. Worker coverage varies by country; in some cases, all employees are included whereas in others, data refer only to regular remunerations of employees

75

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Explanatory Note

in the private sector, workers covered by social and labour legislation, workers covered by the social security system or workers in the manufacturing sector, as indicated in the notes of the corresponding table. The real average wage index was constructed using 2000 as the base year (2000 = 100). Real minimum wages are defined in the Labour Overview as the value of the average nominal minimum wage deflated using the CPI of each country. In other words, official data on nominal minimum wages (monthly, daily or hourly) paid to workers covered by minimum wage legislation are deflated using the CPI of each country. Most of the countries have a single minimum wage. Nonetheless, in some countries, the minimum wage is differentiated by industry and/or occupation, in which case the minimum wage of the industry is used as the reference. The real minimum wage index was constructed using 2000 as the base year (2000=100). The urban employed population with health and/or pension coverage refers to the employed population that is covered by health insurance and/or a pension, whether it is through social security or through private insurance, as the primary beneficiary, direct insured, contributing member or beneficiary. In other words, this term refers to the urban employed population with social security coverage.

II. International Comparability Progress toward harmonizing concepts and methodologies of statistical data that facilitate international comparisons is directly related to the situation and development of the statistical system in each country of the region. This largely depends on institutional efforts and commitments for implementing resolutions adopted in the ICLS and regional integration agreements on statistical issues. Efforts should focus on information needs, infrastructure and level of development of the data collection system (based primarily on labour force sample surveys), as well as on guaranteeing the availability of human and financial resources to this end. The comparability of labour market statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean is mainly hampered by the lack of conceptual and methodological standardization of key labour market indicators. This is also true of related variables, since countries may have different concepts for geographic coverage and minimum working-age thresholds, different reference periods and may use different versions of international classification manuals, among others. Nevertheless, in recent years, statistics institutes of the countries of the region have made significant efforts to adjust the conceptual framework of employment surveys to comply with international standards, which has led to advances in standardization and international comparability at the regional level.

III. Information Sources Most of the information on employment indicators, real wages, productivity and GDP growth (expressed in constant monetary units) for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean presented in the Labour Overview originate from household surveys, establishment surveys or administrative records. These are available on the websites of the following institutions: Argentina Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos –INDEC– (www.indec.mecon.ar) and Ministerio de Trabajo, Empleo y Seguridad Social (www.trabajo.gov.ar). Bahamas Department of Statistics (www.statistics.bahamas.gov.bs). Barbados Ministry of Labour (http://labour.gov.bb) and the Central Bank of Barbados (www.centralbank.org.bb). Belize Statistical Institute of Belize (www.sib.org.bz). Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas –INE– (www.ine.gov.bo). Brazil Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadísticas –IBGE– (www.ibge.gov.br) and Ministerio do Trabalho e Emprego (www.mte.gov.br).

76

Explanatory Note

Chile Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas –INE– (www.ine.cl), Banco Central de Chile (www.bcentral.cl), Ministerio de Planificación y Cooperación (www.mideplan.cl), Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social (www.mintrab.gob.cl) and Dirección de Trabajo del Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social (www.dt.gob.cl). Colombia Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas –DANE– (www.dane.gov.co), Banco de la República de Colombia (www.banrep.gov.co) and Ministerio de Trabajo (www.mintrabajo.gov.co). Costa Rica Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos –INEC– (www.inec.go.cr), Banco Central de Costa Rica (www.bccr.fi.cr) and Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social (www.mtss.go.cr). Dominican Republic Banco Central de la República Dominicana (www.bancentral.gov.do) and Secretaría de Estado de Trabajo (www.ministeriodetrabajo.gov.do). Ecuador Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censo (www.ecuadorencifras.gov.ec) and Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales (www.relacioneslaborales.gov.ec). El Salvador Ministerio de Economía –MINEC– (www.minec.gob.sv), Dirección General de Estadística y Censo (www.digestyc.gob.sv) and Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social (www.mtps.gob.sv). Guatemala Instituto Nacional de Estadística (www.ine.gob.gt) and Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social (www.mintrabajo.gob.gt). Honduras Instituto Nacional de Estadística –INE– (www.ine.gob.hn), Banco Central (www.bch.hn) and Secretaría de Trabajo y Seguridad Social (www.trabajo.gob.hn). Jamaica Statistical Institute of Jamaica (www.statinja.gov.jm) and Bank of Jamaica (www.boj.org.jm). Mexico Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática –INEGI– (www.inegi.org.mx) and Secretaría de Trabajo y Previsión Social (www.stps.gob.mx). Nicaragua Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo –INIDE– (www.inide.gob.ni) and Ministerio de Trabajo (www.mitrab.gob.ni). Panama Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censo –INEC– (www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec) and Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral (www.mitradel.gob.pa). Paraguay Banco Central del Paraguay –BCP– (www.dgeec.gov.py) and Dirección General de Estadística, Encuesta y Censo (www.bcp.gov.py). Peru Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática –INEI– (www.inei.gob.pe), Banco Central de Reserva del Perú (www.bcrp.gob.pe) and Ministerio de Trabajo y Promoción del Empleo (www.mintra.gob.pe). Trinidad and Tobago Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago (www.central-bank.org.tt) and Central Statistical Office (www. cso.planning.gov.tt). Uruguay Instituto Nacional de Estadística –INE– (www.ine.gub.uy). Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Instituto Nacional de Estadística –INE– (www.ine.gov.ve) and Banco Central de Venezuela (www.bcv. gov.ve).

77

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Explanatory Note

IV. General Considerations The information on labour indicators of the countries not previously mentioned, along with data on the employment structure indicators for Latin American and Caribbean countries presented in the Labour Overview, are obtained from household surveys that include information on the situation of the labour market, as well as from administrative records. These sources are processed by the ILO/ SIALC team (Labour Information and Analysis System for Latin America and the Caribbean). Several of the household surveys have undergone methodological changes or adjustments, for which reason the contents of the series changed household surveys, which may affect the comparability of information across years. The most marked changes occurred in Mexico (2005, 2010, 2014), Argentina (2003), Brazil (2002, 2012), Colombia (2007), Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Chile, Guatemala and Paraguay (2010) and Ecuador, El Salvador and Uruguay (2014). In some cases, the notes of the tables provide additional information following accepted international usage to prevent mistaken conclusions of comparisons with respect to the corresponding years. Moreover, while the Labour Overview uses official unemployment rates and labour force participation rates of Colombia, Ecuador, Jamaica and Panama to calculate the respective regional series of averages, these were estimated excluding hidden unemployment given that official information of those countries considers hidden unemployment within the labour force. The weighted averages in the tables of the Statistical Annexes were also revised based on updated weighted statistics. Recent editions of the Labour Overview have incorporated statistical data disaggregated by geographic region (urban-rural), whose sources are national surveys with year-end estimates. Consequently, these data do not necessarily coincide with those presented in the labour report section, which uses estimates through the third quarter or the last reference available in September of each year. Additionally, the urban data on the situation of some countries come from specifically-determined surveys and/or areas of urban coverage. Thus, for example, the information on Brazil corresponds to six metropolitan regions; that of Colombia, to 13 metropolitan areas; that of Mexico, to 32 urban areas; that of Paraguay, to Asuncion ad the urban Central Department; and that of Peru, to Metropolitan Lima. For more information, see the footnotes of the respective tables. Following recommendations of the National Statistics and Census Institute of Argentina (INDEC), the 2016 Labour Overview does not include statistics on labour market indicators of Argentina for the period 2007-2015 given that in early 2016, following the election of a new government administration, the country declared a “statistical emergency.” In response, the INDEC reviewed and evaluated the Encuesta Permanente de Hogares. The appendix to the corresponding press release published on 23 August 2016 stated: “The revision (ongoing) of the different labour processes and data published earlier has encountered problems with respect to the omission of geographic coverage, discrepancies with population forecasts, the lack of conceptual and operational training of the personnel responsible for data collection, the use of biased practices to conduct fieldwork, the lack of definition of conceptual criteria for the reclassification of specific population groups, the mistaken classification of some groups, in accordance with the international standards of the International Labour Organization, and the elimination of integrated labour circuits, among others… The series mentioned are therefore not included in the press release and their use for comparative purposes and for labour market analysis is discouraged…”1

V. Reliability of Estimates The data in the Statistical Annexes originating from household or establishment surveys of the countries are subject to sampling and non-sampling errors. Sampling errors occur, for example, when a survey is conducted based on a sample of the population instead of a census, for which reason there is the possibility that these estimates will differ from the real values of the target population. The difference, called the sampling error, varies depending on the sample selected. Its variability is measured through the standard error of the estimate. Estimates of the key labour market indicators in most countries of Latin America and the Caribbean presented in the Labour Overview are obtained through a probability sample considering a pre-determined sampling error and a 95 per cent confidence level.

1

See: INDEC “Anexo Informe de Prensa. Buenos Aires, Argentina, 23 August 2016 (http://www.indec.gov.ar/ftp/cuadros/ sociedad/anexo_informe_eph_23_08_16.pdf).

78

Explanatory Note

Non-sampling errors may also affect estimates derived from household or establishment surveys. These may occur for a variety of reasons, including incomplete geographic coverage, the inability to obtain information for all people in the sample, the lack of cooperation on the part of some respondents to provide accurate, timely information, errors in the responses of survey respondents, and errors occurring during data collection and processing.

Statistical Annex / NATIONAL URBAN

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

STATISTICAL ANNEX Statistical annex NATIONAL TABLE 1. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: NATIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, BY COUNTRY, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America Argentina a/

10.2





















Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

5.1

5.2

2.8

3.3



2.7

2.3

2.8

2.3





9.3j/ …

Brazil b/

8.4

8.2

7.1

8.3



6.7

7.3

7.1

6.8

8.5

8.4

11.3

Chile c/

7.7

7.1

7.8

9.7

8.2

7.1

6.4

5.9

6.4

6.2

6.4

6.6

Colombia d/

12.0

11.2

11.3

12.0

11.8

10.8

10.4

9.6

9.1

8.9

9.2

9.6

Costa Rica e/

6.0

4.6

4.9

7.8

8.9

10.3

10.2

9.4

9.6

9.6

9.6

9.5

Cuba

1.9

1.8

1.6

1.7

2.5

3.2

3.5

3.3

2.7

2.4





Dominican Republic

5.5

5.0

4.7

5.3

5.0

5.8

6.5

7.0

6.4

5.9

6.0p/

5.7p/

Ecuador f/

6.3

5.0

6.0

6.5

5.6

4.6

4.1

4.0

4.3

4.3

4.2

5.4

El Salvador g/

6.6

6.3

5.9

7.3

7.0

6.6

6.1

5.9

7.0

7.0





Guatemala









3.7

4.1

2.9

3.1

2.9

2.6

2.4k/

3.1k/

Honduras

3.5

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.9

4.3

3.6

3.9

5.3

7.3

7.3l/

7.4l/

Mexico

3.6

3.6

3.9

5.4

5.3

5.2

4.9

4.9

4.8

4.3

4.4

4.0

Nicaragua h/

5.2

5.9

6.1

7.9

7.9

5.3

5.9

5.8

6.6







Panama d/

8.7

6.4

5.6

6.6

6.5

4.5

4.0

4.1

4.8

5.1

5.1m/

5.5m/

Paraguay

6.7

5.6

5.7

6.4

5.7

5.6

4.9

5.0

6.0

5.3

7.6n/

8.3n/

Peru

4.7

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.1

4.0

3.7

4.0

3.7

3.5

4.0o/

4.4o/

Uruguay

10.8

9.4

8.0

7.7

7.2

6.3

6.5

6.5

6.6

7.5

7.4

8.0

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

10.0

8.4

7.3

7.9

8.7

8.3

8.1

7.8

7.3

7.0

7.3q/

7.5q/

Bahamas

7.6

7.9

8.7

15.3



15.9

14.4

15.8

14.6

13.4

12.0k/

12.7k/

Barbados

8.7

7.4

8.1

10.0

10.7

11.2

11.6

11.6

12.3

11.3

11.8r/

9.3r/

Belize

9.4

10.3

8.2

13.1

12.5



15.3

14.3

11.6

10.1

10.1

8.0p/

Jamaica d/

10.3

9.9

10.6

11.4

12.4

12.7

13.9

15.2

13.7

13.5

13.5

13.3

Trinidad and Tobago

6.2

5.6

4.6

5.3

5.9

5.1

5.0

3.7

3.3

3.4

3.4s/

4.1s/

Latin America and the Caribbean i/

7.2

6.7

6.3

7.3

6.9

6.4

6.5

6.3

6.1

6.6

6.8

8.2

The Caribbean

p/

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for purposes of comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, data are based on the PNADC series and are not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Includes hidden unemployment. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010, ECE data, not comparable with previous years (2010 data are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. h/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. i/ Weighted average. Excludes hidden unemployment of Colombia, Ecuador, Jamaica and Panama. j/ Data from 2nd quarter. k/ Data from May. l/ Data from June (preliminary). m/ Data from August. n/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. o/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). p/ Data from April. q/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). r/ Data from 1st quarter. s/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

81

82

Statistical Annex

TABLE 2. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: NATIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, BY COUNTRY AND SEX, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America Argentina a/























Men























8.5

Women























10.5

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

5.1

5.2

2.8

3.3



2.7

2.3

2.8

2.3







Men

4.5

4.5

2.1

2.5



2.2

1.6

2.3

1.7







Women

5.7

6.0

3.7

4.3



3.2

3.1

3.5

3.1







8.4

8.2

7.1

8.3



6.7

7.3

7.1

6.8

8.5

8.4

11.3

Brazil

b/

Men

6.4

6.1

5.2

6.2



4.9

6.0

5.8

5.7

7.3

7.2

9.9

Women

11.0

10.8

9.6

11.1



9.1

9.2

8.9

8.2

10.1

9.9

13.2

Chile c/

7.7

7.1

7.8

9.7

8.2

7.1

6.4

5.9

6.4

6.2

6.4

6.6

Men

6.7

6.3

6.8

9.1

7.2

6.1

5.4

5.3

6.0

5.8

5.8

6.2

Women

9.4

8.6

9.5

10.7

9.6

8.7

7.9

6.9

6.9

6.8

7.2

7.2

Colombia d/

12.0

11.2

11.3

12.0

11.8

10.8

10.4

9.6

9.1

8.9

9.2

9.6

Men

9.2

8.7

8.9

9.3

9.0

8.2

7.8

7.4

7.0

6.7

7.0

7.4

Women

16.2

14.8

14.8

15.8

15.6

14.4

13.7

12.7

11.9

11.8

12.1

12.5

Costa Rica e/

9.5

6.0

4.6

4.9

7.8

8.9

10.3

10.2

9.4

9.6

9.6

9.6

Men

4.4

3.3

4.2

6.6

7.6

8.7

8.9

8.3

8.1

8.0

8.0

8.3

Women

8.7

6.8

6.2

9.9

11.0

13.0

12.2

11.1

11.9

12.2

12.0

11.5

Cuba

1.9

1.8

1.6

1.7

2.5

3.2

3.5

3.3

2.7

2.4





Men

1.7

1.7

1.3

1.5

2.4

3.0

3.4

3.1

2.4

2.3





Women

2.2

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.7

3.5

3.6

3.5

3.1

2.6





5.5

5.0

4.7

5.3

5.0

5.8

6.5

7.0

6.4

5.9

6.0p/

5.7p/

Men

3.7

3.7

3.1

4.0

3.9

4.4

4.8

5.0

4.5

4.0

4.4

3.7

Women

8.7

7.4

7.3

7.8

6.9

8.2

9.2

10.4

9.5

9.0

8.4

8.9

Ecuador f/

6.3

5.0

6.0

6.5

5.6

4.6

4.1

4.0

4.3

4.3

4.2

5.4

Men

4.3

3.8

4.3

5.2

4.5

3.8

3.6

3.5

3.7

3.5

3.4

4.2

Women

9.3

6.7

8.3

8.4

7.2

5.8

4.9

4.9

5.2

5.5

5.4

7.0

El Salvador g/

6.6

6.3

5.9

7.3

7.0

6.6

6.1

5.9

7.0

7.0





Men

8.5

8.2

7.5

9.0

8.4

8.2

7.3

6.8

8.6

8.4





Women

3.9

3.7

3.6

4.9

5.1

4.4

4.3

4.7

4.7

5.0





Guatemala









3.7

4.1

2.9

3.1

2.9

2.6

2.4k/

3.1k/

Men









3.2

2.9

2.4

2.7

2.6

2.0

2.1

2.6

Women









4.0

6.6

3.6

3.7

3.5

3.6

3.1

4.1

Honduras

3.5

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.9

4.3

3.6

3.9

5.3

7.3

7.3l/

7.4l/

Men

3.0

2.5

2.7

2.6

3.2

3.3

2.9

3.3

4.5

4.4

4.4

5.1

Women

4.2

4.1

3.7

4.1

5.2

6.1

5.0

4.9

6.7

11.8

11.8

10.7

Mexico

3.6

3.6

3.9

5.4

5.3

5.2

4.9

4.9

4.8

4.3

4.4

4.0

Men

3.3

3.4

3.8

5.4

5.4

5.2

4.9

4.9

4.8

4.3

4.3

4.0

Women

3.8

4.0

4.1

5.4

5.2

5.2

4.9

5.0

4.9

4.5

4.5

4.1

Nicaragua h/

5.2

5.9

6.1

7.9

7.9

5.3

5.9

5.8

6.6







Men

5.4

6.0

5.6

7.1

7.3

4.7

5.4

5.6

6.2







Women

4.9

5.8

7.4

9.1

8.7

6.0

6.6

6.0

7.0







Panama d/

8.7

6.4

5.6

6.6

6.5

4.5

4.0

4.1

4.8

5.1

5.1m/

5.6m/

Men

6.9

5.0

4.4

5.1

5.3

4.2

3.5

3.3

4.0

4.2

4.2

4.7

Women

11.7

8.6

7.5

8.9

8.5

4.9

4.9

5.3

6.0

6.2

6.2

6.7

Paraguay

6.7

5.6

5.7

6.4

5.7

5.6

4.9

5.0

6.0

5.3

7.6n/

8.3n/

Men

5.3

4.3

4.6

5.5

4.7

4.4

3.9

4.5

4.7

4.9

6.6

6.6

Women

8.8

7.5

7.4

7.8

7.2

7.4

6.1

5.7

8.0

5.9

8.9

10.1

4.7

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.1

4.0

3.7

4.0

3.7

3.5

4.0o/

4.4o/

Men

4.1

4.3

4.1

4.3

3.6

3.7

3.2

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.9

4.2

Women

5.5

5.3

5.3

4.7

4.7

4.4

4.4

4.7

4.0

3.6

4.1

4.6

Dominican Republic

Statistical annex NATIONAL

9.3j/

Peru

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Uruguay

10.8

9.4

8.0

7.7

7.2

6.3

6.5

6.5

6.6

7.5

7.4

8.0

Men

8.1

6.7

5.6

5.5

5.3

4.8

4.9

5.0

5.1

6.4

6.2

6.6

Women

14.0

12.6

10.8

10.4

9.4

8.1

8.3

8.2

8.3

8.8

8.8

9.6

10.0

8.4

7.3

7.9

8.7

8.3

8.1

7.8

7.3

7.0

7.3q/

7.5q/

Men

9.2

7.9

7.0

7.4

8.5

7.7

7.4

7.1

6.7

6.6

6.7

6.9

Women

11.3

9.3

7.8

8.5

9.0

9.2

9.0

8.8

8.1

7.7

8.2

8.4

Bahamas

7.6

7.9

8.7

15.3



15.9

14.4

15.8

14.6

13.4

12.0k/

12.7k/

Men

6.9

6.7

7.7







15.0

15.6

13.5

11.8

11.0

11.1

Women

8.4

9.1

9.7







13.7

16.0

15.8

15.0

12.9

14.5

Barbados

8.7

7.4

8.1

10.0

10.7

11.2

11.6

11.6

12.3

11.3

11.8r/

9.3r/

Men

7.7

6.4

6.9

10.1

10.9

9.8

10.9

11.7

11.8

12.3

12.1

8.7

Women

9.8

8.5

9.5

9.8

10.6

12.6

12.3

11.6

12.8

10.3

11.6

10.0

Belize

9.4

10.3

8.2

13.1

12.5



15.3

14.3

11.6

10.1

10.1p/

8.0p/

Men

6.2

7.2









10.5

10.6

6.3

6.8

6.8

4.3

Women

15.0

15.8









22.3

20.0

19.9

15.4

15.1

13.6

Jamaica d/

10.3

9.9

10.6

11.4

12.4

12.7

13.9

15.2

13.7

13.5

13.5

13.3

Men

7.0

6.2

7.3

8.5

9.2

9.3

10.5

11.2

10.1

9.9

10.1

9.8

Women

14.5

14.5

14.6

14.8

16.2

16.7

18.1

20.1

18.1

17.8

17.6

17.3

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean

Trinidad and Tobago

6.2

5.6

4.6

5.3

5.9

5.1

5.0

3.7

3.3

3.4

3.4s/

4.1s/

Men

























Women

























Latin America and the Caribbean i/

7.2

6.7

6.3

7.3

6.9

6.4

6.5

6.3

6.1

6.6

6.8

8.2

Latin America and the Caribbean - Men i/

5.8

5.4

5.1

6.1

5.7

5.3

5.5

5.4

5.3

5.6

5.8

7.1

Latin America and the Caribbean - Women i/

9.2

8.7

8.1

9.1

8.6

8.0

7.9

7.6

7.3

7.8

8.2

9.8

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for purposes of comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, data are based on the PNADC series and are not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Includes hidden unemployment. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010, ECE data, not comparable with previous years (2010 data are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. h/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. i/ Weighted average. Excludes hidden unemployment of Colombia, Ecuador, Jamaica and Panama. j/ Data from 2nd quarter. k/ Data from May. l/ Data from June (preliminary). m/ Data from August. n/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. o/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). p/ Data from April. q/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). r/ Data from 1st quarter. s/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

83

84

Statistical Annex

TABLE 3. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: NATIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, BY COUNTRY AND AGE GROUP, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Argentina a/

10.2





















9.3k/

15 - 24

23.7























25 and over

7.3























5.1

5.2

2.8

3.3



2.7

2.3

2.8

2.3







15 - 24

9.9

11.5

6.6

6.2



6.2

4.3

6.9

5.5







25 and over

3.9

3.4

1.9

2.7



1.7

1.9

2.0

1.6







8.4

8.2

7.1

8.3



6.7

7.3

7.1

6.8

8.5

8.4

11.3

15 - 24

17.8

16.8

15.5

17.8



15.3

16.4

16.2

16.1

20.0

19.8

26.9

25 and over

5.6

5.6

4.8

5.7



4.6

5.1

5.0

4.8

6.0

5.9

8.0

7.7

7.1

7.8

9.7

8.2

7.1

6.4

5.9

6.4

6.2

6.4

6.6

18.3

17.8

19.7

22.6

18.5

17.5

16.3

16.0

16.4

15.5

15.5

16.0 5.4

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Brazil

b/

Chile c/ 15 - 24

6.1

5.5

5.9

7.7

6.4

5.5

4.9

4.5

5.0

5.0

5.1

Colombia d/

25 and over

12.0

11.2

11.3

12.0

11.8

10.8

10.4

9.6

9.1

8.9

9.2

9.6

15 - 24

20.3

18.9

21.7

22.6

22.1

20.8

19.6

18.2

17.7

16.8

18.3

18.9

25 and over

7.5

8.1

7.7

7.8

8.5

8.3

7.5

7.4

6.9

6.4

6.4

7.2

Costa Rica e/

6.0

4.6

4.9

7.8

8.9

10.3

10.2

9.4

9.6

9.6

9.6

9.5

15 - 24

13.9

10.7

11.0

17.9

21.5

22.4

23.1

22.5

25.1

23.0

22.6

22.9

25 and over

3.6

2.7

3.3

5.2

6.0

7.7

7.3

6.5

6.3

6.8

6.9

6.9

1.9

1.8

1.6

1.7

2.5

3.2

3.5

3.3

2.7

2.4





15 - 24

























25 and over

























5.5

5.0

4.7

5.3

5.0

5.8

6.5

7.0

6.4

5.9

6.0q/

5.7q/

15 - 24

10.7

12.2

10.4

12.2

10.5

13.4

14.6

16.8

12.8

13.5

14.4

14.0

25 and over

4.2

3.2

3.2

3.7

3.7

4.0

4.7

4.8

5.0

4.3

4.1

3.9

Ecuador f/

6.3

5.0

6.0

6.5

5.6

4.6

4.1

4.0

4.3

4.3

4.2

5.4

15 - 24

12.8

10.7

13.8

14.1

12.7

11.9

10.7

10.9

11.3

10.4

9.9

11.7

25 and over

4.4

3.5

3.9

4.4

3.9

3.1

2.7

2.6

2.9

3.1

3.0

4.1

6.6

6.3

5.9

7.3

7.0

6.6

6.1

5.9

7.0

7.0





15 - 24

12.4

11.4

11.1

14.0

13.7

12.2

12.4

12.4

15.0

14.0





25 and over

4.7

5.0

4.4

5.5

5.2

5.0

4.4

4.2

4.9

5.1





Guatemala









3.7

4.1

2.9

3.1

2.9

2.6

2.4l/

3.1l/

15 - 24









5.8

7.5

4.9

5.7

6.1

5.7

4.8

6.5

25 and over









2.9

2.7

2.1

2.1

1.7

1.3

1.5

1.7

Honduras

3.5

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.9

4.3

3.6

3.9

5.3

7.3

7.3m/

7.4m/

15 - 24

6.2

5.4

5.5

6.0

7.5

8.0

6.9

7.1

9.4

14.2

14.2

15.9

25 and over

2.5

2.3

2.2

2.2

2.8

3.0

2.5

2.9

4.0

4.6

4.6

4.1

3.6

3.6

3.9

5.4

5.3

5.2

4.9

4.9

4.8

4.3

4.4

4.0

15 - 24

7.0

7.2

7.7

10.1

9.8

9.8

9.4

9.5

9.5

8.6

8.8

8.0

25 and over

2.6

2.7

2.9

4.2

4.2

4.0

3.8

3.9

3.8

3.4

3.4

3.1

Nicaragua h/

5.2

5.9

6.1

7.9

7.9

5.3

5.9

5.8

6.6







15 - 24

9.6

7.4

9.6



11.9

7.8

9.0











25 and over

4.5

4.5

4.9



6.3

4.4

4.8











Panama i/

8.7

6.4

5.6

6.6

6.5

4.5

4.0

4.1

4.8

5.1

5.1n/

5.5n/

15 - 24

18.9

14.8

13.6

15.2

15.0

12.4

10.3

10.8

12.6

13.1

13.1

13.7

25 and over

6.2

4.3

3.6

4.6

4.7

3.0

2.8

2.7

3.3

3.5

3.5

3.9

Paraguay

6.7

5.6

5.7

6.4

5.7

5.6

4.9

5.0

6.0

5.3

7.6o/

8.3o/

15 - 24

12.7

12.2

11.8

13.4

12.6

13.0

11.2

10.5

13.0

12.3





25 and over

4.3

3.3

3.4

4.0

3.5

3.1

2.7

3.3

3.8

3.3





Cuba

Dominican Republic

El Salvador g/

Statistical annex NATIONAL

Mexico

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

4.7

4.7

4.6

4.5

4.1

4.0

3.7

4.0

3.7

3.5

4.0p/

4.4p/

15 - 24

9.4

10.0

9.8

9.2

9.5

9.5

9.1

9.0

9.9

8.4

9.6

11.0

25 and over

3.2

3.0

2.9

3.0

2.5

2.4

2.1

2.7

2.0

2.3

2.6

2.8

10.8

9.4

8.0

7.7

7.2

6.3

6.5

6.5

6.6

7.5

7.4

8.0

27.9

25.0

22.3

21.0

20.6

18.1

18.5

19.2

19.4

22.5

22.1

24.0

Peru

Uruguay 15 - 24 25 and over

Average through the 3rd quarter

7.3

6.2

5.2

5.2

4.5

4.0

4.1

4.0

4.2

4.7

4.7

5.1

10.0

8.4

7.3

7.9

8.7

8.3

8.1

7.8

7.3

7.0

7.3r/

7.5r/

15 - 24

17.8

15.4

14.2

15.6

17.6

17.5

17.1

16.5

15.0

14.6

14.2

15.9

25 and over

8.0

6.7

5.8

6.1

6.7

6.5

6.3

6.1

5.8

5.5

6.0

6.1

Bahamas

7.6

7.9

8.7

15.3



15.9

14.4

15.8

14.6

13.4

12.0l/

12.7l/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Barbados

8.7

7.4

8.1

10.0

10.7

11.2

11.6

11.6

12.3

11.3

11.8s/

9.3s/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























9.4

10.3

8.2

13.1

12.5



15.3

14.3

11.6

10.1

10.1q/

8.0q/

15 - 24

19.4











27.7

21.8

22.9

21.2

19.2

17.8

25 and over

5.9











11.2

11.9

7.9

6.7

7.3

5.0

Jamaica i/

10.3

9.9

10.6

11.4

12.4

12.7

13.9

15.2

13.7

13.5

13.5

13.3

15 - 24

23.6

23.7

26.5



30.8

30.1

33.5

37.8

34.3

32.9

32.8

31.6













10.4

11.1

10.1

10.1

10.1

9.9

6.2

5.6

4.6

5.3

5.9

5.1

5.0

3.7

3.3

3.4

3.4t/

4.1t/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Latin America and the Caribbean j/

7.2

6.7

6.3

7.3

6.9

6.4

6.5

6.3

6.1

6.6

6.8

8.2

Latin America and the Caribbean 15 to 24 years j/

14.7

13.9

13.5

15.2

14.5

13.8

13.8

13.7

13.7

14.7

15.1

18.3

Latin America and the Caribbean 25 and over j/

5.1

4.8

4.5

5.3

5.0

4.5

4.6

4.6

4.4

4.8

5.1

6.0

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

The Caribbean

Belize

25 and over Trinidad and Tobago

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for purposes of comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, data are based on the PNADC series and are not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Includes hidden unemployment. Data from 2006 and 2007 of the 15-24 age group corresponds to ages 15- 28. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010, data from ECE, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. h/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. i/ Includes hidden unemployment. j/ Weighted averages. k/ Data from 2nd quarter. l/ Data from May. m/ Data from June (preliminary). n/ Data from August. o/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. p/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). q/ Data from April. r/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). s/ Data from 1st quarter. t/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

85

86

Statistical Annex

TABLE 4. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: NATIONAL LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE, BY COUNTRY AND SEX, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America Argentina a/























57.8j/

Men























69.6

Women























47.2

66.3

64.8

64.9

65.1



65.8

61.2

63.4

65.9







Men

74.2

74.2

73.7

73.3



74.7

70.4

72.7

75.1







Women

58.7

56.2

56.8

57.4



57.4

52.6

54.8

57.2







62.4

62.0

62.0

62.1



60.0

61.4

61.3

61.0

61.3

61.2

61.4

Men

72.9

72.4

72.4

72.3



70.8

73.1

72.9

72.5

72.4

72.3

72.4

Women

52.6

52.4

52.2

52.7



50.1

50.8

50.7

50.6

51.2

51.2

51.3

Chile c/

54.5

54.9

56.0

55.9

58.5

59.8

59.5

59.6

59.8

59.7

59.6

59.4

Men

71.4

71.4

71.8

71.0

72.1

72.7

71.9

71.8

71.6

71.5

71.5

71.3

Women

38.3

39.1

40.9

41.3

45.3

47.3

47.6

47.7

48.4

48.2

48.1

47.9

Colombia d/

59.1

58.3

58.5

61.3

62.7

63.7

64.5

64.2

64.2

64.7

64.3

64.2

Men

72.0

71.1

71.1

73.4

74.2

75.1

75.4

74.9

74.9

75.2

74.7

74.5

Women

46.9

46.0

46.4

49.8

51.8

52.8

54.1

53.9

54.0

54.8

54.4

54.3

Costa Rica e/

56.6

57.0

56.7

56.5

60.7

59.0

62.8

62.3

62.5

61.2

61.7

57.8

Men

73.5

73.2

72.5

71.5

75.4

73.6

75.9

75.1

75.9

74.3

74.6

71.8

Women

40.7

41.6

41.7

42.1

45.9

44.2

49.5

49.3

49.0

48.1

48.6

43.8

72.1

73.7

74.7

75.4

74.9

76.1

74.2

72.9

71.9

69.1





Men

86.0

86.7

87.8

88.4

87.7

90.0

89.5

87.1

86.2

82.9





Women

56.7

59.3

60.2

61.0

60.5

60.5

57.4

57.3

56.3

54.2





49.7

49.9

50.0

48.4

49.6

51.0

51.4

51.3

52.3

52.6

52.1p/

53.5p/

Men

64.7

65.2

64.1

63.3

63.6

64.4

64.5

64.6

65.6

65.8

65.3

66.0

Women

34.9

34.8

36.2

33.6

35.8

37.6

38.4

38.2

39.2

39.7

39.1

41.0

Ecuador f/

62.6

68.1

66.2

65.3

63.7

62.5

63.0

62.9

63.1

66.2

66.3

68.5

Men

75.6

83.2

81.6

80.2

78.9

77.9

78.1

77.6

78.8

80.5

80.5

81.1

Women

50.1

53.7

51.8

51.3

49.4

48.1

48.8

48.9

48.5

52.7

52.9

56.7

El Salvador g/

52.6

62.1

62.7

62.8

62.5

62.7

63.2

63.6

62.8

62.1





Men

67.0

81.0

81.3

81.0

80.9

81.2

81.4

80.7

80.7

80.2





Women

40.4

46.7

47.3

47.6

47.3

47.0

47.9

49.3

47.8

46.7





Guatemala









62.5

61.8

65.4

60.6

60.9

60.7

60.4k/

61.5k/

Men









84.7

84.6

87.6

83.4

83.8

84.7

84.6

83.6

Women









42.9

40.4

45.7

40.6

40.6

38.9

38.6

41.4

Honduras

50.7

50.4

51.3

53.1

53.6

51.9

50.8

53.7

56.1

58.1

58.1l/

57.5l/

Men

70.0

69.8

69.9

72.3

71.0

70.4

69.2

72.1

73.6

74.0

74.0

74.0

Women

33.3

32.9

34.4

35.9

37.4

34.9

33.8

37.2

40.5

43.9

43.9

43.0

Mexico

60.1

60.1

60.0

59.9

59.7

59.8

60.4

60.3

59.8

59.8

59.6

59.7

Men

80.7

80.3

80.0

79.0

78.7

78.5

78.8

78.5

78.3

78.0

77.9

77.7

Women

41.8

42.4

42.3

42.8

42.5

42.8

43.9

43.9

43.1

43.4

43.0

43.4

Nicaragua h/

52.4

53.4

53.3

66.6

71.2

75.7

76.8

75.8

74.0







Men

68.0

94.0

69.1

82.9

85.3

88.1

87.7

87.3

85.8







Women

38.0

38.9

38.6

51.2

57.9

63.9

66.6

65.1

63.0







Panama d/

62.6

62.7

63.9

64.1

63.5

61.9

63.5

64.1

64.0

64.2

64.2m/

64.4m/

Men

79.9

79.3

81.5

80.9

80.4

79.2

80.1

79.7

79.4

78.4

78.4

78.6

Women

45.8

46.8

47.2

48.3

47.5

45.8

48.2

49.4

49.8

50.8

50.8

51.1

Paraguay

59.4

60.8

61.7

62.9

60.5

60.7

64.3

62.6

61.6

61.6

65.7n/

66.4n/

Men

73.7

73.9

75.8

75.9

73.5

72.8

74.7

73.8

74.1

73.8

75.6

72.9

Women

45.3

48.0

47.9

49.7

47.3

48.9

53.8

51.9

49.6

50.0

56.8

60.4

72.3

73.8

73.8

74.0

74.1

73.9

73.6

73.2

72.2

71.6

71.3o/

72.4o/

Men

81.9

83.0

83.0

83.1

82.7

82.7

82.4

82.0

81.3

81.0

80.4

81.0

Women

62.8

64.7

64.7

65.0

65.7

65.2

64.8

64.5

63.2

62.3

62.2

63.9

Uruguay

60.7

62.5

62.7

63.4

62.9

64.8

64.0

63.6

64.7

63.8

63.6

63.4

Men

72.2

74.0

73.3

74.1

73.1

74.7

73.5

73.9

74.3

73.0

72.8

72.2

Women

50.8

52.7

53.6

54.3

54.0

55.8

55.6

54.4

55.9

55.4

55.2

55.4

65.5

64.9

64.9

65.1

64.5

64.4

63.9

64.3

65.1

63.7

64.3q/

63.0q/

Men

80.4

79.8

79.9

79.4

79.0

78.6

77.8

78.1

79.1

77.9

78.5

78.1

Women

50.7

50.0

50.1

50.9

50.1

50.3

50.1

50.6

51.3

49.8

50.3

48.2

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Brazil

b/

Cuba

Statistical annex NATIONAL

Dominican Republic

Peru

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Bahamas

75.1

76.2

76.3

73.4



72.1

72.5

73.2

73.7

74.3

73.0k/

76.9k/

Men



82.8

83.0







75.8

76.9

77.8

79.5

78.5

81.2

Women



70.6

70.8







69.5

70.1

70.1

71.7

71.5

72.0

Barbados

67.9

67.8

67.6

67.0

66.6

67.6

66.2

66.7

63.9

65.1

65.2r/

65.3r/

Men

73.4

74.3

73.3

72.3

71.8

72.7

71.9

72.0

67.7

68.7

69.5

69.6

Women

62.8

61.9

62.5

62.2

62.0

63.0

61.0

62.0

60.4

61.7

61.3

61.4

Belize

57.6

61.2

59.2







65.8

64.2

63.6

63.2

63.0p/

63.7p/

Men

75.6

77.7









79.2

78.4

78.2

77.8

76.5

77.4

Women

40.4

43.3









52.6

50.1

49.2

48.8

49.6

50.3

Jamaica d/

64.7

64.9

65.5

63.5

62.4

62.1

61.9

63.0

62.8

63.1

63.0

64.8

Men

73.5

73.5

73.9

71.8

70.4

70.1

69.2

70.0

70.0

70.3

70.1

71.2

Women

56.3

56.5

57.5

55.7

54.8

55.0

54.9

56.3

55.9

56.3

56.1

58.6

63.9

63.5

63.5

62.7

62.1

61.3

61.9

61.4

61.9

60.6

60.9s/

60.1s/

Men

























Women

























Latin America and the Caribbean i/

61.5

61.6

61.6

62.0

61.7

61.6

62.3

62.0

61.9

61.9

61.5

61.6

Latin America and the Caribbean Men i/

75.5

75.7

75.4

75.4

75.1

75.0

75.8

75.5

75.3

75.1

74.7

74.6

Latin America and the Caribbean Women i/

48.5

48.7

48.7

49.5

49.2

49.0

49.7

49.6

49.3

49.6

49.3

49.7

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean

Trinidad and Tobago

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for purposes of comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, data are based on the PNADC series and are not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Includes hidden unemployment. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010, ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. h/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. i/ Weighted average. Excludes hidden unemployment of Colombia, Ecuador, Jamaica and Panama. j/ Data from 2nd quarter. k/ Data from May. l/ Data from June (preliminary). m/ Data from August. n/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. o/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). p/ Data from April. q/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). r/ Data from 1st quarter. s/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

87

88

Statistical Annex

TABLE 5. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: NATIONAL LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE, BY COUNTRY AND AGE GROUP, 20062016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Argentina a/

60.3





















57.8k/

15 - 24

45.6























25 and over

66.9























66.3

64.8

64.9

65.1



65.8

61.2

63.4

65.9







15 - 24

55.6

52.2

51.6

51.3



53.0

45.4

46.8

51.9







25 and over

81.0

79.8

80.7

81.2



80.0

78.2

77.9

79.1







62.4

62.0

62.0

62.1



60.0

61.4

61.3

61.0

61.3

61.2

61.4

15 - 24

63.9

63.6

63.2

62.7



59.1

51.9

50.6

49.4

49.6

49.6

49.9

25 and over

70.7

70.2

70.2

70.3



68.1

64.3

64.4

64.4

64.6

64.6

64.6

54.5

54.9

56.0

55.9

58.5

59.8

59.5

59.6

59.8

59.7

59.6

59.4

15 - 24

31.8

32.1

34.2

33.3

37.5

38.4

37.1

36.3

36.0

35.7

36.1

34.7

25 and over

61.1

61.6

62.3

62.3

64.4

65.7

65.5

65.6

65.9

65.6

65.5

65.4

Colombia d/

59.1

58.3

58.5

61.3

62.7

63.7

64.5

64.2

64.2

64.7

64.3

64.2

15 - 24

54.5

53.0

47.6

51.5

52.4

53.7

55.1

54.0

53.9

54.1

53.9

53.3

25 and over

61.6

61.1

69.2

71.5

72.8

73.3

74.0

73.8

73.8

74.1

74.4

74.1

Costa Rica e/

56.6

57.0

56.7

56.5

60.7

59.0

62.8

62.3

62.5

61.2

61.7

57.8

15 - 24

49.5

51.4

49.1

47.4

44.2

43.4

48.3

48.0

48.2

45.9

46.4

41.9

25 and over

64.9

65.3

65.2

65.2

66.5

64.0

67.2

66.7

66.8

65.8

66.2

62.5

72.1

73.7

74.7

75.4

74.9

76.1

74.2

72.9

71.9

69.1





15 - 24

























25 and over

























49.7

49.9

50.0

48.4

49.6

51.0

51.4

51.3

52.3

52.6

52.1q/

53.5q/

15 - 24

41.0

41.7

41.8

37.2

38.5

40.4

40.8

40.7

41.0

40.2

39.5

40.8

25 and over

63.5

63.1

63.6

62.3

63.5

64.7

65.6

65.5

65.6

66.2

65.9

66.7

Ecuador f/

62.6

68.1

66.2

65.3

63.7

62.5

63.0

62.9

63.1

66.2

66.3

68.5

15 - 24

57.3

52.9

51.2

50.0

46.4

43.1

43.9

42.2

41.1

43.5

43.8

46.1

25 and over

74.9

73.7

71.8

71.1

69.9

69.2

69.3

69.9

71.0

74.1

74.2

76.4

52.6

62.1

62.7

62.8

62.5

62.7

63.2

63.6

62.8

62.1





15 - 24

47.5

49.9

51.4

50.4

49.4

46.3

50.3

49.6

49.1

45.8





25 and over

65.6

66.3

66.8

67.2

67.3

67.5

68.0

68.8

67.7

66.9





Guatemala









62.5

61.8

65.4

60.6

60.9

60.7

60.4l/

61.5l/

15 - 24









53.1

53.5

58.3

50.3

51.8

52.4

51.2

53.1

25 and over









67.2

66.1

68.8

65.7

65.3

64.8

64.8

65.6

Honduras

50.7

50.4

51.3

53.1

53.6

51.9

50.8

53.7

56.1

58.1

58.1m/

57.5m/

15 - 24

49.8

48.3

49.4

50.5

51.5

49.9

48.1

51.6

52.3

56.6

56.6

55.5

25 and over

65.2

64.5

65.6

67.2

67.4

65.2

63.7

66.4

68.3

69.0

69.0

67.7

60.1

60.1

60.0

59.9

59.7

59.8

60.4

60.3

59.8

59.8

59.6

59.7

15 - 24

48.4

48.4

47.8

46.9

47.1

46.9

47.3

46.4

45.6

44.8

44.5

44.3

25 and over

64.4

64.4

64.3

64.5

64.2

64.3

65.0

65.0

64.4

64.6

64.5

64.5

Nicaragua h/

52.4

53.4

53.3

66.6

71.2

75.7

76.8

75.8

74.0







15 - 24

48.3

47.4

48.3



64.5

69.8

71.2











25 and over

66.9

65.4

66.7



76.3

79.6

80.5











Panama l/

62.6

62.7

63.9

64.1

63.5

61.9

63.5

64.1

64.0

64.2

64.2n/

64.4n/

15 - 24

47.6

48.5

50.6

49.8

47.8

44.1

46.3

46.9

45.2

43.9

43.9

44.2

25 and over

67.8

67.6

68.3

68.7

68.4

66.8

68.6

69.5

69.8

70.4

70.4

70.8

Paraguay

59.4

60.8

61.7

62.9

60.5

60.7

64.3

62.6

61.6

61.6

65.7o/

66.4o/

15 - 24

60.0

58.1

59.5

63.6

58.0

57.6

59.7

58.6

57.2

54.9





25 and over

71.6

74.6

73.8

73.3

72.7

72.9

77.0

75.0

73.2

73.7



Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Brazil

b/

Chile c/

Cuba

Dominican Republic

El Salvador g/

Statistical annex NATIONAL

Mexico

… (continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

72.3

73.8

73.8

74.0

74.1

73.9

73.6

73.2

72.2

71.6

71.3p/

72.4p/

15 - 24

60.1

60.7

61.4

60.6

60.4

59.6

58.9

57.9

56.1

53.7

50.4

51.7

25 and over

78.9

80.7

80.3

80.7

80.9

80.9

80.4

80.3

79.4

79.4

79.1

80.0

60.7

62.5

62.7

63.4

62.9

64.8

64.0

63.6

64.7

63.8

63.6

63.4

15 - 24

48.4

50.0

48.8

49.1

48.6

49.8

48.9

48.7

48.6

46.5

45.9

45.2

25 and over

64.0

65.9

66.4

67.3

66.9

68.8

68.1

67.7

68.9

68.5

68.5

68.4

65.5

64.9

64.9

65.1

64.5

64.4

63.9

64.3

65.1

63.7

64.3r/

63.0r/

15 - 24

46.0

44.7

44.7

44.0

42.5

41.8

40.9

41.0

41.6

39.3

40.0

37.8

25 and over

72.9

72.4

72.5

72.7

72.5

72.3

71.8

72.0

72.6

71.6

72.0

70.9

75.1

76.2

76.3

73.4



72.1

72.5

73.2

73.7

74.3

73.0l/

76.9l/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























67.9

67.8

67.6

67.0

66.6

67.6

66.2

66.7

63.9

65.1

65.2s/

65.3s/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























57.6

61.2

59.2







65.8

64.2

63.6

63.2

63.0q/

63.7q/

15 - 24













49.5

46.3

46.6

44.7

44.4

43.9

25 and over













73.9

73.4

73.0

73.0

73.3

73.8

64.7

64.9

65.5

63.5

62.4

62.1

61.9

63.0

62.8

63.1

63.0

64.8

15 - 24













33.6

34.7

33.3

34.0

33.7

36.3

25 and over













73.0

74.1

74.4

74.5

74.5

75.9

63.9

63.5

63.5

62.7

62.1

61.3

61.9

61.4

61.9

60.6

60.9t/

60.1t/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Latin America and the Caribbean j/

61.5

61.6

61.6

62.0

61.7

61.6

62.3

62.0

61.9

61.9

61.5

61.6

Latin America and the Caribbean 15 to 24 j/

54.7

54.1

53.3

53.2

52.4

51.7

49.5

48.5

47.8

47.4

47.4

47.5

Latin America and the Caribbean 25 and over j/

68.5

68.2

68.9

69.3

68.9

68.6

67.5

67.5

67.4

67.5

67.3

67.3

Peru

Uruguay

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean Bahamas

Barbados

Belize

Jamaica l/

Trinidad and Tobago

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for purposes of comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, data are based on the PNADC series and are not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Includes hidden unemployment. Data from 2006 and 2007 of the 15-24 age group correspond to 15-28 years. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010, ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. h/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. i/ Includes hidden unemployment. j/ Weighted averages. k/ Data from 2nd quarter. l/ Data from June (preliminary). m/ Data from June. n/ Data from August. o/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. p/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). q/ Data from April. r/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). s/ Data from 1st quarter. t/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

89

90

Statistical Annex

TABLE 6. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT-TO-POPULATION RATIO, BY COUNTRY AND SEX, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America Argentina a/

54.1





















52.4i/

Men

67.1





















63.7

Women

42.8





















42.2

62.9

61.4

63.1

63.0



64.1

59.8

61.6

64.4







Men

70.8

70.8

72.2

71.4



73.0

69.3

71.0

73.8







Women

55.3

52.8

54.7

54.9



55.5

51.0

52.9

55.4







Brazil b/

57.2

57.0

57.5

56.9



56.0

56.9

56.9

56.8

56.1

56.1

54.4

Men

68.2

68.0

68.6

67.8



67.3

68.7

68.7

68.3

67.1

67.1

65.2

Women

46.8

46.7

47.2

46.8



45.5

46.1

46.2

46.4

46.0

46.1

44.6

Chile c/

50.3

51.0

51.7

50.5

53.7

55.5

55.7

56.0

56.0

56.0

55.8

55.5

Men

66.6

66.9

66.9

64.5

66.9

68.3

68.0

68.0

67.3

67.4

67.4

66.9

Women

34.7

35.7

37.0

36.9

41.0

43.2

43.8

44.4

45.1

44.9

44.6

44.4

Colombia

52.0

51.8

51.9

53.9

55.3

56.8

57.8

58.0

58.4

59.0

58.4

58.0

Men

65.4

64.9

64.8

66.5

67.6

69.0

69.5

69.4

69.7

70.1

69.5

69.1

Women

39.3

39.2

39.6

41.9

43.7

45.2

46.7

47.1

47.6

48.3

47.8

47.5

Costa Rica d/

53.3

54.4

53.9

52.1

55.3

52.9

56.4

56.4

56.5

55.4

55.7

52.3

Men

70.2

70.8

69.5

66.8

69.6

67.2

69.2

68.9

69.7

68.3

68.6

65.8

Women

37.2

38.7

39.1

38.0

40.8

38.5

43.5

43.8

43.2

42.2

42.8

38.8

70.7

72.4

73.6

74.2

73.0

73.6

71.6

70.5

70.0

67.5





Men

84.5

85.2

86.6

87.1

85.6

87.3

86.4

84.4

84.2

81.0





Women

55.5

58.2

59.0

59.8

58.9

58.4

55.3

55.3

54.6

52.8





46.9

47.4

47.7

45.8

47.1

48.0

48.1

47.7

49.0

49.5

49.0o/

50.4o/

Men

62.3

62.8

62.1

60.8

61.1

61.6

61.4

61.3

62.7

63.1

62.4

63.5

Women

31.9

32.2

33.5

31.0

33.3

34.6

34.8

34.2

35.4

36.2

35.8

37.3

Ecuador e/

58.6

64.7

62.2

61.1

60.1

59.6

60.4

60.3

60.4

63.3

63.5

64.8

Men

72.3

80.0

78.1

76.0

75.3

75.0

75.3

74.9

75.9

77.6

77.8

77.7

Women

45.4

50.1

47.5

47.0

45.9

45.3

46.5

46.6

46.0

49.8

50.1

52.7

El Salvador f/

49.2

58.1

59.0

58.2

58.1

58.6

59.4

59.9

58.4

57.8





Men

61.3

74.4

75.3

73.7

74.1

74.6

75.4

75.1

73.7

73.5





Women

38.8

45.0

45.6

45.2

44.8

45.0

45.8

47.0

45.5

44.4





Guatemala









60.2

59.2

63.5

58.7

59.1

59.2

58.9j/

59.6j/

Men









81.7

82.2

85.5

81.1

81.6

83.0

82.8

81.5

Women









41.1

37.7

44.1

39.1

39.2

37.5

37.4

39.7

Honduras

49.0

48.8

49.7

51.5

51.5

49.7

48.9

51.6

53.1

53.8

53.8k/

53.2k/

Men

67.9

68.0

68.1

70.4

68.7

68.1

67.2

69.7

70.3

70.8

70.8

70.2

Women

31.9

31.5

33.1

34.4

35.4

32.8

32.2

35.3

37.8

38.8

38.8

38.4

Mexico

58.0

57.9

57.6

56.7

56.5

56.7

57.5

57.3

56.9

57.2

57.0

57.3

Men

78.0

77.6

76.9

74.8

74.5

74.4

74.9

74.6

74.4

74.7

74.6

74.5

Women

40.2

40.7

40.6

40.5

40.3

40.6

41.7

41.7

41.0

41.4

41.0

41.6

Nicaragua g/

49.7

50.2

50.0

61.3

65.6

71.7

72.3

71.5

69.1







Men

64.3

64.8

65.2

77.1

79.1

83.9

82.9

82.4

80.5







Women

36.1

36.6

35.7

46.5

52.8

60.1

62.2

61.2

58.5







Panama

57.2

58.7

60.3

59.9

59.4

59.1

61.0

61.5

60.9

60.9

60.9l/

60.8l/

Men

74.4

75.3

78.0

76.8

76.1

75.8

77.4

77.1

76.2

75.0

75.0

74.9

Women

40.5

42.8

43.6

44.0

43.5

43.5

45.8

46.8

46.8

47.6

47.6

47.7

Paraguay

55.4

57.4

58.2

58.9

57.1

57.3

61.2

59.5

57.9

58.3

60.6m/

60.9m/

Men

69.8

70.7

72.3

71.7

70.1

69.6

71.7

70.5

70.6

70.1

70.6

68.1

Women

41.3

44.3

44.4

45.9

43.9

45.3

50.5

48.9

45.6

47.1

51.7

54.2

68.9

70.3

70.4

70.7

71.1

70.9

70.8

70.3

69.6

69.1

68.4n/

69.3n/

Men

78.6

79.4

79.6

79.5

79.7

79.6

79.8

79.2

78.5

78.2

77.2

77.6

Women

59.3

61.3

61.3

61.9

62.6

62.4

61.9

61.5

60.7

60.1

59.7

61.0

Uruguay

54.1

56.7

57.7

58.5

58.4

60.7

59.9

59.5

60.4

59.0

58.9

58.4

Men

66.3

69.1

69.2

70.0

69.3

71.0

69.8

70.2

70.5

68.4

68.3

67.4

Women

43.7

46.1

47.8

48.7

48.9

51.3

51.1

50.0

51.3

50.5

50.3

50.1

58.9

59.4

60.2

60.0

58.9

59.0

58.7

59.3

60.4

59.2

59.6p/

58.3p/

Men

73.0

73.5

74.3

73.5

72.3

72.6

72.1

72.6

73.8

72.7

73.3

72.7

Women

44.9

45.4

46.2

46.6

45.6

45.6

45.6

46.1

47.1

46.0

46.2

44.1

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Cuba

Statistical annex NATIONAL

Dominican Republic

Peru

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Bahamas

69.4

70.2

69.7

62.1



60.6

62.0

61.6

62.9

64.4

64.3j/

67.1j/

Men



77.3

76.6







64.4

64.9

67.2

70.1

69.9

72.2

Women



64.2

63.9







59.9

58.8

59.0

61.0

62.2

61.6

Barbados

61.9

62.8

62.1

60.3

59.5

60.1

58.5

58.9

56.0

57.7

57.5q/

59.2q/

Men

67.7

69.5

68.2

65.0

64.0

65.6

64.1

63.6

59.7

60.2

61.1

63.5

Women

56.6

56.6

56.6

56.1

55.4

55.1

53.5

54.8

52.6

55.3

54.2

55.3

Belize

52.2

56.0

54.3







55.7

56.7

56.3

56.8

56.6o/

58.7o/

Men

70.9

72.1









70.9

72.3

73.3

72.5

71.3

74.1

Women

34.4

36.5









40.9

39.6

39.4

41.2

42.1

43.4

Jamaica

58.0

58.4

58.5

56.3

54.7

54.3

53.3

53.4

54.2

54.6

54.5

56.2

Men

68.4

69.0

68.5

65.7

63.9

63.6

61.9

62.1

62.9

63.3

63.1

64.2

Women

48.1

48.3

49.1

47.4

45.9

45.8

45.0

45.0

45.8

46.2

46.2

48.4

59.9

59.9

60.6

59.4

58.4

58.2

58.8

59.1

59.9

58.5

58.8r/

57.6r/

Men

























Women

























Latin America and the Caribbean h/

57.2

57.6

57.8

57.6

57.5

57.7

58.3

58.2

58.1

57.9

57.3

56.7

Latin America and the Caribbean Men h/

71.1

71.5

71.6

70.9

70.8

71.0

71.7

71.4

71.3

70.9

70.3

69.3

Latin America and the Caribbean Women h/

44.2

44.6

44.9

45.1

45.1

45.1

45.8

45.8

45.8

45.8

45.2

44.9

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean

Trinidad and Tobago

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC has informed users that it is revising the statistical series of the years 2007-2015. b/ Beginning in 2012, data are based on the PNADC series and are not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010, ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). e/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. f/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. g/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. h/ Weighted average. i/ Data from 2nd quarter. j/ Data from May. k/ Data from June (preliminary). l/ Data from March. m/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. n/ Data from 1st semester. o/ Data from April. p/ Data through 1st quarter (preliminary). q/ Data from 1st quarter.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

91

92

Statistical Annex

TABLE 7. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: NATIONAL EMPLOMENT-TO-POPULATION RATIO, BY COUNTRY AND AGE GROUP, 20062016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Argentina a/

54.1





















52.4i/

15 - 24

34.8























25 and over

62.0























62.9

61.4

63.1

63.0



64.1

59.8

61.6

64.4







15 - 24

50.1

46.2

48.2

48.1



49.7

43.4

43.6

49.1







25 and over

77.9

77.1

79.1

79.0



78.6

76.7

76.3

77.8







57.2

57.0

57.5

56.9



56.0

56.9

56.9

56.8

56.1

56.1

54.4

15 - 24

52.6

52.9

53.4

51.5



50.1

43.4

42.4

41.4

39.7

39.8

36.5

25 and over

66.8

66.2

66.8

66.3



65.0

61.0

61.2

61.3

60.7

60.7

59.5

50.3

51.0

51.7

50.5

53.7

55.5

55.7

56.0

56.0

56.0

55.8

55.5

15 - 24

26.0

26.4

27.5

25.8

30.5

31.7

31.1

30.4

30.1

30.2

30.5

29.2

25 and over

57.4

58.2

58.6

57.4

60.2

62.1

62.3

62.7

62.6

62.4

62.1

61.8

Colombia

52.0

51.8

51.9

53.9

55.3

56.8

57.8

58.0

58.4

59.0

58.4

58.0

15 - 24

43.4

43.0

37.3

39.9

40.8

42.5

44.3

44.2

44.4

45.0

44.0

43.2

25 and over

56.6

56.4

63.8

65.4

66.8

67.8

68.5

68.7

69.0

69.3

69.0

68.5

Costa Rica d/

53.3

54.4

53.9

52.1

55.3

52.9

56.4

56.4

56.5

55.4

55.7

52.3

15 - 24

42.6

45.9

43.7

38.9

34.7

33.7

37.1

37.2

36.1

35.3

35.9

32.3

25 and over

62.6

63.5

63.1

61.9

62.5

59.1

62.2

62.4

62.6

61.3

61.6

58.2

70.7

72.4

73.6

74.2

73.0

73.6

71.6

70.5

70.0

67.5





15 - 24

























25 and over

























46.9

47.4

47.7

45.8

47.1

48.0

48.1

47.7

49.0

49.5

49.0o/

50.4o/

15 - 24

36.6

36.6

37.5

32.7

34.5

35.0

34.8

33.9

35.8

34.8

33.8

35.0

25 and over

60.8

61.1

61.6

59.9

61.1

62.2

62.5

62.4

62.3

63.4

63.2

64.1

Ecuador e/

58.6

64.7

62.2

61.1

60.1

59.6

60.4

60.3

60.4

63.3

63.5

64.8

15 - 24

50.0

47.3

44.1

42.9

40.5

37.9

39.2

37.6

36.5

39.0

39.4

40.7

25 and over

71.6

71.1

69.0

67.9

67.2

67.1

67.4

68.1

69.0

71.9

72.0

73.3

El Salvador f/

49.2

58.1

59.0

58.2

58.1

58.6

59.4

59.9

58.4

57.8





15 - 24

41.7

44.2

45.7

43.4

42.6

40.7

44.0

43.4

41.7

39.4





25 and over

62.4

63.0

63.8

63.5

63.8

64.1

65.0

66.0

64.4

63.4





Guatemala









60.2

59.2

63.5

58.7

59.1

59.2

58.9j/

59.6j/

15 - 24









50.0

49.4

55.4

47.4

48.6

49.4

48.8

49.7

25 and over









65.2

64.3

67.4

64.3

64.2

64.0

63.8

64.5

Honduras

49.0

48.8

49.7

51.5

51.5

49.7

48.9

51.6

53.1

53.8

53.8k/

53.2k/

15 - 24

46.7

45.7

46.7

47.5

47.6

45.9

44.8

47.9

47.4

48.6

48.6

46.7

25 and over

63.6

63.0

64.2

65.7

65.5

63.2

62.1

64.5

65.5

65.8

65.8

64.9

58.0

57.9

57.6

56.7

56.5

56.7

57.5

57.3

56.9

57.2

57.0

57.3

15 - 24

45.0

44.9

44.1

42.2

42.5

42.3

42.8

42.0

41.2

41.0

40.5

40.7

25 and over

62.7

62.7

62.5

61.8

61.5

61.7

62.5

62.4

62.0

62.4

62.3

62.5

Nicaragua g/

49.7

50.2

50.0

61.3

65.6

71.7

72.3

71.5

69.1







15 - 24

43.6

43.9

43.7



56.8

64.4

64.8











25 and over

63.9

62.5

63.4



71.5

76.1

76.7











57.2

58.7

60.3

59.9

59.4

59.1

61.0

61.5

60.9

60.9

60.9l/

60.8l/

15 - 24

38.6

41.3

43.7

42.2

40.7

38.7

41.5

41.8

39.5

38.2

38.2

38.2

25 and over

63.6

64.7

65.9

65.5

65.2

64.8

66.7

67.7

67.5

67.9

67.9

68.0

Paraguay

55.4

57.4

58.2

58.9

57.1

57.3

61.2

59.5

57.9

58.3

60.6m/

60.9m/

15 - 24

52.4

51.0

52.5

55.1

50.7

50.1

53.0

52.4

49.8

48.1





25 and over

68.5

72.2

71.2

70.4

70.2

70.6

74.9

72.5

70.4

71.3





Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Brazil b/

Chile c/

Cuba

Dominican Republic

Statistical annex NATIONAL

Mexico

Panama

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

68.9

70.3

70.4

70.7

71.1

70.9

70.8

70.3

69.6

69.1

68.4n/

69.3n/

15 - 24

54.4

54.6

55.3

55.0

54.7

53.9

53.5

52.6

50.6

49.2

45.5

46.0

25 and over

76.4

78.3

77.9

78.3

78.9

79.0

78.7

78.2

77.8

77.6

77.1

77.8

54.1

56.7

57.7

58.5

58.4

60.7

59.9

59.5

60.4

59.0

58.9

58.4

15 - 24

34.9

37.6

37.9

38.8

38.6

40.8

39.9

39.3

39.1

36.1

35.7

34.3

25 and over

59.3

61.8

63.0

63.8

63.9

66.0

65.3

65.0

66.1

65.3

65.2

64.9

58.9

59.4

60.2

60.0

58.9

59.0

58.7

59.3

60.4

59.2

59.6p/

58.3p/

15 - 24

37.8

37.8

38.3

37.1

35.0

34.5

33.9

34.2

35.4

33.6

34.3

31.8

25 and over

67.0

67.6

68.4

68.2

67.6

67.6

67.3

67.6

68.4

67.7

67.7

66.6

69.4

70.2

69.7

62.1



60.6

62.0

61.6

62.9

64.4

64.3j/

67.1j/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























61.9

62.8

62.1

60.3

59.5

60.1

58.5

58.9

56.0

57.7

57.5q/

59.2q/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























52.2

56.0

54.3







55.7

56.7

56.3

56.8

56.6o/

58.7o/

15 - 24













35.7

35.3

35.9

35.2

35.9

36.1

25 and over













65.7

66.5

67.2

68.1

67.9

70.1

58.0

58.4

58.5

56.3

54.7

54.3

53.3

53.4

54.2

54.6

54.5

56.2

15 - 24













22.4

21.6

21.9

22.8

22.6

24.9

25 and over













65.4

65.9

66.9

67.0

67.0

68.4

59.9

59.9

60.6

59.4

58.4

58.2

58.8

59.1

59.9

58.5

58.8r/

57.6r/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Latin America and the Caribbean h/

57.2

57.6

57.8

57.6

57.5

57.7

58.3

58.2

58.1

57.9

57.3

56.7

Latin America and the Caribbean 15 to 24 h/

46.5

46.6

46.1

45.0

44.7

44.5

42.7

41.8

41.3

40.5

40.3

38.9

Latin America and the Caribbean 25 and over h/

64.9

64.9

65.7

65.5

65.4

65.4

64.3

64.3

64.3

64.2

63.9

63.3

Peru

Uruguay

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean Bahamas

Barbados

Belize

Jamaica

Trinidad and Tobago

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for purposes of comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, data are based on the PNADC series and are not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010, ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). e/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. f/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. g/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. h/ Weighted average. i/ Data from 2nd quarter. j/ Data from May. k/ Data from June (preliminary). l/ Data from August. m/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. n/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). o/ Data from April. p/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). q/ Data from 1st quarter. r/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

93

94

Statistical Annex

TABLE 8. LATIN AMERICA: NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT BY STATUS IN EMPLOYMENT AND YEARS OF EDUCATION, 2005, 2011 AND 20132015 (Percentages) Status in Employment Year and Years of Education

2005

2011

2013

2014

2015

Total

Employees

TOTAL

100

No Employees

Domestic workers

Contributing family workers

Others

Total

Public

Private

Total

Employers

Own-account workers

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

No education

8

4

2

5

13

5

15

10

12

13

1 to 6

32

23

10

26

41

27

44

48

47

32

7 to 12

44

51

43

53

34

42

33

41

37

48

13 or more

15

21

45

15

11

27

8

1

5

8

Total

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

No education

7

4

2

5

12

4

13

10

10

4

1 to 6

25

17

6

20

35

21

37

38

39

41

7 to 12

49

54

40

57

40

45

40

49

44

41

13 or more

19

25

52

19

13

31

10

2

7

14

Total

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

No education

6

3

1

4

10

3

11

8

9

0

1 to 6

24

16

6

19

35

20

37

39

37

21

7 to 12

49

54

38

57

41

45

41

50

46

63

13 or more

21

27

55

20

14

32

11

3

8

16

Total

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

No education

5

3

1

3

10

3

11

8

8

2

1 to 6

24

17

6

19

35

21

37

39

36

39

7 to 12

50

54

38

58

42

45

41

51

48

47

13 or more

21

27

55

20

14

31

11

3

8

12

Total

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

No education

5

3

1

3

9

2

10

7

8

1

1 to 6

24

16

6

19

34

20

36

38

36

40

7 to 12

50

54

37

58

43

45

43

52

48

46

13 or more

21

27

56

20

14

32

12

3

8

12

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

Notes: a/ Selected countries: Argentina, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Data correspond to the official WAP of each country. 2005 data for Guatemala correspond to the survey conducted in 2004. 2015 data for Bolivia (Plurinational State of) correspond to 2014.

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

TABLE 9. LATIN AMERICA: INDEX OF REAL AVERAGE WAGES IN THE FORMAL SECTOR, 2005 - 2016 (2000 = 100) 2015 Country

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Brazil a/

98.9

102.4

103.4

105.5

108.0

109.6

111.2

115.0

117.5

119.4

115.5

0.9

Chile

2016

Change to September -2.1

108.5

110.6

113.7

113.5

118.9

121.5

124.5

128.6

133.5

135.9

138.3

1.9

1.2

Colombia c/

105.0

109.3

109.2

107.7

109.1

112.2

112.4

113.4

116.5

117.0

118.0

0.8

-1.3

Costa Rica d/

100.0

101.6

102.9

100.8

111.3

113.7

120.2

121.7

123.4

125.8

126.8

3.4

4.0

Mexico e/

114.8

116.8

118.1

118.5

117.6

117.0

118.3

118.4

118.5

119.0

120.7

1.3

1.1

1.7

2.5

b/

Nicaragua

103.7

106.0

103.7

99.5

105.3

106.6

106.8

107.1

107.4

109.2

111.6

Panama g/

92.4

97.3

100.3

98.7

99.4

109.1

109.7

113.4







Paraguay h/

98.1

98.7

101.0

100.2

104.8

105.5

108.4

109.1

112.2

113.9

114.0

Peru i/

99.4

103.8

111.0

115.9

120.8

119.8

124.9

130.4

130.0

132.0

135.0

2.2m/

-0.5

83.7

86.8

90.4

94.3

99.6

103.0

107.1

112.7

116.4

120.5

120.9

2.0

1.3

80.7

84.8

85.8

82.2

78.1

76.3

76.5

80.3

75.9





Uruguay

f/

j/

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) k/

l/

Source: ILO, based on official information of the countries. a/ Real regular average income of private sector workers protected by social and labour law. PME - six metropolitan regions (2003=100). Data for the period September 2015 and 2016 correspond to average national output, based on data from PNADC. b/ General index of hourly wages. Beginning in January, 2014, the Index is estimated based on CPI 2013 = 100. The series was spliced to make it comparable. c/ Real manufacturing wage with coffee trilling. Since 2015, the Banco de la República has published a total series based on the methodology 2014 = 100, for which reason the series was spliced to make it comparable. d/ Average wages of employees enrolled in the Costa Rican Social Security Institute (2005 = 100). The data exclude school allowances. e/ Daily average of the base wage of contribution to the Mexican Social Security Institute. f/ Average wages reported to the Nicaraguan Social Security Institute. g/ Average monthly wage of the private sector reported by employers to the Social Security Institute. h/ General index of public and private sector wages. i/ Average monthly income of urban employees (2004 = 100). j/ Real wage index. k/ General index of private sector wages. l/ Average to August. m/ Average to June.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

95

96

Statistical Annex

TABLE 10. LATIN AMERICA: INDEX OF REAL MINIMUM WAGES, 2006 - 2016 (2000 = 100) 2015 Pais

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Bolivia (Pluri. State of) a/

111.1

110.1

108.0

115.9

119.9

130.9

153.6

174.4

197.8

218.6

12.3

5.9

Brazil a/

145.3

154.7

160.8

172.7

182.0

182.1

197.5

202.7

203.6

203.3

1.1

5.8

Chile a/

116.3

118.4

118.3

124.7

126.6

128.7

132.3

138.7

144.0

147.8

3.0

3.8

Colombia a/

109.9

110.7

110.1

113.7

115.1

115.2

118.8

121.2

123.1

122.6

-0.2

1.7

Costa Rica a/

101.6

102.9

102.6

107.8

110.4

112.2

114.4

115.7

118.7

123.2

3.7

0.7

Dominican Republic b/

89.5

93.7

87.7

93.8

93.4

94.6

97.2

100.2

102.6

110.0

12.5

-0.3

Ecuador

Change December to September

Latin America

105.3

109.4

118.7

123.0

130.8

137.7

144.9

153.6

158.6

158.8

0.8

2.2

El Salvador b/

90.1

92.4

92.4

101.5

100.5

100.4

101.5

102.6

107.6

112.8

5.1

1.9

Guatemala a/

117.2

114.4

107.8

112.3

115.3

121.6

124.1

124.2

125.5

128.1

2.8

0.5

Honduras b/

127.8

132.7

132.3

287.8

275.1

274.3

275.3

276.5

273.5

279.2

2.9

2.5

Mexico a/

101.6

101.6

100.5

99.8

100.5

101.2

101.3

101.8

101.7

104.5

4.9

2.7

Nicaragua b/

128.5

131.6

133.8

156.6

174.6

182.3

191.2

202.2

212.1

226.5

10.0

7.3

Panama b/

107.6

105.6

105.9

103.3

109.9

103.8

113.0

108.6

120.3

120.1

-0.5

4.1

Paraguay a/

106.7

103.9

101.3

102.0

102.5

105.2

103.9

101.2

104.3

102.7

-2.0

-2.4

Peru a/

112.1

111.8

114.5

111.2

110.1

120.7

133.6

135.6

131.4

126.9

-3.3

10.9

Uruguay a/

153.3

159.6

176.9

194.4

196.8

227.7

252.8

256.1

266.0

273.3

2.5

2.9

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) a/

116.9

124.2

119.9

111.7

113.2

107.3

113.0

112.6

116.9

100.0





Average c/

114.2

116.3

117.2

131.3

133.9

138.0

145.2

148.7

153.4

156.4

3.5

3.1

Average d/

123.9

128.5

130.7

138.2

142.8

144.1

152.9

156.3

157.8

158.1

2.2

4.4

a/

Source: ILO, based on official data of the countries.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

a/ b/ c/ d/

National minimum wage. Lowest minimum wage in manufacturing. Simple average. Weighted average.

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

TABLE 11. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, 2006-2015 (Annual growth rates at constant prices) Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016 a/

-1.8

Latin America Argentina

8.1



















Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

4.8

4.6

6.1

3.4

4.1

5.2

5.1

6.8

5.5

4.8

4.5

Brazil

4.0

6.1

5.1

-0.1

7.5

3.9

1.9

3.0

0.1

-3.9

-3.4

Chile

4.6

4.6

3.7

-1.0

5.8

5.8

5.5

4.0

1.9

2.1

1.6

Colombia

6.7

6.9

3.5

1.7

4.0

6.6

4.0

4.9

4.4

3.1

2.3

Costa Rica

8.8

7.9

2.7

-1.0

5.0

4.5

5.2

2.0

3.0

3.7

4.2

Cuba

12.1

7.3

4.1

1.5

2.4

2.8

3.0

2.7

1.0

4.3

0.8

Dominican Republic

10.7

8.5

3.2

0.9

8.3

3.1

2.8

4.7

7.6

7.0

6.5

Ecuador

4.4

2.2

6.4

0.6

3.5

7.9

5.6

4.6

3.7

0.3

-2.5

El Salvador

3.9

3.8

1.3

-3.1

1.4

2.2

1.9

1.8

1.4

2.5

2.2

Guatemala

5.4

6.3

3.3

0.5

2.9

4.2

3.0

3.7

4.2

4.1

3.3

Honduras

6.6

6.2

4.2

-2.4

3.7

3.8

4.1

2.8

3.1

3.6

3.5

Mexico

5.0

3.2

1.4

-4.7

5.2

3.9

4.0

1.4

2.2

2.5

2.1

Nicaragua

4.2

5.3

2.9

-2.8

3.2

6.2

5.6

4.5

4.6

4.9

4.5

Panama

8.5

12.1

8.6

1.6

5.8

11.8

9.2

6.6

6.1

5.8

5.4

Paraguay

4.8

5.4

6.4

-4.0

13.1

4.3

-1.2

14.0

4.7

3.0

4.0

Peru

7.5

8.5

9.1

1.1

8.3

6.3

6.1

5.9

2.4

3.3

3.9

Uruguay

4.1

6.5

7.2

4.2

7.8

5.2

3.5

4.6

3.2

1.0

0.6

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep of)

9.9

8.8

5.3

-3.2

-1.5

4.2

5.6

1.3

-3.9

-5.7

-8.0

Antigua and Barbuda

12.8

9.3

0.0

-12.0

-7.0

-1.8

3.8

-0.2

4.6

4.1

3.5

Bahamas

2.5

1.4

-2.3

-4.2

1.5

0.6

3.1

0.0

-0.5

-1.7

0.5

Barbados

5.7

1.7

0.3

-1.5

0.3

0.8

0.3

-0.1

0.2

0.9

1.6

Belize

4.6

1.1

3.2

0.8

3.3

2.1

3.7

1.3

4.1

1.2

0.8

Dominica

4.7

6.4

7.1

-1.2

0.7

-0.2

-1.1

0.8

4.2

-1.8

4.2

Granada

-4.0

6.1

0.9

-6.6

-0.5

0.8

-1.2

2.4

5.7

5.1

1.9

Guyana

5.1

7.0

2.0

3.3

4.4

5.4

4.8

5.2

3.8

3.0

4.4

Haiti

2.3

3.3

0.8

3.1

-5.5

5.5

2.9

4.2

2.8

1.2

1.5

Jamaica

2.9

17.1

-0.7

-4.4

-1.5

1.7

-0.6

0.5

0.7

0.8

1.2

Saint Kitts and Nevis

1.8

-0.2

6.3

-3.0

-2.2

2.4

-0.6

6.2

6.0

3.8

4.7

San Vincent and the Grenadines

7.7

2.4

2.5

-2.1

-3.4

-0.4

1.4

1.8

1.2

1.6

2.3

Saint Lucia

6.8

1.0

4.2

-0.4

-1.7

0.2

-1.4

0.1

0.4

2.4

1.2

Suriname

11.4

5.1

4.1

3.0

5.2

5.3

3.1

2.9

1.8

-2.0

-4.0

Trinidad and Tobago

14.4

4.5

3.4

-4.4

3.3

-0.3

1.3

2.3

-1.0

-2.1

-2.5

Latin America and the Caribbean

5.4

5.9

4.1

-1.7

6.2

4.5

2.8

2.9

0.9

-0.5

-0.9

The Caribbean

Source: ILO, based on information from the ECLAC database (information consulted in November 2016) and ECLAC (2016). Update of Growth Projections in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2016 - 2017. October 2016. Santiago de Chile: ECLAC a/ Data estimated to October 2016.

Statistical annex NATIONAL

97

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

Statistical annex URBAN TABLE 1. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: URBAN UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, BY COUNTRY, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America Argentina a/























Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

8.0

7.7

4.4

4.9



3.8

3.2

4.0

3.5







Brazil

9.6

9.3

8.1

9.3



7.5

8.2

8.0

7.8

9.3

9.2

12.8

b/

9.3q/

Chile c/

8.2

7.6

8.2

10.2

8.5

7.4

6.7

6.2

6.7

6.4

6.6

7.0

Colombia d/

13.2

12.2

12.1

13.2

12.7

11.8

11.4

10.7

10.0

9.8

10.1

10.6

Costa Rica e/

6.0

4.8

4.8

7.6

8.5

10.1

10.0

9.2

9.6

9.7

9.7

9.7

Cuba f/

1.9

1.8

1.6

1.7

2.5

3.2

3.5

3.3

2.7

2.4





Dominican Republic n/

6.2

5.4

5.3

5.8

5.7

6.7

7.2

7.9

7.2

6.9

7.4w/

6.2w/

Ecuador g/

8.1

6.9

6.9

8.5

7.6

6.0

4.9

4.7

5.1

5.4

5.3

6.9

El Salvador h/

5.7

5.8

5.5

7.1

6.8

6.6

6.2

5.6

6.7

6.5





Guatemala









4.8

3.1

4.0

3.8

4.0

3.2

3.0r/

4.0r/

Honduras

5.2

4.1

3.9

4.9

6.4

6.8

5.6

6.0

7.5

8.8

8.8s/

9.0s/

Mexico

4.4

4.0

4.0

4.3

5.9

5.9

5.6

5.4

5.4

5.3

4.7

4.8

Nicaragua j/

7.6

7.3

8.0

9.9

10.1

6.5

7.9

7.8

8.4







Panama k/

10.4

7.8

6.5

7.9

7.7

5.4

4.8

4.7

5.4

5.8

5.8t/

6.4t/

Paraguay l/

8.9

7.2

7.4

8.2

7.0

6.5

6.1

5.9

7.4

6.3

7.6u/

8.3u/

Peru m/

6.4

6.3

6.0

5.9

5.3

5.1

4.7

4.8

4.5

4.4

5.0v/

5.4v/

Uruguay

11.3

9.8

8.3

8.2

7.5

6.6

6.7

6.7

6.9

7.8

7.7

8.3

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) f/

10.0

8.4

7.3

7.9

8.7

8.3

8.1

7.8

7.3

7.0

7.3x/

7.5x/

Bahamas f/

7.6

7.9

8.7

15.3



15.9

14.4

15.8

14.6

13.4

12.0r/

12.7r/

Barbados f/

8.7

7.4

8.1

10.0

10.7

11.2

11.6

11.6

12.3

11.3

11.8y/

9.3y/

Belize

i/

The Caribbean

9.4

10.3

8.2

13.1

12.5



15.3

14.3

11.6

10.1

10.1

8.0w/

Jamaica o/

10.3

9.9

10.6

11.4

12.4

12.7

13.9

15.2

13.7

13.5

13.5

13.3

Trinidad and Tobago f/

6.2

5.6

4.6

5.3

5.9

5.1

5.0

3.7

3.3

3.4

3.4z/

4.1z/

Latin America and the Caribbean p/

8.2

7.7

7.1

8.2

7.7

7.1

7.2

7.0

6.9

7.3

7.5

9.2

f/

w/

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, data based on PNADC, coverage of 20 metropolitan regions, series not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Municipal capital series. Includes hidden unemployment. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010, ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ National total. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. h/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. i/ Urban series (high, medium and low urbanization). j/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. k/ Includes hidden unemployment. l/ EPH urban national. m/ ENAHO urban national. n/ ENFT urban national. o/ National total. Includes hidden unemployment. p/ Weighted average. Excludes hidden unemployment in Colombia, Ecuador Jamaica and Panama. q/ Data from 2nd quarter. r/ Data from May. s/ Data from June (preliminary). t/ Data from August. u/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. v/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). w/ Data from April. x/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). y/ Data from 1st quarter. z/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex URBAN

99

100

Statistical Annex

TABLE 2. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: URBAN UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, BY COUNTRY AND SEX, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America Argentina a/

10.2





















Men

8.4





















8.5

Women

12.5





















10.5

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

8.0

7.7

4.4

4.9



3.8

3.2

4.0

3.5







Men

7.1

6.3

3.3

3.7



3.1

2.2

3.2

2.5







Women

9.1

9.4

5.7

6.4



4.7

4.4

5.1

4.9







9.6

9.3

8.1

9.3



7.5

8.2

8.0

7.8

9.3

9.2

12.8

Brazil b/ Men

7.5

7.1

6.0

7.1



5.5

6.8

6.6

6.7

8.1

8.0

11.4

Women

12.2

12.0

10.6

12.1



9.9

9.9

9.7

9.1

10.7

10.5

14.6

Chile c/

8.2

7.6

8.2

10.2

8.5

7.4

6.7

6.2

6.7

6.4

6.6

7.0

Men

7.2

6.8

7.3

9.7

7.6

6.5

5.7

5.5

6.4

6.1

6.0

6.7

Women

9.7

8.8

9.7

10.9

9.8

8.7

8.0

7.0

7.0

6.9

7.2

7.3

Colombia d/

13.2

12.2

12.1

13.2

12.7

11.8

11.4

10.7

10.0

9.8

10.1

10.6

Men

10.7

10.2

10.2

11.1

10.6

9.6

9.2

8.7

8.1

7.9

8.2

8.7

Women

16.2

14.7

14.5

15.7

15.3

14.4

14.0

12.9

12.2

11.9

12.3

12.9

Costa Rica e/

9.7

6.0

4.8

4.8

7.6

8.5

10.1

10.0

9.2

9.6

9.7

9.7

Men

4.5

3.4

4.3

6.5

7.5

8.6

8.9

8.3

8.3

8.3

8.4

8.8

Women

8.2

6.8

5.6

9.2

10.1

12.4

11.5

10.5

11.3

11.7

11.6

11.0

Cuba f/

1.9

1.8

1.6

1.7

2.5

3.2

3.5

3.3

2.7

2.4





Men

1.7

1.7

1.3

1.5

2.4

3.0

3.4

3.1

2.4

2.3





Women

2.2

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.7

3.5

3.6

3.5

3.1

2.6





6.2

5.4

5.3

5.8

5.7

6.7

7.2

7.9

7.2

6.9

7.4w/

6.2w/

Men

4.4

4.0

3.8

4.5

4.8

5.4

5.8

5.9

5.4

5.0

5.9

4.3

Women

9.0

7.8

7.6

7.8

7.1

8.5

9.3

10.7

9.8

9.6

9.4

9.0

Ecuador g/

8.1

6.9

6.9

8.5

7.6

6.0

4.9

4.7

5.1

5.4

5.3

6.9

Men

6.2

5.8

5.5

7.1

6.3

5.1

4.5

4.2

4.5

4.4

4.3

5.5

Women

10.6

8.4

8.8

10.4

9.3

7.2

5.5

5.4

6.0

6.7

6.7

8.8

El Salvador h/

5.7

5.8

5.5

7.1

6.8

6.6

6.2

5.6

6.7

6.5





Men

7.6

7.9

7.2

9.0

8.3

8.7

8.0

6.8

8.5

8.1





Women

3.6

3.4

3.5

4.9

5.1

4.1

4.2

4.2

4.6

4.6





Guatemala









4.8

3.1

4.0

3.8

4.0

3.2

3.0r/

4.0r/

Men









4.4

2.8

3.7

3.9

3.9

2.9

2.7

3.5

Women









5.2

3.7

4.5

3.7

4.2

3.6

3.5

4.6

Honduras

5.2

4.1

3.9

4.9

6.4

6.8

5.6

6.0

7.5

8.8

8.8s/

9.0s/

Men

5.2

3.8

4.2

4.6

5.9

6.2

5.3

5.7

6.9

7.0





Women

5.3

4.4

4.2

5.2

7.1

7.6

6.1

6.3

8.3

10.9





Mexico i/

4.0

4.0

4.3

5.9

5.9

5.6

5.4

5.4

5.3

4.7

4.8

4.4

Men

3.8

3.9

4.3

6.0

6.1

5.8

5.5

5.4

5.4

4.7

4.8

4.4

Women

4.1

4.3

4.3

5.7

5.5

5.5

5.3

5.3

5.2

4.7

4.8

4.3

Nicaragua j/

7.6

7.3

8.0

9.9

10.1

6.5

7.9

7.8

8.4







Men

8.8

8.0

8.4

9.8

10.5

6.7

7.9

8.1

8.3







Women

6.1

6.3

7.6

10.0

9.8

6.3

7.9

7.4

8.4







Panama k/

10.4

7.8

6.5

7.9

7.7

5.4

4.8

4.7

5.4

5.8

5.8t/

6.4t/

Men

8.6

6.5

5.4

6.3

6.5

5.3

4.2

3.9

4.7

5.1

5.1

5.7

Women

12.9

9.6

7.9

9.9

9.3

5.4

5.5

5.7

6.4

6.7

6.7

7.5

Paraguay l/

8.9

7.2

7.4

8.2

7.0

6.5

6.1

5.9

7.4

6.3

7.6u/

8.3u/

Men

7.7

6.2

6.6

7.9

6.3

5.1

5.1

5.8

5.9

6.4

6.6

6.6

Women

10.4

8.4

8.5

8.7

7.8

8.2

7.3

6.1

9.2

6.3

8.9

10.1

Peru m/

6.4

6.3

6.0

5.9

5.3

5.1

4.7

4.8

4.5

4.4

5.0v/

5.4v/

Men

5.6

5.7

5.3

5.6

4.6

4.8

4.0

4.1

4.2

4.2

4.9

5.2

Women

7.5

7.0

6.9

6.2

6.0

5.5

5.5

5.6

5.0

4.5

5.1

5.7

Uruguay

11.3

9.8

8.3

8.2

7.5

6.6

6.7

6.7

6.9

7.8

7.7

8.3

Men

8.7

7.2

6.1

6.1

5.7

5.3

5.3

5.4

5.5

6.8

6.6

7.0

Women

14.2

12.7

10.8

10.5

9.5

8.1

8.3

8.3

8.5

9.0

9.0

9.8

10.0

8.4

7.3

7.9

8.7

8.3

8.1

7.8

7.3

7.0

7.3x/

7.5x/

Men

9.2

7.9

7.0

7.4

8.5

7.7

7.4

7.1

6.7

6.6

6.7

6.9

Women

11.3

9.3

7.8

8.5

9.0

9.2

9.0

8.8

8.1

7.7

8.2

8.4

Dominican Republic n/

Statistical annex URBAN

9.3q/

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) f/

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean Bahamas f/

7.6

7.9

8.7

15.3



15.9

14.4

15.8

14.6

13.4

12.0r/

12.7r/

Men

6.9

6.7

7.7









15.6

13.5

11.8

11.0

11.1

Women

8.4

9.1

9.7









16.0

15.8

15.0

12.9

14.5

Barbados f/

8.7

7.4

8.1

10.0

10.7

11.2

11.6

11.6

12.3

11.3

11.8y/

9.3y/

Men

7.7

6.4

6.9

10.1

10.9

9.8

10.9

11.7

11.8

12.3

12.1

8.7

Women

9.8

8.5

9.5

9.8

10.6

12.6

12.3

11.6

12.8

10.3

11.6

10.0

Belize f/

9.4

10.3

8.2

13.1

12.5



15.3

14.3

11.6

10.1

10.1w/

8.0w/

Men

6.2

7.2









10.5

10.6

6.3

6.8

6.8

4.3

Women

15.0

15.8









22.3

20.0

19.9

15.4

15.1

13.6

Jamaica o/

10.3

9.9

10.6

11.4

12.4

12.7

13.9

15.2

13.7

13.5

13.5

13.3

Men

7.0

6.2

7.3

8.5

9.2

9.3

10.5

11.2

10.1

9.9

10.1

9.8

Women

14.5

14.5

14.6

14.8

16.2

16.7

18.1

20.1

18.1

17.8

17.6

17.3

6.2

5.6

4.6

5.3

5.9

5.1

5.0

3.7

3.3

3.4

3.4z/

4.1z/

Men

























Women

























Latin America and the Caribbean p/

8.2

7.7

7.1

8.2

7.7

7.1

7.2

7.0

6.9

7.3

7.5

9.2

Latin America and the Caribbean Men p/

6.8

6.3

5.9

7.0

6.5

5.9

6.3

6.1

6.1

6.5

6.6

8.2

Latin America and the Caribbean Women p/

10.1

9.5

8.8

9.9

9.3

8.6

8.5

8.2

7.9

8.3

8.6

10.5

Trinidad and Tobago f/

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, PNADC data, coverage 20 metropolitan regions, series not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Municipal capital series. Includes hidden unemployment. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010 ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ National total. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. h/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. i/ Urban series (high, medium and low urbanization). j/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. k/ Includes hidden unemployment. l/ EPH, urban national. m/ ENAHO, urban national. n/ ENFT, urban national. o/ National total. Includes hidden unemployment. p/ Weighted averages. Excludes hidden unemployment in Colombia, Ecuador, Jamaica and Panama. q/ Data from 2nd quarter. r/ Data from May. s/ Data from June (preliminary). t/ Data to August. u/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. v/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). w/ Data from April. x/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). y/ Data from 1st quarter. z/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex URBAN

101

102

Statistical Annex

TABLE 3. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: URBAN UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, BY COUNTRY AND AGE GROUP, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America Argentina a/

10.2

8.5

7.9

8.7

7.7

7.2

7.2

7.1

7.3

6.5



9.3q/

15 - 24

23.7

20.3

18.8

21.2

19.4

18.7

18.3

19.4

18.8







25 and over

7.3

6.1

5.7

6.3

5.6

5.1

5.3

4.9

5.2







8.0

7.7

4.4

4.9



3.8

3.2

4.0

3.5







15 - 24

14.4

19.2

10.1

8.8



8.8

6.1

9.6

8.3







25 and over

6.1

4.7

2.9

4.0



2.4

2.5

2.8

2.4







9.6

9.3

8.1

9.3

8.4

7.5

8.2

8.0

7.8

9.3

9.2

12.8

15 - 24

20.1

18.8

17.4

19.7

18.3

16.8

19.0

18.8

19.3

23.0

22.9

31.5

25 and over

6.3

6.4

5.4

6.5

5.8

5.1

5.8

5.7

5.4

6.6

6.5

9.2

8.2

7.6

8.2

10.2

8.5

7.4

6.7

6.2

6.7

6.4

6.6

7.0

15 - 24

19.1

18.7

20.6

23.3

19.2

18.1

16.8

16.5

16.9

15.8

15.9

16.6

25 and over

6.5

5.9

6.3

8.2

6.7

5.7

5.2

4.6

5.2

5.1

5.3

5.7

Colombia d/

13.2

12.2

12.1

13.2

12.7

11.8

11.4

10.7

10.0

9.8

10.1

10.6

15 - 24

21.2

18.8

23.5

25.2

24.7

23.2

21.8

20.3

19.7

18.5

20.0

20.8

25 and over

9.1

7.1

8.6

9.4

9.0

8.2

8.1

7.7

7.1

7.1

7.9

8.4

Costa Rica e/

6.0

4.8

4.8

7.6

8.5

10.1

10.0

9.2

9.6

9.7

9.7

9.7

15 - 24

15.5

11.8

11.3

18.0

21.4

22.1

23.0

23.3

26.0

23.6

23.0

24.1 6.9

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Brazil b/

Chile c/

25 and over Cuba f/ 15 - 24 25 and over

2.8

3.2

5.2

5.6

7.6

7.3

6.2

6.1

7.0

7.1

1.8

1.6

1.7

2.5

3.2

3.5

3.3

2.7

2.4





















































6.2

5.4

5.3

5.8

5.7

6.7

7.2

7.9

7.2

6.9

7.4w/

6.2w/

15 - 24

11.9

13.2

12.1

13.7

11.7

15.3

15.9

18.5

14.4

15.7

17.7

15.8

25 and over

4.8

3.5

3.5

4.0

4.3

4.6

5.3

5.4

5.7

5.0

5.2

4.2

Ecuador g/

8.1

6.9

6.9

8.5

7.6

6.0

4.9

4.7

5.1

5.4

5.3

6.9

15 - 24

18.2

16.7

16.3

18.6

18.6

15.6

13.6

13.4

13.9

13.9

13.7

16.7

25 and over

5.3

4.9

4.5

6.1

5.2

4.1

3.3

3.1

3.5

3.8

3.7

5.1

5.7

5.8

5.5

7.1

6.8

6.6

6.2

5.6

6.7

6.5





15 - 24

13.2

11.6

12.3

15.8

15.7

14.3

14.9

14.2

17.1

15.5





25 and over

3.9

4.6

3.9

5.2

4.7

4.8

4.3

3.8

4.5

4.5



… 4.0r/

Dominican Republic n/

El Salvador h/

Guatemala









4.8

3.1

4.0

3.8

4.0

3.2

3.0r/

15 - 24









8.3

7.0

7.9

8.2

9.3

7.5

6.9

8.6

25 and over









3.8

1.9

2.7

2.4

2.4

1.8

1.8

2.4 9.0s/

Honduras

5.2

4.1

3.9

4.9

6.4

6.8

5.6

6.0

7.5

8.8

8.8s/

15 - 24

8.9

7.4

8.2

9.8

12.7

14.0

11.6

11.2

13.7

19.3





25 and over

3.9

3.0

2.9

3.3

4.4

4.5

3.8

4.5

5.6

5.3





4.0

4.0

4.3

5.9

5.9

5.6

5.4

5.4

5.3

4.7

4.8

4.4

8.0

8.2

8.7

11.6

11.1

11.0

10.7

10.8

10.9

9.8

10.1

9.2 3.4

Mexico i/ 15 - 24 25 and over

2.9

3.0

3.2

4.6

4.6

4.3

4.1

4.2

4.1

3.7

3.7

Nicaragua j/

7.6

7.3

8.0

9.9

10.1

6.5

7.9

7.8

8.4







15 - 24

13.6

11.5

14.0



16.6

10.7

12.4











25 and over

Statistical annex URBAN

3.5 1.9

5.7

6.0

6.2



7.8

5.2

6.1











Panama k/

10.4

7.8

6.5

7.9

7.7

5.4

4.8

4.7

5.4

5.8

5.8t/

6.4t/

15 - 24

23.4

18.9

16.6

18.8

18.0

15.6

12.7

12.6

15.3

15.8

15.8

16.9

25 and over

7.5

5.2

4.1

5.6

5.6

3.6

3.3

3.2

3.7

4.1

4.1

4.6

Paraguay l/

8.9

7.2

7.4

8.2

7.0

6.5

6.1

5.9

7.4

6.3

7.6u/

8.3u/

15 - 24

16.9

15.9

15.1

17.1

15.8

15.8

13.8

12.7

16.3

14.4

25 and over

5.7

4.3

4.4

5.0

4.2

3.6

3.4

4.0

4.6

4.0

6.4

6.3

6.0

5.9

5.3

5.1

4.7

4.8

4.5

4.4

5.0v/

5.4v/

15 - 24

13.3

13.8

12.9

12.4

12.4

12.3

11.8

11.2

12.4

10.8

12.6

14.2

25 and over

4.3

3.9

3.9

3.9

3.2

3.0

2.7

3.2

2.5

2.8

3.3

3.4

11.3

9.8

8.3

8.2

7.5

6.6

6.7

6.7

6.9

7.8

7.7

8.3

29.0

25.9

23.2

22.0

21.5

18.7

19.3

20.2

20.4

23.7

23.3

25.1

Peru m/

Uruguay 15 - 24 25 and over

7.6

6.5

5.3

5.5

4.7

4.2

4.3

4.2

4.4

4.9

4.9

5.3

10.0

8.4

7.3

7.9

8.7

8.3

8.1

7.8

7.3

7.0

7.3x/

7.5x/

15 - 24

17.8

15.4

14.2

15.6

17.6

17.5

17.1

16.5

15.0

14.6

14.2

15.9

25 and over

8.0

6.7

5.8

6.1

6.7

6.5

6.3

6.1

5.8

5.5

6.0

6.1

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) f/

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Bahamas f/

7.6

7.9

8.7

15.3



15.9

14.4

15.8

14.6

13.4

12.0r/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Barbados f/

8.7

7.4

8.1

10.0

10.7

11.2

11.6

11.6

12.3

11.3

11.8y/

9.3y/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean

Belize f/

12.7r/

9.4

10.3

8.2

13.1

12.5



15.3

14.3

11.6

10.1

10.1w/

8.0w/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























10.3

9.9

10.6

11.4

12.4

12.7

13.9

15.2

13.7

13.5

13.5

13.3 31.6

Jamaica o/ 15 - 24













33.5

37.8

34.3

32.8

32.8

25 and over













10.4

11.1

10.1

10.1

10.1

9.9

6.2

5.6

4.6

5.3

5.9

5.1

5.0

3.7

3.3

3.4

3.4z/

4.1z/

Trinidad and Tobago f/ 15 - 24

























25 and over

























Latin America and the Caribbean p/

8.2

7.7

7.1

8.2

7.7

7.1

7.2

7.0

6.9

7.3

7.5

9.2

Latin America and the Caribbean 15 to 24 p/

17.1

16.0

15.6

17.6

16.7

15.8

16.3

16.2

16.4

17.2

17.8

21.7

Latin America and the Caribbean 25 and over p/

5.9

5.4

5.1

6.1

5.7

5.1

5.3

5.2

5.1

5.4

5.6

6.9

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, PNADC data, coverage 20 metropolitan regions, series not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Municipal capital series. Includes hidden unemployment. Data from 2006 and 2007, ages 15-24, correspond to 15-28 and metropolitan region coverage. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010 ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f National total. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. h/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. i/ Urban series (high, medium and low urbanization). j/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. k/ Includes hidden unemployment. l/ EPH urban national. m/ ENAHO urban national. n/ ENFT urban national. o/ National total. Includes hidden unemployment. p/ Weighted averages. q/ Data from 2nd quarter. r/ Data from May. s/ Data from June (preliminary). t/ Data to August. u/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. v/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). w/ Data from April. x/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). y/ Data from 1st quarter. z/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex URBAN

103

104

Statistical Annex

TABLE 4. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: URBAN LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE, BY COUNTRY AND SEX, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America Argentina a/

60.3





















57.8q/

Men

73.3





















69.6

Women

49.0





















47.2

58.7

57.1

58.8

60.5



59.7

57.0

58.4

59.4







Men

67.0

67.0

67.5

68.6



69.1

65.9

68.0

68.5







Women

51.0

48.0

50.8

52.7



50.9

49.0

49.7

50.9







Brazil b/

61.1

61.0

61.1

61.4



59.6

63.1

63.4

62.7

62.8

62.8

63.6

Men

71.1

70.9

71.1

71.1



69.9

74.0

74.0

73.1

73.1

73.0

73.6

Women

52.0

52.1

52.2

52.7



50.4

53.8

54.2

53.7

53.9

54.0

54.8

Chile c/

55.0

55.4

56.6

56.5

59.1

60.3

59.9

59.7

60.0

60.0

59.8

59.6

Men

70.8

70.8

71.4

70.8

72.0

72.5

71.6

71.3

71.1

71.2

71.2

71.1

Women

40.2

40.9

42.8

43.1

46.9

48.8

48.8

48.8

49.5

49.4

49.3

48.9

Colombia d/

60.6

60.2

60.6

62.9

64.1

65.2

66.0

65.8

66.0

66.3

66.0

65.7

Men

71.2

70.7

71.0

72.8

73.5

74.4

75.0

74.5

74.9

75.0

74.7

74.6

Women

51.0

50.8

51.2

54.0

55.6

56.9

57.9

57.8

58.0

58.4

58.1

57.7

Costa Rica e/

58.2

58.5

58.6

58.1

62.1

60.3

64.1

63.0

63.9

62.7

63.2

58.7

Men

72.5

72.5

71.1

70.4

75.6

73.3

75.6

74.4

76.0

74.0

74.3

71.1

Women

45.3

45.7

47.2

46.7

48.9

47.5

52.9

52.0

52.2

51.6

52.3

46.5

Cuba f/

72.1

73.7

74.7

75.4

74.9

76.1

74.2

72.9

71.9

69.1





Men

86.0

86.7

87.8

88.4

87.7

90.0

89.5

87.1

86.2

82.9





Women

56.7

59.3

60.2

61.0

60.5

60.5

57.4

57.3

56.3

54.2





50.6

50.5

51.0

49.2

50.5

51.8

52.6

52.8

53.4

54.0

53.5w/

54.9w/

Men

63.9

64.2

63.5

62.6

62.5

62.8

63.3

63.9

64.4

65.3

64.9

65.3

Women

38.3

37.6

39.4

36.8

39.3

41.4

42.5

42.3

43.0

43.5

42.9

44.9

Ecuador g/

59.1

69.1

67.7

66.3

64.2

62.2

62.8

61.8

62.2

64.1

63.9

65.9

Men

71.2

82.3

80.9

79.5

77.4

75.9

76.8

76.0

76.9

78.1

78.0

78.4

Women

47.7

56.9

55.5

54.2

52.3

49.9

50.1

48.9

48.7

51.2

51.0

54.5

El Salvador h/

53.9

63.6

64.1

64.3

64.4

63.7

64.6

65.1

64.6

63.5





Men

63.6

78.4

78.6

77.7

77.9

77.9

78.2

77.6

77.8

77.0





Women

46.0

52.2

52.6

53.6

53.7

52.1

53.7

55.1

54.1

52.3





Guatemala









56.6

61.0

65.5

61.9

62.7

62.9

62.6r/

63.5r/

Men









69.9

80.1

83.2

79.8

79.0

81.7

81.6

79.9

Women









45.0

44.3

50.0

46.3

48.5

46.2

45.8

49.0

Honduras

52.1

51.0

52.7

53.1

53.7

52.5

51.2

54.3

55.7

56.9

56.9s/

57.4s/

Men

64.9

64.4

64.8

65.5

64.3

64.5

62.5

66.1

68.5

68.0

68.0

69.1

Women

41.6

40.0

42.7

42.9

44.8

42.6

41.7

44.7

45.2

48.0

48.0

47.8

Mexico i/

61.5

61.4

61.3

61.1

60.8

61.0

61.6

61.6

60.9

60.8

60.6

60.8

Men

79.7

79.4

79.0

77.9

77.7

77.5

77.8

77.6

77.2

76.9

76.8

76.7

Women

45.1

45.7

45.7

46.1

45.7

46.1

47.1

47.2

46.3

46.4

46.2

46.6

Nicaragua j/

53.1

50.7

53.8

67.0

71.4

74.2

74.8

74.9

73.1







Men

63.5

61.1

64.0

78.4

81.4

83.9

83.5

83.6

81.8







Women

44.1

41.8

45.0

57.0

62.4

65.7

67.1

67.2

65.3







Panama k/

62.8

62.6

64.4

64.4

64.0

63.2

63.6

64.1

64.3

64.5

64.5t/

64.6t/

Men

76.8

76.0

78.9

78.6

78.3

77.8

77.9

77.6

77.7

76.6

76.6

76.7

Women

49.9

50.4

51.4

51.7

51.1

50.3

51.1

51.9

52.6

53.5

53.5

53.5

Paraguay l/

57.9

59.6

61.5

62.3

60.1

60.0

63.8

62.1

61.8

61.8

65.7u/

66.4u/

Men

70.0

70.5

73.7

73.4

70.8

69.6

73.0

70.6

72.4

72.5

75.6

72.9

Women

47.0

49.6

50.2

51.6

50.0

51.2

55.1

54.6

52.5

52.3

56.8

60.4

Peru m/

68.5

71.0

71.1

71.2

71.6

71.6

71.5

71.2

70.0

69.4

68.9v/

70.5v/

Men

78.6

80.4

80.7

80.8

80.5

80.6

80.4

80.2

79.2

79.1

78.3

79.3

Women

58.7

62.0

61.9

61.9

63.2

62.9

62.9

62.6

61.1

60.1

59.7

61.8

Uruguay

60.8

62.9

62.8

63.6

63.5

65.0

64.0

63.8

64.9

64.0

63.8

63.8

Men

71.6

73.7

72.8

73.4

73.0

74.1

73.0

73.4

73.9

72.6

72.4

71.9

Women

51.7

53.8

54.5

55.4

55.5

57.0

56.2

55.3

56.9

56.2

56.1

56.5

65.5

64.9

64.9

65.1

64.5

64.4

63.9

64.3

65.1

63.7

64.3x/

63.0x/

Men

80.4

79.8

79.9

79.4

79.0

78.6

77.8

78.1

79.1

77.9

78.5

78.1

Women

50.7

50.0

50.1

50.9

50.1

50.3

50.1

50.6

51.3

49.8

50.3

48.2

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Statistical annex URBAN

Dominican Republic n/

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) f/

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean Bahamas f/

75.1

76.2

76.3

73.4



72.1

72.5

73.2

73.7

74.3

73.0r/

76.9r/

Men



82.8

83.0







75.8

76.9

77.8

79.5

78.5

81.2

Women



70.6

70.8







69.5

70.1

70.1

71.7

71.5

72.0

Barbados f/

67.9

67.8

67.6

67.0

66.6

67.6

66.2

66.7

63.9

65.1

65.2y/

65.3y/

Men

73.4

74.3

73.3

72.3

71.8

72.7

71.9

72.0

67.7

68.7

69.5

69.6

Women

62.8

61.9

62.5

62.2

62.0

63.0

61.0

62.0

60.4

61.7

61.3

61.4

Belize f/

57.6

61.2

59.2







65.8

64.2

63.6

63.2

63.0w/

63.7w/

Men

75.6

77.7









79.2

78.4

78.2

77.8

76.5

77.4

Women

40.4

43.3









52.6

50.1

49.2

48.8

49.6

50.3

Jamaica o/

64.7

64.9

65.5

63.5

62.4

62.1

61.9

63.0

62.8

63.1

63.0

64.8

Men

73.5

73.5

73.9

71.8

70.4

70.1

69.2

70.0

70.0

70.3

70.1

71.2

Women

56.3

56.5

57.5

55.7

54.8

55.0

54.9

56.3

55.9

56.3

56.1

58.6

63.9

63.5

63.5

62.7

62.1

61.3

61.9

61.4

61.9

60.6

60.9z/

60.1z/

Men

























Women

























Latin America and the Caribbean p/

61.1

61.4

61.5

61.9

61.6

61.6

63.1

63.0

62.7

62.5

62.3

62.7

Latin America and the Caribbean - Men p/

73.8

74.0

74.0

74.0

73.7

73.7

75.3

75.1

74.7

74.4

74.2

74.4

Latin America and the Caribbean - Women p/

49.6

50.0

50.2

50.9

50.6

50.4

52.0

52.1

51.8

51.7

51.5

52.1

Trinidad and Tobago f/

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, PNADC data, coverage 20 metropolitan regions, series not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Municipal capital series. Includes hidden unemployment. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010 ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ National total. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. h/ Beginning in 2007 the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. i/ Urban series (high, medium and low urbanization). j/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. k/ Includes hidden unemployment. l/ EPH urban national. m/ ENAHO urban national. n/ ENFT urban national. o/ National total. Includes hidden unemployment. p/ Weighted averages. Excludes hidden unemployment in Colombia, Ecuador, Jamaica and Panama. q/ Data from 2nd quarter. r/ Data from May. s/ Data from June (preliminary). t/ Data to August. u/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. v/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). w/ Data from April. x/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). y/ Data from 1st quarter. z/ Data from 1st semester..

Statistical annex URBAN

105

106

Statistical Annex

TABLE 5. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: URBAN LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE, BY COUNTRY AND AGE GROUP, 2006 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Argentina a/

60.3





















57.8q/

15 - 24

45.6























25 and over

66.9























58.7

57.1

58.8

60.5



59.7

57.0

58.4

59.4







15 - 24

46.0

42.5

43.3

45.3



45.5

39.1

40.3

43.8







25 and over

77.1

75.5

77.9

78.3



76.4

76.1

74.9

75.6







61.1

61.0

61.1

61.4



59.6

63.1

63.4

62.7

62.8

62.8

63.6

15 - 24

63.1

63.1

63.0

62.6



59.3

51.6

50.7

48.7

48.9

48.8

50.2

25 and over

69.2

68.9

69.1

69.3



67.5

66.5

67.0

66.6

66.5

66.5

67.1

55.0

55.4

56.6

56.5

59.1

60.3

59.9

59.7

60.0

60.0

59.8

59.6

15 - 24

31.1

31.5

33.5

32.6

37.1

38.1

36.7

35.8

35.4

35.3

35.6

34.1

25 and over

62.1

62.6

63.5

63.5

65.4

66.6

66.3

66.2

66.5

66.3

66.2

66.0

Colombia d/

60.6

60.2

60.6

62.9

64.1

65.2

66.0

65.8

66.0

66.3

66.0

65.7

15 - 24

56.7

55.9

47.4

51.0

51.7

53.4

55.0

53.8

54.2

54.1

54.0

53.3

25 and over

61.3

65.5

70.6

72.5

73.7

74.3

74.7

74.7

74.8

74.9

75.2

74.8

Costa Rica e/

58.2

58.5

58.6

58.1

62.1

60.3

64.1

63.0

63.9

62.7

63.2

58.7

15 - 24

48.4

51.3

48.9

46.8

45.1

44.5

49.4

48.6

49.8

46.9

47.4

42.4

25 and over

67.0

66.9

67.2

66.8

68.0

65.2

68.4

67.4

68.0

67.1

67.7

63.3

72.1

73.7

74.7

75.4

74.9

76.1

74.2

72.9

71.9

69.1





15 - 24

























25 and over

























50.6

50.5

51.0

49.2

50.5

51.8

52.6

52.8

53.4

54.0

53.5w/

54.9w/

15 - 24

40.8

39.9

41.4

35.8

37.9

37.8

38.3

36.9

37.7

37.8

40.3

41.0

25 and over

65.5

65.7

65.9

64.2

65.0

66.2

66.1

66.4

66.0

67.0

67.5

68.6

Ecuador g/

59.1

69.1

67.7

66.3

64.2

62.2

62.8

61.8

62.2

64.1

63.9

65.9

15 - 24

50.1

53.4

50.3

48.0

44.5

40.6

40.9

38.4

37.8

38.9

39.0

39.8

25 and over

73.6

75.2

74.3

73.1

71.2

69.7

70.0

69.6

70.7

72.8

72.6

74.7

53.9

63.6

64.1

64.3

64.4

63.7

64.6

65.1

64.6

63.5





15 - 24

43.7

47.5

49.0

47.7

47.3

42.0

46.5

45.6

46.2

42.4





25 and over

68.1

68.7

69.0

69.8

70.2

69.9

70.7

71.7

70.7

69.3





Guatemala









56.6

61.0

65.5

61.9

62.7

62.9

62.6r/

63.5r/

15 - 24









51.7

47.7

53.5

48.8

49.5

50.7

49.3

51.8

25 and over









71.1

67.1

70.7

68.0

68.2

68.3

68.6

68.9

Honduras

52.1

51.0

52.7

53.1

53.7

52.5

51.2

54.3

55.7

56.9

56.9s/

57.4s/

15 - 24

47.4

44.5

45.7

45.3

46.5

44.4

44.1

46.0

47.3

51.9





25 and over

67.9

66.7

68.7

69.3

68.9

67.7

65.3

68.5

69.6

69.4





61.5

61.4

61.3

61.1

60.8

61.0

61.6

61.6

60.9

60.8

60.6

60.8

15 - 24

48.2

48.1

47.5

46.3

46.4

46.4

46.6

45.7

44.9

43.9

43.7

43.6

25 and over

66.2

66.2

66.1

66.2

65.8

66.0

66.6

66.7

66.0

66.1

66.0

66.2

Nicaragua j/

53.1

50.7

53.8

67.0

71.4

74.2

74.8

74.9

73.1







15 - 24

44.3

42.4

43.6



61.4

65.3

66.8











25 and over

68.5

67.0

68.5



77.9

79.3

80.1











Panama k/

62.8

62.6

64.4

64.4

64.0

63.2

63.6

64.1

64.3

64.5

64.5t/

64.6t/

15 - 24

45.9

46.4

49.2

47.9

46.6

43.5

44.1

44.8

43.3

42.2

42.2

41.5

25 and over

68.4

68.0

69.3

69.3

69.2

68.6

69.3

70.0

70.5

71.1

71.1

71.5

Paraguay l/

57.9

59.6

61.5

62.3

60.1

60.0

63.8

62.1

61.8

61.8

65.7u/

66.4u/

15 - 24

56.8

54.7

58.7

62.8

56.4

55.9

59.2

55.8

56.1

53.6





25 and over

70.4

73.7

73.6

72.9

72.8

72.2

76.1

75.1

73.1

73.7





68.5

71.0

71.1

71.2

71.6

71.6

71.5

71.2

70.0

69.4

68.9v/

70.5v/

15 - 24

55.2

57.1

58.3

57.2

57.6

57.0

56.3

55.5

53.3

50.9

47.0

49.4

25 and over

75.5

78.0

77.6

78.0

78.5

78.6

78.4

78.3

77.2

77.2

77.0

78.1

60.8

62.9

62.8

63.6

63.5

65.0

64.0

63.8

64.9

64.0

63.8

63.8

15 - 24

48.4

50.3

49.2

49.2

49.0

49.9

48.7

48.7

48.7

46.7

46.1

45.6

25 and over

64.2

66.2

66.5

67.5

67.5

69.0

68.1

67.7

69.1

68.7

68.6

68.7

65.5

64.9

64.9

65.1

64.5

64.4

63.9

64.3

65.1

63.7

64.3x/

63.0x/

15 - 24

46.0

44.7

44.7

44.0

42.5

41.8

40.9

41.0

41.6

39.8

40.0

37.8

25 and over

72.9

72.4

72.5

72.7

72.5

72.3

71.8

72.0

72.6

71.9

72.0

70.9

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Brazil b/

Chile c/

Cuba f/

Dominican Republic n/

El Salvador h/

Statistical annex URBAN

Mexico i/

Peru m/

Uruguay

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) f/

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Bahamas f/

75.1

76.2

76.3

73.4



72.1

72.5

73.2

73.7

74.3

73.0r/

76.9r/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Barbados f/

67.9

67.8

67.6

67.0

66.6

67.6

66.2

66.7

63.9

65.1

65.2y/

65.3y/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























57.6

61.2

59.2







65.8

64.2

63.6

63.2

63.0w/

63.7w/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























64.7

64.9

65.5

63.5

62.4

62.1

61.9

63.0

62.8

63.1

63.0

64.8

15 - 24













33.6

34.7

33.3

34.0

33.7

36.3

25 and over













73.0

74.1

74.4

74.5

74.5

75.9

63.9

63.5

63.5

62.7

62.1

61.3

61.9

61.4

61.9

60.6

60.9z/

60.1z/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Latin America and the Caribbean p/

61.1

61.4

61.5

61.9

61.6

61.6

63.1

63.0

62.7

62.5

62.3

62.7

Latin America and the Caribbean 15 a 24 p/

53.9

53.7

52.7

52.4

51.8

51.0

48.4

47.5

46.6

46.4

46.3

46.8

Latin America and the Caribbean 25 and over p/

68.1

68.4

68.8

69.2

69.0

68.7

68.5

68.7

68.5

68.4

68.4

68.7

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean

Belize f/

Jamaica o/

Trinidad and Tobago f/

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, PNADC data, coverage 20 metropolitan regions, series not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Municipal capital series. Includes hidden unemployment. Data from 2006 and 2007, ages 15-24, correspond to 15-28 and metropolitan region coverage. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010 ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ National total. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. Includes hidden unemployment. h/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. i/ Urban series (high, medium and low urbanization). j/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. k/ Includes hidden unemployment. l/ EPH urban national. m/ ENAHO urban national. n/ ENFT urban national. o/ National total. Includes hidden unemployment. p/ Weighted averages. q/ Data from 2nd quarter. r/ Data from May. s/ Data from June (preliminary). t/ Data to August. u/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. v/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). w/ Data from April. x/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). y/ Data from 1st quarter. z/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex URBAN

107

108

Statistical Annex

TABLE 6. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: URBAN EMPLOMENT-TO-POPULATION RATIO, BY COUNTRY AND SEX, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America Argentina a/

54.1





















52.4o/

Men

67.1





















63.7

Women

42.8





















42.2

54.0

52.7

56.2

57.5



57.4

55.2

56.1

57.3







Men

62.2

62.8

65.3

66.1



66.9

64.4

65.9

66.8







Women

46.4

43.5

47.9

49.3



48.5

46.8

47.2

48.4







Brazil b/

55.2

55.4

56.2

55.7



55.2

58.0

58.3

57.9

57.0

57.0

55.4

Men

65.8

65.9

66.8

66.0



66.0

68.9

69.1

68.2

67.1

67.1

65.2

Women

45.7

45.8

46.6

46.4



45.4

48.5

49.0

48.9

48.1

48.3

46.8

Chile c/

50.5

51.2

52.0

50.7

54.0

55.8

55.9

56.1

56.0

56.1

55.9

55.5

Men

65.7

66.0

66.2

63.9

66.5

67.8

67.5

67.4

66.5

66.8

66.9

66.4

Women

36.3

37.3

38.6

38.4

42.3

44.6

44.9

45.4

46.0

46.0

45.7

45.3

Colombia d/

52.6

52.9

53.2

54.6

56.0

57.5

58.5

58.8

59.4

59.8

59.4

58.7

Men

63.6

63.5

63.7

64.7

65.8

67.2

68.1

68.0

68.8

69.1

68.6

68.1

Women

42.8

43.4

43.7

45.5

47.2

48.7

49.8

50.4

51.0

51.5

51.0

50.3

Costa Rica e/

54.7

55.7

55.7

53.6

56.8

54.2

57.7

57.2

57.8

56.6

57.0

53.0

Men

69.2

70.0

68.0

65.8

69.9

67.0

68.8

68.2

69.6

67.9

68.1

64.9

Women

41.6

42.6

44.6

42.4

44.0

41.6

46.8

46.5

46.3

45.6

46.2

41.4

Cuba f/

70.7

72.4

73.6

74.2

73.0

73.6

71.6

70.5

70.0

67.5





Men

84.5

85.2

86.6

87.1

85.6

87.3

86.4

84.4

84.2

81.0





Women

55.5

58.2

59.0

59.8

58.9

58.4

55.3

55.3

54.6

52.8





47.5

47.8

48.3

46.4

47.6

48.3

48.8

48.6

49.5

50.3

49.6u/

51.5u/

Men

61.1

61.7

61.1

59.8

59.5

59.4

59.6

60.1

60.9

62.1

61.1

62.5

Women

34.9

34.7

36.4

33.9

36.5

37.9

38.5

37.8

38.8

39.4

38.8

40.9

Ecuador g/

54.3

64.3

63.1

60.7

59.3

58.5

59.7

58.9

59.0

60.7

60.5

61.3

Men

66.8

77.6

76.5

73.8

72.5

72.0

73.3

72.8

73.4

74.6

74.7

74.1

Women

42.6

52.2

50.7

48.6

47.4

46.3

47.3

46.3

45.7

47.8

47.6

49.7

El Salvador h/

50.8

59.9

60.6

59.7

60.0

59.5

60.6

61.5

60.3

59.4





Men

58.7

72.2

72.9

70.7

71.5

71.2

71.9

72.3

71.2

70.8





Women

44.3

50.4

50.8

51.0

51.0

50.0

51.4

52.8

51.6

49.9





Guatemala









53.9

59.0

62.8

59.6

61.5

60.9

60.7p/

61.0p/

Men









66.8

77.9

80.1

75.3

75.9

79.3

79.3

77.0

Women









42.6

42.7

47.7

44.6

46.5

44.6

44.2

46.8

Honduras

49.4

49.0

50.5

50.5

50.3

48.9

48.3

51.1

51.5

52.1

51.9q/

57.4q/

Men

61.5

61.9

62.1

62.5

60.5

60.5

59.2

62.3

63.7

63.2





Women

39.4

38.2

40.9

40.7

41.6

39.4

39.1

41.9

41.5

42.8





Mexico i/

59.0

58.9

58.7

57.5

57.2

57.5

58.3

58.3

57.6

57.9

57.7

58.2

Men

76.6

76.3

75.7

73.2

73.0

73.0

73.6

73.4

73.0

73.2

73.1

73.3

Women

43.2

43.7

43.7

43.5

43.2

43.6

44.7

44.7

43.9

44.2

43.9

44.6

Nicaragua j/

49.1

47.1

49.5

60.3

64.1

69.4

68.9

69.0

66.8







Men

58.0

56.2

58.7

70.7

72.9

78.2

76.9

76.9

74.9







Women

41.4

39.2

41.6

51.3

56.3

61.6

61.8

62.2

59.8







Panama

56.3

57.7

60.2

59.3

59.1

59.8

60.6

61.1

60.9

60.7

60.7r/

60.4r/

Men

70.2

71.0

74.7

73.6

73.2

73.7

74.6

74.5

74.0

72.7

72.7

72.4

Women

43.5

45.6

47.3

46.6

46.3

47.6

48.3

49.0

49.3

49.9

49.9

49.5

Paraguay k/

52.7

55.3

57.0

57.1

55.9

56.1

59.9

58.4

57.3

57.9

60.6s/

60.9s/

Men

64.6

66.1

68.8

67.6

66.3

66.1

69.2

66.5

68.1

67.9

70.6

68.1

Women

42.1

45.4

46.0

47.1

46.1

47.0

51.1

51.3

47.7

49.0

51.7

54.2

Peru l/

64.1

66.5

66.8

67.0

67.9

67.9

68.1

67.8

66.8

66.4

65.4t/

66.7t/

Men

74.2

75.8

76.4

76.3

76.8

76.8

77.2

76.9

75.9

75.7

74.4

75.2

Women

54.3

57.6

57.6

58.0

59.3

59.4

59.4

59.1

58.1

57.4

56.6

58.3

Uruguay

53.9

56.7

57.6

58.4

58.8

60.7

59.6

59.5

60.4

59.0

58.9

58.5

Men

65.4

68.4

68.3

68.9

68.8

70.2

69.1

69.4

69.8

67.7

67.6

66.9

Women

44.4

47.0

48.6

49.5

50.2

52.4

51.5

50.8

52.0

51.2

51.1

51.0

58.9

59.4

60.2

60.0

58.9

59.0

58.7

59.3

60.4

59.2

59.6v/

58.3v/

Men

73.0

73.5

74.3

73.5

72.3

72.6

72.1

72.6

73.8

72.7

73.3

72.7

Women

44.9

45.4

46.2

46.6

45.6

45.6

45.6

46.1

47.1

46.0

46.2

44.1

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Statistical annex URBAN

Dominican Republic m/

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) f/

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015 Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean Bahamas f/

69.4

70.2

69.7

62.1



60.6

62.0

61.6

62.9

64.4

64.3p/

67.1p/

Men



77.3

76.6







64.4

64.9

67.2

70.1

69.9

72.2

Women



64.2

63.9







59.9

58.8

59.0

61.0

62.2

61.6

Barbados f/

61.9

62.8

62.1

60.3

59.5

60.1

58.5

58.9

56.0

57.7

57.5w/

59.2w/

Men

67.7

69.5

68.2

65.0

64.0

65.6

64.1

63.6

59.7

60.2

61.1

63.5

Women

56.6

56.6

56.6

56.1

55.4

55.1

53.5

54.8

52.6

55.3

54.2

55.3

Belize f/

52.2

56.0

54.3







55.7

56.7

56.3

56.8

56.6u/

58.7u/

Men

70.9

72.1









70.9

72.3

73.3

72.5

71.3

74.1

Women

34.4

36.5









40.9

39.6

39.4

41.2

42.1

43.4

Jamaica f/

58.0

58.4

58.5

56.3

54.7

54.3

53.3

53.4

54.2

54.6

54.5

56.2

Men

68.4

69.0

68.5

65.7

63.9

63.6

61.9

62.1

62.9

63.3

63.1

64.2

Women

48.1

48.3

49.1

47.4

45.9

45.8

45.0

45.0

45.8

46.2

46.2

48.4

59.9

59.9

60.6

59.4

58.4

58.2

58.8

59.1

59.9

58.5

58.8x/

57.6x/

Men

























Women

























Latin America and the Caribbean n/

56.2

56.8

57.2

56.9

56.9

57.2

58.5

58.6

58.4

58.0

57.6

57.0

Latin America and the Caribbean - Men n/

68.8

69.4

69.7

68.8

68.9

69.4

70.6

70.5

70.1

69.7

69.4

68.4

Latin America and the Caribbean - Women n/

44.6

45.3

45.8

45.9

46.0

46.2

47.7

47.9

47.7

47.4

47.1

46.7

Trinidad and Tobago f/

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for purposes of comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, PNADC data, coverage 20 metropolitan regions, series not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Municipal capital series. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010 ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ National total. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. h/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. i/ Urban series (high, medium and low urbanization). j/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. k/ EPH urban national. l/ ENAHO urban national. m/ ENFT urban national. n/ Weighted averages. o/ Data from 2nd quarter p/ Data from May. q/ Data from June (preliminary). r/ Data to August. s/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. t/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). u/ Data from April. v/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). w/ Data from 1st quarter. x/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex URBAN

109

110

Statistical Annex

TABLE 7. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN: URBAN EMPLOMENT-TO-POPULATION RATIO, BY COUNTRY AND AGE GROUP, 2006 - 2016 (Average annual rates) 2015 Country

2016

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Argentina a/

54.1





















52.4o/

15 - 24

34.8























25 and over

62.0























54.0

52.7

56.2

57.5



57.4

55.2

56.1

57.3







15 - 24

39.4

34.4

38.9

41.3



41.5

36.7

36.5

40.2







25 and over

72.4

72.0

75.6

75.2



74.6

74.2

72.8

73.8







55.2

55.4

56.2

55.7



55.2

58.0

58.3

57.9

57.0

57.0

55.4

15 - 24

50.4

51.2

52.0

50.3



49.3

41.8

41.1

39.3

37.7

37.7

34.4

25 and over

64.8

64.5

65.3

64.8



64.1

62.7

63.2

63.0

62.1

62.2

61.0

50.5

51.2

52.0

50.7

54.0

55.8

55.9

56.1

56.0

56.1

55.9

55.5

15 - 24

25.1

25.6

26.6

25.0

30.0

31.2

30.6

29.9

29.4

29.7

30.0

28.5

25 and over

58.0

58.9

59.5

58.3

61.0

62.8

62.9

63.1

63.0

62.9

62.7

62.2

Colombia d/

52.6

52.9

53.2

54.6

56.0

57.5

58.5

58.8

59.4

59.8

59.4

58.7

15 - 24

45.2

45.6

36.3

38.1

39.0

41.0

43.0

42.9

43.5

44.0

43.2

42.2

25 and over

58.9

57.0

64.6

65.7

67.0

68.2

68.7

68.9

69.5

69.6

69.2

68.5

Costa Rica e/

54.7

55.7

55.7

53.6

56.8

54.2

57.7

57.2

57.8

56.6

57.0

53.0

15 - 24

41.0

45.2

43.4

38.4

35.5

34.6

38.0

37.3

36.9

35.9

36.5

32.2

25 and over

64.7

65.1

65.1

63.3

64.3

60.3

63.4

63.2

63.8

62.5

62.9

58.9

70.7

72.4

73.6

74.2

73.0

73.6

71.6

70.5

70.0

67.5





15 - 24

























25 and over

























47.5

47.8

48.3

46.4

47.6

48.3

48.8

48.6

49.5

50.3

49.6u/

51.5u/

15 - 24

40.8

39.9

41.4

35.8

37.9

37.8

38.3

36.9

37.7

37.8

33.1

34.6

25 and over

65.5

65.7

65.9

64.2

65.0

66.2

66.1

66.4

66.0

67.0

64.0

65.8

Ecuador g/

54.3

64.3

63.1

60.7

59.3

58.5

59.7

58.9

59.0

60.7

60.5

61.3

15 - 24

41.4

44.5

42.1

39.1

36.2

34.3

35.3

33.3

32.5

33.5

33.6

33.2

25 and over

69.6

71.5

70.9

68.7

67.5

66.9

67.7

67.4

68.3

70.1

69.9

70.9

50.8

59.9

60.6

59.7

60.0

59.5

60.6

61.5

60.3

59.4





15 - 24

37.9

42.0

43.0

40.1

39.9

36.0

39.6

39.1

38.3

35.9





25 and over

65.5

65.6

66.3

66.2

66.9

66.5

67.6

69.0

67.5

66.2





Guatemala









53.9

59.0

62.8

59.6

61.5

60.9

60.7p/

61.0p/

15 - 24









47.4

44.4

49.3

44.8

44.9

46.9

45.9

47.3

25 and over









68.4

65.9

68.8

66.4

66.5

67.1

67.3

67.2

Honduras

49.4

49.0

50.5

50.5

50.3

48.9

48.3

51.1

51.5

52.1

51.9q/

57.4q/

15 - 24

43.1

41.2

42.0

40.9

40.6

38.2

38.9

40.8

40.8

41.9





25 and over

65.2

64.7

66.6

66.9

65.9

64.7

62.8

65.5

65.7

65.8





59.0

58.9

58.7

57.5

57.2

57.5

58.3

58.3

57.6

57.9

57.7

58.2

15 - 24

44.3

44.2

43.4

40.9

41.2

41.3

41.6

40.8

40.0

39.6

39.3

39.6

25 and over

64.3

64.2

64.0

63.2

62.8

63.1

63.8

64.0

63.3

63.7

63.5

63.9

Nicaragua j/

49.1

47.1

49.5

60.3

64.1

69.4

68.9

69.0

66.8







15 - 24

38.3

37.5

37.5



51.2

58.4

58.6











25 and over

64.6

63.0

64.3



71.8

75.2

75.2











56.3

57.7

60.2

59.3

59.1

59.8

60.6

61.1

60.9

60.7

60.7r/

60.4r/

15 - 24

35.1

37.6

41.1

38.9

38.2

36.7

38.6

39.2

36.7

35.5

35.5

34.5

25 and over

63.3

64.4

66.4

65.5

65.3

66.1

67.0

67.8

67.9

68.2

68.2

68.2

Paraguay k/

52.7

55.3

57.0

57.1

55.9

56.1

59.9

58.4

57.3

57.9

60.6s/

60.9s/

15 - 24

47.2

46.0

49.9

52.1

47.5

47.1

51.0

48.7

47.0

45.9





25 and over

66.3

70.5

70.4

69.2

69.8

69.6

73.6

72.1

69.7

70.7





64.1

66.5

66.8

67.0

67.9

67.9

68.1

67.8

66.8

66.4

65.4t/

66.7t/

15 - 24

47.9

49.3

50.8

50.1

50.5

50.0

49.7

49.3

46.7

45.4

41.1

42.4

25 and over

72.3

75.0

74.6

74.9

76.0

76.2

76.3

75.7

75.3

75.1

74.5

75.5

53.9

56.7

57.6

58.4

58.8

60.7

59.6

59.5

60.4

59.0

58.9

58.5

15 - 24

34.3

37.3

37.8

38.3

38.5

40.5

39.3

38.9

38.8

35.7

35.4

34.2

25 and over

59.3

61.9

62.9

63.8

64.3

66.1

65.2

64.9

66.1

65.3

65.3

65.1

Average through the 3rd quarter

Latin America

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)

Brazil b/

Chile c/

Cuba f/

Dominican Republic m/

El Salvador h/

Mexico i/

Statistical annex URBAN

Panama

Peru l/

Uruguay

(continues...)

Statistical Annex

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015

2016

Country

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) f/

58.9

59.4

60.2

60.0

58.9

59.0

58.7

59.3

60.4

59.2

59.6v/

58.3v/

15 - 24

37.8

37.8

38.3

37.1

35.0

34.5

33.9

34.2

35.4

33.6

34.3

31.8

25 and over

67.0

67.6

68.4

68.2

67.6

67.6

67.3

67.6

68.4

67.7

67.7

66.6

Bahamas f/

69.4

70.2

69.7

62.1



60.6

62.0

61.6

62.9

64.4

64.3p/

67.1p/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Barbados f/

61.9

62.8

62.1

60.3

59.5

60.1

58.5

58.9

56.0

57.7

57.5w/

59.2w/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























52.2

56.0

54.3







55.7

56.7

56.3

56.8

56.6u/

58.7u/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























58.0

58.4

58.5

56.3

54.7

54.3

53.3

53.4

54.2

54.6

54.5

56.2

15 - 24













22.4

21.6

21.9

22.8

22.6

24.9

25 and over













65.4

65.9

66.8

67.0

67.0

68.4

59.9

59.9

60.6

59.4

58.4

58.2

58.8

59.1

59.9

58.5

58.8x/

57.6x/

15 - 24

























25 and over

























Latin America and the Caribbean n/

56.2

56.8

57.2

56.9

56.9

57.2

58.5

58.6

58.4

58.0

57.6

57.0

Latin America and the Caribbean 15 to 24 n/

44.8

45.2

44.6

43.5

43.2

43.1

40.7

40.0

39.1

38.5

38.2

36.7

Latin America and the Caribbean 25 and over n/

64.4

64.4

65.4

65.0

65.1

65.2

64.9

65.2

65.0

64.7

64.6

64.1

Average through the 3rd quarter

The Caribbean

Belize f/

Jamaica f/

Trinidad and Tobago f/

Source: ILO, based on official information from household surveys of the countries. a/ 31 urban areas. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. b/ Beginning in 2012, PNADC data, coverage 20 metropolitan regions, series not comparable with previous years. c/ New measurement beginning in 2010, data not comparable with previous years. d/ Municipal capital series. Includes hidden unemployment. Data from 2006 and 2007, ages 15-24, correspond to 15-28 and metropolitan region coverage. e/ Data from 2006-2009 correspond to EHPM collected in July of each year. Beginning in 2010 ECE data, not comparable with previous years (data from 2010 are the average of the 3rd and 4th quarters). f/ National total. g/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 15 years, not comparable with previous years. h/ Beginning in 2007, the WAP changes to 16 years. Not comparable with previous years. i/ Urban series (high, medium and low urbanization). j/ New measurement (ECH) beginning in 2009. Data not comparable with previous years. k/ EPH urban national. l/ ENAHO urban national. m/ ENFT urban national. n/ Weighted averages. o/ Data from 2nd quarter p/ Data from May. q/ Data from June (preliminary). r/ Data to August. s/ Data from 1st semester. Urban data from ECE for quarterly data. t/ Data through 3rd quarter (preliminary). u/ Data from April. v/ Data from 1st quarter (preliminary). w/ Data from 1st quarter. x/ Data from 1st semester.

Statistical annex URBAN

111

60.6

Women

2011

2010

55.9

38.3

Men

Women



Women

48.3



Men

TOTAL



TOTAL

Bolivia (Pluri. State of) d/



66.8

Men

61.0

Women

64.1

67.7

Men

TOTAL

64.8

61.2

Women

TOTAL

68.4

Men

60.8

Women

65.3

68.3

Men

TOTAL

65.1

60.0

Women

TOTAL

68.2

Men

58.3

Women

64.7

67.7

TOTAL

63.6

Men

Total

TOTAL b/

Argentina c/

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Latin America a/

Country, Year and Sex

12.9

11.8

12.3









16.5

10.0

12.8

16.4

9.7

12.6

16.7

10.1

13.0

16.6

10.3

13.0

16.8

10.2

13.1

16.4

10.2

12.9

Public

7.9

14.8

11.8









9.9

14.6

12.6

10.0

14.6

12.5

10.4

15.0

13.0

9.8

14.8

12.6

10.3

15.5

13.2

10.1

15.8

13.4

17.5

29.3

24.2









34.2

42.2

38.7

34.6

43.5

39.6

34.2

43.3

39.3

34.4

43.3

39.4

33.0

42.4

38.3

31.8

41.7

37.4

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Employees

40.4

37.8

38.9









22.5

30.3

26.9

21.9

29.5

26.2

21.7

29.0

25.8

21.6

28.9

25.8

21.4

29.0

25.8

22.2

29.3

26.2

Total

3.0

6.3

4.9









1.9

3.8

3.0

1.9

3.8

3.0

2.0

3.8

3.0

2.1

3.9

3.1

1.9

3.6

2.9

2.0

4.1

3.2

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.8

2.6

1.8









0.7

1.5

1.2

0.7

1.6

1.2

0.7

1.6

1.2

0.7

1.6

1.2

0.7

1.5

1.1

0.7

1.6

1.2

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

Status in Employment

TABLE 8. LATIN AMERICA: URBAN EMPLOYMENT BY STATUS IN EMPLOYMENT, COUNTRY AND SEX, 2010 - 2015 (Percentages)

Statistical annex URBAN

2.6

4.2

3.5









3.3

3.6

3.5

3.2

3.4

3.3

2.2

1.9

2.1

2.3

2.0

2.1

2.0

2.0

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.9

Professional. technical or administrative

34.0

24.6

28.7









16.7

21.4

19.3

16.1

20.6

18.7

16.8

21.6

19.5

16.6

21.5

19.4

16.9

21.9

19.8

17.6

21.8

20.0

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

6.4

0.2

2.9









13.8

0.8

6.4

13.7

0.8

6.4

14.0

0.7

6.5

14.2

0.7

6.6

15.1

0.8

7.0

15.7

0.8

7.3

Domestic workers

14.8

5.7

9.7









2.6

1.1

1.8

3.0

1.2

2.0

2.6

1.1

1.8

3.0

1.3

2.1

3.1

1.3

2.1

3.5

1.6

2.4

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

0.1

0.5

0.3









0.5

1.0

0.8

0.4

0.8

0.6

0.5

0.8

0.7

0.3

0.7

0.6

0.3

0.7

0.5

0.3

0.6

0.5

Others

112 Statistical Annex

62.3

Women

17.4

10.1

13.3

17.3

9.6

13.0

17.4

9.9

13.1

17.2

10.0

13.2

17.3

10.0

13.2













14.8

11.2

12.8

15.1

13.7

14.3

13.2

12.0

12.6

Public

9.6

13.7

11.9

9.7

13.5

11.8

10.2

14.2

12.5

9.6

13.7

11.9

10.1

14.7

12.7













11.0

18.0

14.9

8.1

11.7

10.1

10.1

14.1

12.3

35.2

43.6

39.9

35.8

45.2

41.0

35.7

45.6

41.3

36.1

45.9

41.6

34.3

44.7

40.2













13.3

23.5

19.0

18.5

30.0

24.9

16.9

28.6

23.4

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Statistical annex URBAN

67.3

Men

62.7

Women

65.1

68.3

Men

TOTAL

65.8

63.3

Women

TOTAL

69.7

Men

62.9

Women

66.9

69.5

Men

TOTAL

66.6

61.8

Women

TOTAL

69.4

Men



Women

66.1



TOTAL



Men



Women

TOTAL



Men

39.1

Women



52.7

Men

TOTAL

46.7

41.7

Women

TOTAL

55.4

Men

40.2

Women

49.4

54.7

Men

TOTAL

48.2

TOTAL

Total

Employees

21.2

31.2

26.8

20.5

30.0

25.8

19.7

28.9

24.9

19.6

28.7

24.8

19.4

28.7

24.7













41.3

41.3

41.3

40.1

40.0

40.0

42.4

40.3

41.2

Total

1.8

3.5

2.8

1.9

3.6

2.8

1.9

3.4

2.8

2.0

3.4

2.8

1.8

3.0

2.5













3.9

7.5

5.9

3.4

5.6

4.7

3.9

6.8

5.5

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.8

1.7

1.3

0.8

1.7

1.3

0.9

1.8

1.4

0.8

1.7

1.3

0.7

1.6

1.2













0.5

1.9

1.3

0.8

2.7

1.8

0.9

2.5

1.8

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

3.6

3.8

3.7

3.4

3.6

3.5

2.2

1.6

1.8

2.3

1.6

1.9

2.0

1.6

1.8













2.4

3.9

3.3

3.1

4.8

4.1

2.2

3.7

3.0

Professional. technical or administrative

15.0

22.1

19.0

14.4

21.0

18.1

14.8

22.1

18.9

14.5

22.0

18.7

14.9

22.5

19.2













34.4

27.9

30.8

32.8

26.9

29.5

35.4

27.4

30.9

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

14.8

0.8

7.0

14.6

0.8

6.9

15.3

0.8

7.1

15.4

0.8

7.2

16.6

0.9

7.7













6.4

0.1

2.8

6.5

0.1

2.9

7.4

0.2

3.4

Domestic workers

1.7

0.7

1.1

2.2

0.9

1.5

1.7

0.7

1.1

2.1

0.9

1.4

2.2

1.0

1.5













12.8

5.4

8.6

11.6

4.3

7.5

9.6

4.2

6.6

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0













0.4

0.6

0.5

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.5

0.6

0.6

Others

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Brazil e/

2015

2014

2013

2012

Country, Year and Sex

Status in Employment

113 Statistical Annex

75.4

67.0

Men

Women

65.9

Women

71.9

75.4

Men

TOTAL

71.4

66.2

Women

TOTAL

75.7

Men

65.2

Women

71.8

76.3

Men

TOTAL

71.7

63.4

Women

TOTAL

74.6

Men

64.4

Women

70.0

73.6

TOTAL

69.9

Men

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Total

TOTAL

48.1

50.5

45.2

Men

Women

43.8

Women

TOTAL

49.7

Men

42.1

Women

47.0

49.6

Men

TOTAL

46.3

42.1

Women

TOTAL

48.3

Men

42.9

Women

45.5

47.7

Men

TOTAL

45.5

TOTAL

Colombia g/

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Chile f/

Country, Year and Sex

5.0

4.5

4.8

5.6

4.6

5.0

5.3

5.0

5.1

5.1

4.7

4.9

5.6

4.6

5.0

15.2

9.6

11.9

14.6

9.5

11.7

14.3

8.9

11.1

14.6

9.1

11.4

13.9

8.5

10.7

14.7

8.9

11.2

Public

Statistical annex URBAN

9.2

10.6

10.0

9.2

11.7

10.6

9.0

12.0

10.7

9.6

11.4

10.6

9.5

11.3

10.5

5.7

7.2

6.5

5.4

7.0

6.3

5.4

6.8

6.2

5.4

7.0

6.3

5.7

7.1

6.5

6.1

7.5

6.9

31.0

35.3

33.4

29.0

33.5

31.4

27.8

32.6

30.5

27.4

32.2

30.1

27.8

31.8

30.0

46.1

58.7

53.4

45.9

59.0

53.4

46.6

60.0

54.4

45.3

60.3

54.1

43.8

58.9

52.7

43.6

57.3

51.7

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Employees

42.1

47.3

44.9

42.5

47.7

45.3

43.3

47.7

45.7

44.6

49.1

47.1

43.1

49.5

46.7

22.3

23.8

23.2

22.7

23.7

23.3

21.9

23.3

22.7

21.8

22.8

22.4

23.0

24.4

23.8

21.8

25.3

23.9

Total

2.8

4.5

3.7

2.5

4.9

3.8

2.7

5.2

4.1

2.6

5.3

4.1

2.4

5.3

4.0

1.7

3.4

2.7

1.7

3.4

2.7

1.8

3.2

2.6

1.6

3.1

2.5

2.2

3.5

3.0

2.1

3.7

3.1

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.4

1.2

0.8

0.5

1.2

0.9

0.3

1.1

0.7

0.5

1.3

0.9

0.5

1.0

0.8

0.7

1.9

1.4

0.6

2.0

1.4

0.7

2.1

1.5

0.6

2.2

1.5

0.6

2.3

1.6

0.7

2.2

1.6

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

Status in Employment

4.2

5.3

4.8

4.0

5.6

4.9

4.0

4.8

4.5

3.8

4.8

4.3

4.0

5.1

4.6

2.5

3.0

2.8

2.5

3.0

2.8

2.2

2.7

2.5

2.1

2.5

2.4

1.9

2.9

2.5

1.7

2.8

2.4

Professional. technical or administrative

34.7

36.3

35.6

35.5

36.0

35.8

36.3

36.5

36.4

37.8

37.8

37.8

36.2

38.1

37.2

17.4

15.5

16.3

17.8

15.2

16.3

17.2

15.3

16.1

17.4

14.9

16.0

18.3

15.8

16.8

17.2

16.6

16.9

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

7.8

0.3

3.7

8.4

0.4

4.0

8.7

0.3

4.1

8.1

0.3

3.8

8.7

0.2

4.0

9.0

0.2

3.9

9.6

0.2

4.2

10.0

0.2

4.3

11.2

0.2

4.8

11.7

0.3

5.0

11.8

0.2

4.9

Domestic workers

4.8

1.9

3.2

5.0

2.1

3.4

5.7

2.3

3.9

5.0

2.2

3.5

5.2

2.5

3.7

1.7

0.6

1.0

1.8

0.7

1.2

1.9

0.7

1.2

1.7

0.7

1.1

1.9

0.7

1.2

2.0

0.9

1.3

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Others

114 Statistical Annex

50.1

51.8

47.9

Men

Women

73.3

62.5

Men

Women

63.6

Women

68.9

72.2

Men

TOTAL

68.7

65.0

Women

TOTAL

69.7

Men

66.4

Women

67.8

74.7

Men

TOTAL

71.3

68.0

Women

TOTAL

74.0

Men

65.3

Women

71.7

75.5

Men

TOTAL

71.3

TOTAL

49.1

56.2

Men

Women

18.7

12.3

14.9

18.2

11.1

13.9

18.4

12.1

14.6

7.1

6.6

6.8

6.3

5.6

5.9

5.6

5.3

5.4

13.3

14.6

14.0

13.2

12.8

13.0

14.9

13.2

13.9

13.7

14.5

14.1

12.6

12.5

12.5

10.5

12.7

11.8

9.7

11.1

10.5

30.4

30.2

30.3

32.3

30.8

31.4

31.6

31.3

31.4

31.6

46.5

40.4

31.5

46.3

40.3

29.2

42.9

37.3

32.2

46.0

40.3

32.9

46.4

41.1

33.8

48.0

42.1

33.1

36.1

34.8

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Statistical annex URBAN

52.0

56.8

Women

TOTAL

47.5

Men

55.7

Women

51.3

48.7

Men

TOTAL

51.5

TOTAL

17.7

12.2

14.4

18.8

13.1

15.4

20.9

13.6

16.6

20.5

14.2

16.8

22.5

15.1

18.0

21.1

14.8

17.4

5.2

4.5

4.8

Public

Employees

28.9

49.2

40.9

28.6

50.4

41.6

29.7

49.3

41.5

16.3

23.5

20.6

16.6

24.7

21.4

16.9

27.4

23.1

15.8

23.4

20.3

14.7

22.3

19.3

17.8

23.0

20.8

40.6

46.3

43.8

Total

2.2

3.2

2.8

1.7

3.4

2.7

2.6

3.4

3.1

1.5

2.9

2.3

1.5

2.8

2.3

1.9

3.5

2.8

1.0

2.9

2.1

1.3

3.4

2.6

1.3

3.1

2.4

2.0

3.9

3.0

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.4

1.7

1.1

0.6

2.3

1.6

0.9

1.9

1.5

0.5

1.2

0.9

0.5

1.6

1.1

0.2

1.1

0.7

0.5

1.1

0.8

0.6

1.3

1.0

0.5

1.5

1.1

0.3

0.8

0.6

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

2.2

3.1

2.7

2.0

2.6

2.3

3.1

2.8

2.9

1.0

1.8

1.5

2.1

3.4

2.9

2.8

5.6

4.4

3.1

4.5

3.9

2.9

4.5

3.9

3.0

4.3

3.7

4.1

5.5

4.9

Professional. technical or administrative

24.1

41.2

34.3

24.2

42.2

34.9

23.0

41.2

34.0

13.3

17.6

15.9

12.5

16.9

15.2

12.0

17.2

15.1

11.2

14.9

13.3

9.9

13.1

11.8

13.0

14.1

13.6

34.1

36.2

35.3

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

12.4

0.7

5.5

12.1

0.9

5.4

11.9

0.7

5.1

17.4

1.1

7.8

16.3

1.6

7.5

13.9

1.5

6.6

15.0

1.4

7.0

13.2

1.1

5.8

16.0

0.9

7.1

7.2

0.2

3.3

Domestic workers

2.5

1.0

1.6

2.6

1.2

1.8

2.8

1.3

1.9

3.3

1.2

2.0

3.3

0.9

1.9

4.0

1.0

2.2

2.8

0.5

1.4

2.4

0.7

1.3

0.9

0.6

0.7

4.1

1.6

2.7

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4

0.9

0.7

0.3

0.7

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.3

0.0

0.1

0.0

1.7

1.9

1.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.1

0.1

Others

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2012

2011

2010

Rep. Dominicana d/

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Total

TOTAL

Costa Rica h/

2015

Country, Year and Sex

Status in Employment

115 Statistical Annex

54.6

51.2

59.5

Men

Women

59.0

Women

TOTAL

49.6

Men

56.9

Women

53.3

50.3

TOTAL

52.9

Men

63.7

49.0

Men

Women

46.7

Women

57.7

64.6

Men

TOTAL

57.3

50.0

Women

TOTAL

64.3

Men

49.2

Women

58.5

61.8

Men

TOTAL

56.5

47.7

Women

TOTAL

61.6

Men

49.3

Women

55.9

63.5

Men

TOTAL

57.7

TOTAL

2011

2010

68.1

47.2

Men

Women

45.9

Women

58.4

68.1

Men

TOTAL

57.6

TOTAL

El Salvador j/

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Total

TOTAL

Ecuador i/

2015

2014

2013

Country, Year and Sex

10.3

9.7

9.9

10.4

10.1

10.2

12.9

10.9

11.8

12.7

10.9

11.6

12.8

10.8

11.6

12.8

10.6

11.6

13.2

10.8

11.8

14.1

10.8

12.1

19.3

12.4

15.2

19.0

11.8

14.7

17.8

11.6

14.1

Public

Statistical annex URBAN

9.7

19.5

14.9

9.4

19.5

14.7

11.7

17.9

15.3

10.7

19.5

15.9

10.9

17.9

15.1

9.5

16.5

13.6

9.8

16.4

13.7

10.9

19.2

15.8

6.8

5.8

6.2

5.9

5.8

5.8

6.8

6.7

6.8

27.3

39.0

33.5

26.1

38.5

32.6

24.4

34.9

30.6

23.3

34.3

29.8

26.3

35.5

31.8

26.9

34.6

31.4

24.7

34.4

30.4

24.4

33.6

29.8

33.4

33.0

33.2

34.0

32.0

32.8

32.3

31.9

32.1

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Employees

38.2

27.6

32.5

39.4

27.6

33.2

35.2

33.1

33.9

35.7

32.6

33.9

33.4

33.0

33.2

35.4

35.2

35.3

36.3

35.8

36.0

34.0

33.8

33.9

26.3

47.5

38.9

26.3

48.9

39.8

28.2

47.5

39.8

Total

2.8

4.4

3.6

3.1

4.7

4.0

2.1

4.1

3.2

1.8

3.8

3.0

1.7

3.3

2.7

2.2

4.3

3.5

1.9

3.8

3.0

1.9

3.9

3.1

2.1

2.5

2.3

2.0

3.0

2.6

2.6

3.8

3.3

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.1

0.6

0.4

0.1

0.8

0.5

0.2

0.8

0.6

0.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

1.5

1.0

0.3

1.0

0.7

0.2

0.9

0.6

0.4

1.6

1.1

0.2

2.0

1.3

0.6

1.8

1.3

0.7

1.6

1.3

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

Status in Employment

0.8

2.6

1.8

1.4

2.1

1.7

1.8

2.2

2.0

1.0

1.9

1.5

1.3

2.1

1.8

1.8

2.4

2.1

1.5

2.5

2.1

1.6

2.3

2.0

1.7

2.9

2.4

1.8

3.2

2.7

1.7

2.9

2.4

Professional. technical or administrative

34.5

20.0

26.8

34.8

20.0

27.1

31.1

26.0

28.1

32.7

26.1

28.8

30.0

26.0

27.6

31.0

27.5

29.0

32.6

28.5

30.2

30.0

26.1

27.7

22.4

40.1

32.9

21.8

41.0

33.3

23.2

39.1

32.8

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

7.3

0.6

3.7

7.6

0.4

3.8

7.2

0.3

3.2

8.8

0.3

3.8

8.5

0.3

3.6

6.4

0.3

2.9

6.3

0.2

2.7

8.1

0.2

3.4

12.3

0.6

5.4

12.5

0.6

5.4

13.1

0.8

5.7

Domestic workers

7.2

3.8

5.4

6.9

3.6

5.2

8.5

2.8

5.2

8.8

2.4

5.0

8.1

2.4

4.7

9.0

2.7

5.3

9.8

2.3

5.4

8.7

2.5

5.0

1.9

0.7

1.2

2.3

0.9

1.5

1.9

1.3

1.5

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Others

116 Statistical Annex

68.5

47.3

Men

Women

48.9

Women

58.7

70.0

Men

TOTAL

60.0

45.8

Women

TOTAL

68.6

Men

46.5

Women

57.8

67.9

TOTAL

57.9

Men

50.1

Women

10.3

6.8

8.1

11.5

8.2

9.5

11.3

7.4

9.0

8.9

6.9

7.7

11.8

6.8

8.7

9.8

7.5

8.5

13.5

24.4

20.2

14.0

20.7

17.9

11.6

23.6

18.8

11.1

25.6

19.7

15.8

24.6

21.2

10.6

22.1

17.3

10.1

19.3

15.0

11.1

19.0

15.2

10.1

18.3

14.4

10.5

19.9

15.5

26.3

38.8

34.0

26.2

41.7

35.3

23.1

34.8

30.1

19.6

32.5

27.2

25.9

38.8

33.8

22.9

36.7

30.9

27.8

39.8

34.3

27.3

40.8

34.4

25.5

40.0

33.1

25.9

38.1

32.4

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Statistical annex URBAN

69.9

Men

51.7

Women

62.3

70.5

Men

TOTAL

62.7

46.0

Women

TOTAL

65.9

Men

39.6

Women

57.9

65.0

Men

TOTAL

54.7

53.5

Women

TOTAL

70.2

Men

43.3

Women

63.7

66.3

Men

TOTAL

56.6

TOTAL

9.4

9.3

9.4

10.5

10.2

10.3

10.2

10.2

10.2

10.1

10.0

10.1

Public

Employees

32.2

24.8

27.7

32.6

25.0

28.1

35.1

28.6

31.2

37.1

27.1

31.1

31.1

25.1

27.5

37.0

28.3

31.9

37.4

27.0

31.8

35.5

24.7

29.8

38.0

26.3

31.9

38.5

26.6

32.2

Total

2.2

3.4

2.9

2.8

3.7

3.3

2.4

3.6

3.1

2.8

3.3

3.1

2.1

3.5

3.0

2.9

4.6

3.8

3.1

4.9

4.1

3.2

4.5

3.9

3.0

5.0

4.0

3.2

4.4

3.8

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.1

0.6

0.4

0.1

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.7

0.5

0.0

0.6

0.4

0.1

0.8

0.5

0.0

1.2

0.7

0.4

0.7

0.5

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.7

0.4

0.3

0.9

0.6

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

0.6

1.5

1.1

1.0

1.7

1.4

1.4

2.1

1.8

1.1

2.1

1.7

14.6

7.2

10.0

5.7

3.0

4.1

0.9

2.1

1.5

0.7

1.8

1.3

0.8

2.4

1.7

0.8

1.8

1.3

Professional. technical or administrative

29.4

19.3

23.2

28.6

18.9

22.9

31.1

22.1

25.7

33.2

21.1

26.0

14.4

13.6

13.9

28.4

19.5

23.3

33.1

19.3

25.6

31.4

17.8

24.3

34.1

18.2

25.7

34.2

19.6

26.4

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

8.3

0.2

3.3

7.1

0.3

3.1

10.1

0.3

4.3

9.5

0.3

4.0

8.5

0.1

3.4

8.1

0.4

3.7

7.8

0.7

4.0

8.5

0.6

4.3

8.4

0.7

4.3

7.8

0.8

4.1

Domestic workers

9.4

5.0

6.7

8.6

4.1

6.0

8.8

5.2

6.6

13.8

7.7

10.2

6.9

4.6

5.5

11.6

5.0

7.8

7.5

3.9

5.5

6.9

4.6

5.7

7.6

4.3

5.9

7.1

4.7

5.8

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

Others

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Total

TOTAL

Guatemala

2015

2014

2013

2012

Country, Year and Sex

Status in Employment

117 Statistical Annex

59.1

43.5

Men

Women

46.1

Women

52.0

59.2

Men

TOTAL

53.4

41.4

Women

TOTAL

56.1

Men

45.3

Women

49.4

56.5

Men

TOTAL

51.6

47.6

Women

TOTAL

59.0

Men

44.7

Women

53.9

57.7

TOTAL

51.9

Men

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Total

TOTAL

64.1

68.7

57.5

Men

Women

57.1

Women

TOTAL

68.0

Men

56.4

Women

63.6

68.2

Men

TOTAL

63.4

56.2

Women

TOTAL

68.0

Men

56.2

Women

63.3

67.5

Men

TOTAL

63.0

TOTAL

Mexico k/

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Honduras

Country, Year and Sex

14.6

10.6

12.2

15.0

10.8

12.5

14.8

11.3

12.7

15.5

11.2

12.9

14.9

11.1

12.6

11.8

8.1

9.8

12.6

6.7

9.3

10.8

6.9

8.6

13.3

9.2

11.0

13.5

9.0

11.0

12.9

8.2

10.3

Public

Statistical annex URBAN

11.6

19.1

16.1

11.8

19.4

16.3

11.9

19.9

16.6

11.6

20.1

16.7

11.7

20.3

16.9

7.5

19.2

13.9

6.7

17.3

12.6

7.7

17.5

13.1

8.8

16.7

13.2

10.0

17.2

14.0

8.1

18.5

13.8

31.3

39.0

35.9

30.3

37.9

34.8

29.8

37.0

34.1

29.2

36.6

33.7

29.6

36.1

33.5

24.2

31.8

28.4

26.8

35.2

31.5

22.9

31.7

27.7

23.2

30.6

27.4

24.1

32.7

28.9

23.8

31.1

27.8

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Employees

22.9

24.5

23.9

24.2

25.3

24.8

24.3

25.5

25.0

23.8

25.8

25.0

24.5

26.3

25.6

38.0

34.0

35.8

36.7

34.2

35.3

40.0

37.4

38.6

39.1

36.9

37.9

34.8

34.7

34.8

37.2

35.8

36.4

Total

2.0

4.6

3.5

2.1

5.2

3.9

2.4

5.3

4.1

2.2

5.7

4.3

2.2

5.4

4.1

2.0

3.9

3.0

3.1

4.7

4.0

2.8

4.7

3.8

2.7

3.7

3.3

1.7

3.6

2.8

2.2

3.9

3.2

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.3

1.0

0.7

0.3

1.1

0.8

0.3

1.2

0.8

0.3

1.2

0.8

0.4

1.3

0.9

0.3

0.8

0.6

0.3

0.6

0.5

0.1

0.6

0.4

0.3

1.2

0.8

0.0

0.7

0.4

0.3

0.9

0.6

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

Status in Employment

1.6

2.4

2.1

1.7

2.4

2.1

1.3

2.5

2.0

1.4

2.5

2.1

1.6

2.5

2.1

1.9

2.8

2.4

1.6

2.1

1.9

1.9

3.0

2.5

2.2

2.6

2.4

1.7

3.4

2.6

2.1

2.3

2.2

Professional. technical or administrative

19.0

16.5

17.5

20.2

16.6

18.1

20.3

16.5

18.0

19.9

16.4

17.8

20.4

17.1

18.4

33.8

26.4

29.8

31.7

26.8

29.0

35.1

29.1

31.8

33.9

29.4

31.4

31.4

27.0

28.9

32.6

28.8

30.5

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

10.8

0.7

4.7

10.0

0.7

4.5

10.4

0.5

4.6

10.7

0.6

4.6

10.3

0.7

4.5

7.2

0.5

3.6

7.6

0.6

3.7

7.8

0.3

3.7

5.9

0.2

2.7

7.3

0.2

3.4

8.3

0.5

4.0

Domestic workers

6.5

2.4

4.1

6.4

2.6

4.1

7.0

2.6

4.4

7.6

2.7

4.6

7.5

2.9

4.7

11.2

6.4

8.6

9.6

6.0

7.6

10.8

6.3

8.3

9.6

6.5

7.9

10.2

6.1

7.9

9.8

5.9

7.7

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

2.4

3.7

3.2

2.3

3.5

3.0

1.9

3.1

2.6

1.7

2.9

2.4

1.5

2.7

2.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Others

118 Statistical Annex

63.4

67.9

56.8

Men

Women





Men

Women



Women





Men

TOTAL





Women

TOTAL



Men

34.9

Women



55.5

Men

TOTAL

45.6

34.0

Women

TOTAL

54.8

Men

36.3

Women

44.9

56.3

Men

TOTAL

47.0

TOTAL

74.1

70.4

Men

Women

23.6

14.6

18.4

24.5

15.6

19.4

24.7

15.5

19.3

5.0

7.4

6.4

5.0

6.3

5.8

4.9

7.9

6.7



















7.4

16.5

12.2

6.3

17.3

12.1

6.6

17.5

12.4

11.4

18.9

15.9

41.8

52.1

47.7

43.5

51.1

47.9

38.8

49.1

44.9



















17.0

30.5

24.0

16.9

29.0

23.3

18.2

29.3

24.2

31.0

38.8

35.7

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Statistical annex URBAN

72.5

73.0

Women

TOTAL

73.0

Men

68.5

Women

73.0

72.4

Men

TOTAL

70.8

TOTAL



















10.4

8.4

9.4

10.7

8.5

9.5

11.5

9.5

10.4

14.4

10.1

11.9

Public

Employees

17.1

24.7

21.4

15.7

25.6

21.4

18.8

26.1

23.1



















40.8

32.0

36.3

40.5

32.3

36.2

39.5

32.0

35.5

23.3

24.7

24.1

Total

1.4

2.5

2.1

1.7

2.8

2.3

1.4

2.8

2.2



















2.2

6.5

4.5

2.4

6.9

4.8

2.6

6.9

4.9

2.1

4.7

3.7

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.6

1.6

1.1

0.7

1.6

1.2

0.6

1.7

1.3



















0.3

1.0

0.7

0.2

0.8

0.5

0.1

1.1

0.7

0.3

0.9

0.7

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

1.6

2.4

2.1

1.4

2.0

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.0



















1.3

2.4

1.9

1.5

2.2

1.9

1.5

2.3

1.9

1.5

2.5

2.1

Professional. technical or administrative

13.5

18.1

16.1

11.9

19.2

16.1

14.9

19.5

17.6



















37.0

22.0

29.2

36.4

22.3

29.0

35.2

21.7

28.0

19.5

16.5

17.7

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

11.2

0.8

5.3

10.5

0.9

5.0

11.3

0.8

5.1



















8.9

0.9

4.8

10.0

0.9

5.3

11.1

1.6

6.0

10.9

0.7

4.8

Domestic workers

1.3

0.4

0.8

0.8

0.4

0.6

1.5

0.6

1.0



















15.4

11.6

13.4

15.5

11.9

13.6

13.1

10.1

11.5

6.4

2.4

4.0

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0



















0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

2.6

4.2

3.6

Others

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2012

2011

2010

Panama d/

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Total

TOTAL

Nicaragua l/

2015

Country, Year and Sex

Status in Employment

119 Statistical Annex

70.6

71.1

69.8

Men

Women

70.4

Women

TOTAL

73.0

Men

71.3

Women

71.9

73.7

TOTAL

72.7

Men

2011

2010

Peru

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Total

TOTAL

58.2

44.2

Men

Women

41.4

Women

52.0

58.2

TOTAL

50.7

Men

45.1

Women

TOTAL

60.2

Men

46.6

Women

53.4

63.7

Men

TOTAL

56.1

45.9

Women

TOTAL

60.5

Men

45.8

Women

53.7

63.1

Men

TOTAL

55.5

47.8

Women

TOTAL

65.2

Men

40.9

Women

57.6

64.4

Men

TOTAL

54.5

TOTAL

Paraguay

2015

2014

2013

Country, Year and Sex

11.7

10.9

11.2

10.8

10.9

10.9

16.2

12.0

13.9

15.2

11.3

13.0

17.5

13.0

15.0

14.6

11.8

13.0

15.5

11.7

13.4

13.9

12.5

13.1

22.8

15.5

18.6

23.8

13.8

18.1

23.2

14.3

18.1

Public

Statistical annex URBAN

11.0

14.6

13.0

10.4

14.6

12.7

10.7

17.0

14.2

9.6

19.2

15.0

8.6

17.3

13.3

10.6

18.0

14.7

11.2

20.5

16.5

8.1

20.1

15.0

5.0

7.8

6.6

4.1

8.1

6.4

4.4

8.0

6.5

21.6

32.7

27.7

20.2

32.7

27.1

18.2

31.2

25.4

21.8

33.2

28.2

19.7

30.2

25.3

20.6

33.4

27.7

21.1

32.9

27.8

18.9

31.8

26.3

42.1

47.9

45.4

42.6

51.1

47.4

43.7

51.3

48.1

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Employees

39.3

36.5

37.8

40.9

36.8

38.6

29.2

30.4

29.9

30.5

28.5

29.4

29.3

30.0

29.7

32.5

29.8

31.0

30.8

30.1

30.4

32.1

28.0

29.7

19.9

27.5

24.2

18.2

25.7

22.5

17.1

25.0

21.7

Total

2.8

6.1

4.6

3.3

6.5

5.1

2.5

7.0

5.0

4.4

6.7

5.7

4.0

8.6

6.5

3.6

6.3

5.1

3.0

6.6

5.0

3.1

6.0

4.8

1.5

3.1

2.4

1.1

2.7

2.0

0.9

2.3

1.7

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.4

1.3

0.9

0.3

1.6

1.0

0.9

1.3

1.1

0.7

1.9

1.4

0.9

1.2

1.0

1.1

2.5

1.8

0.4

1.6

1.1

0.6

1.6

1.2

0.4

1.7

1.1

0.5

1.5

1.1

0.4

1.5

1.0

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

Status in Employment

1.3

2.5

2.0

1.4

3.1

2.3

3.3

2.6

2.9

2.7

2.5

2.6

2.5

2.2

2.3

1.5

2.5

2.0

3.0

2.8

2.8

3.5

1.9

2.6

2.7

2.1

2.4

2.2

2.4

2.4

1.7

2.4

2.1

Professional. technical or administrative

34.8

26.6

30.3

35.8

25.7

30.2

22.5

19.5

20.9

22.8

17.4

19.8

21.9

18.0

19.8

26.3

18.5

21.9

24.5

19.1

21.5

25.0

18.4

21.2

15.2

20.6

18.3

14.3

19.0

16.9

14.1

18.9

16.9

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

7.3

0.3

3.4

8.5

0.3

4.0

16.1

0.9

7.7

17.7

0.6

8.2

17.1

0.8

8.3

16.3

1.1

7.8

15.8

1.1

7.5

21.4

0.9

9.6

9.4

0.8

4.5

10.4

0.9

5.0

10.3

1.0

4.9

Domestic workers

8.9

4.5

6.5

9.1

4.3

6.5

5.5

2.2

3.7

2.7

2.2

2.4

4.9

2.5

3.6

4.5

3.2

3.8

4.7

2.1

3.2

4.1

2.8

3.4

0.8

0.6

0.7

1.0

0.4

0.7

1.2

0.4

0.7

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.1

0.3

0.2

4.1

6.3

5.3

2.5

5.0

3.9

2.8

6.3

4.7

1.0

2.9

2.0

0.8

1.6

1.2

1.5

3.9

2.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

Others

120 Statistical Annex

61.1

47.1

Men

Women

46.9

Women

54.9

60.4

Men

TOTAL

54.4

45.8

Women

TOTAL

61.4

Men

45.0

Women

54.5

59.2

TOTAL

52.9

Men

68.8

Women

17.9

13.4

15.5

18.6

13.4

15.8

17.7

13.6

15.5

17.5

13.9

15.6

17.5

13.7

15.5

16.9

13.6

15.1

10.2

9.9

10.0

9.6

9.7

9.7

9.8

9.3

9.5

10.2

10.5

10.3

10.5

10.4

10.5

11.8

11.8

11.8

11.9

16.6

14.5

11.3

15.2

13.4

11.4

15.5

13.6

10.6

14.5

12.8

40.8

48.2

44.8

40.8

48.7

45.1

41.1

48.5

45.1

39.8

47.9

44.1

38.8

47.9

43.7

36.1

45.1

40.9

23.7

34.3

29.6

24.2

34.8

30.1

23.2

35.5

30.1

23.0

33.5

28.8

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Statistical annex URBAN

71.4

Men

69.1

Women

70.3

71.8

Men

TOTAL

70.6

68.6

Women

TOTAL

71.3

Men

67.4

Women

70.1

72.3

Men

TOTAL

70.0

66.7

Women

TOTAL

72.1

Men

64.8

Women

69.6

70.5

Men

TOTAL

67.8

TOTAL

11.5

10.2

10.8

11.4

10.5

10.9

11.2

10.5

10.8

11.4

11.1

11.3

Public

Employees

19.7

27.8

24.1

21.0

27.4

24.5

20.8

27.8

24.6

21.5

26.9

24.4

22.2

27.0

24.8

22.7

28.6

25.9

37.6

35.0

36.1

38.9

35.2

36.8

38.9

34.4

36.4

39.0

36.1

37.4

Total

1.6

3.0

2.4

1.5

3.3

2.5

1.6

3.7

2.7

1.8

3.5

2.7

1.9

3.7

2.9

1.9

3.7

2.9

2.6

4.8

3.9

2.7

5.1

4.0

2.9

5.3

4.2

3.0

6.0

4.7

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

0.9

2.1

1.5

1.0

2.3

1.7

1.0

2.5

1.8

0.8

2.1

1.5

1.0

2.3

1.7

0.9

2.3

1.7

0.3

0.9

0.7

0.3

1.0

0.7

0.3

1.2

0.8

0.3

1.5

1.0

Establishments with six or more workers

Employers

Non-employees

4.4

4.3

4.4

4.3

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.3

4.2

4.2

7.9

6.3

7.1

7.9

6.5

7.1

1.4

2.6

2.0

1.5

2.7

2.2

1.4

2.9

2.2

1.4

2.9

2.3

Professional. technical or administrative

12.7

18.4

15.8

14.1

17.6

16.0

13.8

17.3

15.7

14.6

17.1

15.9

11.3

14.6

13.1

12.0

16.1

14.2

33.3

26.6

29.6

34.4

26.2

29.9

34.3

25.0

29.1

34.2

25.6

29.4

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers

10.1

0.1

4.7

8.6

0.0

3.9

9.0

0.0

4.1

9.5

0.0

4.4

9.6

0.1

4.4

10.5

0.0

4.8

6.5

0.3

3.1

6.0

0.2

2.8

6.8

0.2

3.2

6.7

0.3

3.2

Domestic workers

1.0

0.4

0.7

1.0

0.5

0.7

1.3

0.5

0.9

1.3

0.6

0.9

1.3

0.5

0.9

1.6

0.6

1.1

8.7

3.5

5.8

8.2

4.0

5.9

8.4

3.8

5.8

8.9

4.0

6.2

Contributing family workers

(continues...)

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.5

0.4

0.4

Others

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Total

TOTAL

Uruguay m/

2015

2014

2013

2012

Country, Year and Sex

Status in Employment

121 Statistical Annex

Total





Men

Women



Women





Men

TOTAL



60.3

Women

TOTAL

58.2

Men

59.6

Women

59.0

58.2

Men

TOTAL

58.7

58.6

Women

TOTAL

57.1

Men

57.7

Women

57.7

57.1

Men

TOTAL

57.4

TOTAL













28.6

15.1

20.4

28.9

15.1

20.5

28.4

14.4

19.8

27.8

13.7

19.2

Public

9.0













5.9

10.8

8.9

5.8

10.8

8.9

5.6

11.0

8.9

5.5

11.2













25.8

32.3

29.8

24.9

32.3

29.4

24.6

31.7

28.9

24.4

32.3

29.2

Establishments with six or more workers

Private

Establishments with a maximum of five workers

Employees













35.1

41.1

38.8

36.0

41.1

39.1

37.3

42.3

40.4

38.2

42.4

40.8

Total













1.3

3.5

2.6

1.3

3.4

2.6

1.3

3.7

2.7

1.3

3.5

2.6

Establishments with a maximum of five workers













3.1

2.3

2.6

2.7

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.0

2.2

2.5

2.0

2.2

Professional. technical or administrative













30.3

34.1

32.6

31.7

34.5

33.4

33.1

35.6

34.6

34.1

35.7

35.1

Non-professional. technical or administrative

Own-account Workers













3.6

0.1

1.5

3.1

0.1

1.3

3.0

0.1

1.2

3.1

0.1

1.3

Domestic workers













1.0

0.5

0.7

1.3

0.6

0.9

1.1

0.5

0.7

0.9

0.4

0.6

Contributing family workers













0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Others

a The weighted averages of 2010 and 2015 do not include Bolivia. The weighted averages 2013, 2014 and 2015 do not include Nicaragua; The weighted averages of 2014 and 2015 do not include Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of). b/ To calculate the regional weighted average of 2010, Brazil was estimated based on the average of 2009 and 2011 given that the IBGE did not conduct the PNAD in 2010. c/ INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for purposes of comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. d/ Microenterprises: establishments with fewer than five workers. e/ PNAD data, September of each year. The PNAD was not carried out in 2010. f/ Data from the New National Employment Survey. g/ Data correspond to the 3rd quarter, municipal capitals of the Comprehensive Household Survey. h/ Data from the Continuous Employment Survey. i/ Data refer to the 4th quarter of the Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment Survey. j/ Data refer to WAP ages 16 years and over. k/ Data of the National Employment Survey (ENOE), urban total, WAP ages 15 and over. The classification of occupations changed from CMO to SINCO in 2013. l/ Data correspond to the Continuous Household Survey. 2011 data correspond to the 3rd quarter only. m/ The classification of occupations changed in 2012. Microenterprises: Establishments with fewer than five workers. n/ National total. Annual average.













0.4

1.2

0.9

0.3

1.0

0.7

0.3

1.1

0.8

0.3

1.2

0.8

Establishments with six or more workers

Non-employees

Status in Employment

Employers

Source: ILO estimates, based on information from household surveys of the countries. The data have urban coverage.

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of) n/

Country, Year and Sex

Statistical annex URBAN

122 Statistical Annex

b/

100.0

Women

100.0

Women

Statistical annex URBAN

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

3.3

8.6

6.3

4.0

9.2

6.9

4.3

8.7

6.8









2.5

7.2

5.1

2.9

7.5

5.5

2.6

7.5

5.4

2.6

7.6

5.4

2.9

8.1

5.8

3.0

8.4

6.1

Agriculture. fishing and mining

0.2

0.7

0.4

0.5

1.1

0.8

0.1

0.6

0.4









0.2

0.7

0.5

0.2

0.7

0.5

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.7

0.5

Electricity. gas and waterworks

11.1

16.0

13.9

11.7

14.4

13.2

12.7

16.2

14.7









11.6

15.1

13.6

11.9

15.6

14.0

12.0

15.9

14.2

12.5

16.2

14.6

12.1

15.9

14.2

12.7

16.4

14.8

Manufacturing industry

0.6

14.4

8.3

1.0

15.5

9.0

0.9

16.2

9.5









0.8

15.5

9.1

0.8

15.9

9.3

0.8

15.7

9.2

0.7

15.2

8.9

0.6

14.8

8.7

0.6

14.3

8.3

Construction

44.3

18.9

30.1

45.2

20.5

31.5

44.4

20.2

30.7









28.3

25.1

26.5

28.1

24.9

26.3

28.2

24.4

26.1

28.2

24.6

26.1

28.4

24.8

26.4

27.4

25.0

26.0

Trade

2.4

15.4

9.7

2.3

15.9

9.8

2.7

15.3

9.8









1.9

9.7

6.3

2.0

9.5

6.2

2.0

9.7

6.4

2.0

9.6

6.3

2.0

9.5

6.3

1.9

9.1

6.0

Transportation. storage and communications

2.3

1.8

2.0

1.6

1.4

1.5

1.8

1.1

1.4









3.5

4.0

3.8

3.6

3.9

3.8

3.6

4.0

3.8

3.5

4.0

3.7

3.5

3.9

3.7

3.4

3.9

3.7

Financial establishments

35.7

24.1

29.2

33.4

21.8

26.9

33.1

21.6

26.6









51.2

22.4

35.0

50.4

21.8

34.3

50.5

21.9

34.4

50.3

22.0

34.3

50.2

22.0

34.2

50.6

21.9

34.3

Community. social and personal services

(continues...)

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.0

0.1

0.0









0.1

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.4

0.3

Unspecified activities

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men



Women

100.0



Men

2011 Total



2010 Total

Bolivia (Pluri. State of)



100.0

Men

Argentina c/

100.0

100.0

Women

2015 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2014 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2013 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2012 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2011 Total

100.0

100.0

Total

Men

2010 Total b/

Latin America a/

Country, year and sex

TABLE 9. LATIN AMERICA. URBAN EMPLOYMENT BY ECONOMIC SECTOR, COUNTRY AND SEX, 2010 - 2015 (Percentages)

123 Statistical Annex



Women

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

Women

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Chile e/

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2015 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2014 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men



Women

100.0



Men

2011 Total



2010 Total

Brazil d/



Men

100.0

Women



100.0

2015 Total

100.0

Men

Total

2014 Total

Country, year and sex

Statistical annex URBAN

2.4

10.8

7.3

2.6

11.2

7.6

2.7

10.6

7.3

2.7

10.4

7.3

2.7

7.1

5.1

3.2

7.5

5.6

2.9

7.3

5.4

2.8

7.4

5.4

3.2

8.1

6.0













4.0

8.6

6.6

Agriculture. fishing and mining

0.3

0.8

0.6

0.3

1.0

0.7

0.3

1.2

0.8

0.2

1.2

0.8

0.2

0.7

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.4













0.2

0.6

0.5

Electricity. gas and waterworks

8.2

14.3

11.8

8.6

14.6

12.1

8.5

14.5

12.0

8.5

14.1

11.9

11.0

14.2

12.8

11.5

14.9

13.4

11.6

15.4

13.7

12.3

16.1

14.4

11.7

15.5

13.9













11.4

14.8

13.3

Manufacturing industry

1.4

14.4

9.0

1.2

13.8

8.5

1.1

13.7

8.5

0.9

13.5

8.4

0.8

16.6

9.6

0.8

17.2

9.9

0.8

17.1

10.0

0.6

16.3

9.5

0.6

15.7

9.2













1.3

18.7

11.1

Construction

25.1

19.6

21.9

24.7

18.7

21.2

25.9

20.0

22.4

25.9

20.8

22.9

26.0

25.7

25.8

26.0

25.3

25.6

25.9

24.7

25.2

26.0

24.9

25.4

26.3

25.3

25.7













45.6

19.8

31.0

Trade

3.4

11.0

7.8

2.9

11.4

7.8

2.9

11.2

7.8

3.1

11.1

7.9

1.8

9.7

6.2

1.9

9.4

6.1

1.9

9.6

6.3

1.9

9.6

6.2

1.9

9.4

6.2













2.4

15.8

9.9

Transportation. storage and communications

15.2

11.5

13.0

14.4

11.5

12.7

14.4

11.5

12.7

14.3

11.2

12.5

3.0

4.0

3.6

3.2

3.9

3.6

3.2

4.0

3.7

3.1

3.9

3.5

3.2

3.8

3.5













1.8

1.6

1.7

Financial establishments

44.1

17.7

28.7

45.4

17.9

29.3

44.2

17.4

28.4

44.3

17.6

28.4

54.4

22.0

36.2

53.2

21.1

35.2

53.4

21.1

35.2

53.1

21.2

35.1

52.9

21.3

35.0













33.2

20.1

25.8

Community. social and personal services

(continues...)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1













0.1

0.0

0.0

Unspecified activities

124 Statistical Annex

100.0

Women

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

Women

Statistical annex URBAN

100.0

100.0

Women

0.9

4.7

3.2

1.3

5.1

3.6

0.9

5.4

3.6

1.6

6.8

4.5

1.4

6.6

4.3

1.5

6.7

4.3

1.8

7.5

4.9

1.9

8.3

5.4

1.6

8.3

5.3

2.4

10.2

6.9

2.4

10.4

7.0

Agriculture. fishing and mining

0.5

2.4

1.6

0.7

2.6

1.8

0.9

3.0

2.1

0.3

0.9

0.6

0.3

0.9

0.7

0.3

0.7

0.5

0.3

0.7

0.5

0.3

0.8

0.6

0.3

0.8

0.6

0.3

1.0

0.7

0.3

1.0

0.7

Electricity. gas and waterworks

8.5

12.3

10.7

9.4

13.7

12.0

10.7

12.5

11.8

12.7

14.0

13.4

13.3

14.0

13.7

14.0

14.4

14.2

14.9

14.5

14.7

15.1

15.4

15.3

15.3

14.6

14.9

8.8

13.5

11.5

8.5

14.3

11.8

Manufacturing industry

0.6

10.5

6.5

0.8

9.5

6.1

0.4

9.2

5.8

0.7

12.0

6.9

0.7

11.6

6.7

0.6

10.8

6.2

0.7

11.8

6.8

0.6

10.7

6.2

0.5

10.3

5.9

1.4

14.2

8.8

1.3

14.2

8.7

Construction

28.5

25.7

26.9

28.1

28.1

28.1

28.8

28.5

28.6

35.4

27.9

31.2

35.0

27.9

31.1

33.8

28.6

31.0

33.9

28.8

31.1

33.8

28.7

31.0

32.0

29.6

30.6

24.0

19.5

21.4

24.7

19.3

21.6

Trade

2.6

11.9

8.0

2.0

9.4

6.5

1.8

9.4

6.5

3.5

14.3

9.4

3.7

14.4

9.5

3.9

15.0

10.0

3.7

14.4

9.6

4.3

14.1

9.7

4.3

14.0

9.7

3.4

11.3

8.0

3.4

11.0

7.8

Transportation. storage and communications

11.9

13.5

12.8

10.4

13.2

12.1

11.5

11.9

11.7

11.9

10.3

11.0

10.7

9.8

10.2

10.6

9.9

10.2

9.9

8.9

9.4

10.4

9.2

9.7

10.6

8.8

9.6

14.8

12.1

13.3

14.6

11.5

12.8

Financial establishments

46.1

18.7

30.0

46.9

17.7

29.1

44.5

19.8

29.5

34.0

13.8

22.9

34.9

14.6

23.8

35.2

13.8

23.5

34.7

13.4

22.9

33.7

12.9

22.1

35.5

13.6

23.3

44.9

18.3

29.5

44.9

18.4

29.6

Community. social and personal services

(continues...)

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Unspecified activities

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Costa Rica g/

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2015 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2014 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Colombia f/

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

2015 Total

100.0

Men

Total

2014 Total

Country, year and sex

125 Statistical Annex

100.0

100.0

Men

Women

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

100.0

Men

Women

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Ecuador h/

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2015 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2014 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Dom. Rep.

100.0

100.0

Women

2015 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

2014 Total

100.0

Men

Total

2013 Total

Country, year and sex

Statistical annex URBAN

3.9

10.3

7.6

3.7

11.2

8.1

3.8

10.3

7.6

0.6

7.4

4.7

1.6

7.9

5.3

0.6

7.4

4.7

0.8

7.6

4.9

0.9

8.4

5.4

1.0

8.3

5.4

1.8

7.0

4.9

1.5

5.8

4.0

0.9

4.5

3.0

Agriculture. fishing and mining

0.3

0.8

0.6

0.3

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.8

0.7

0.4

1.4

1.0

0.8

1.1

1.0

0.6

1.3

1.0

1.1

1.6

1.4

0.6

1.3

1.0

1.1

1.3

1.2

0.5

2.2

1.5

0.8

2.0

1.5

0.7

2.4

1.7

Electricity. gas and waterworks

11.3

14.1

12.9

11.8

14.1

13.2

11.1

15.3

13.6

8.5

12.3

10.8

8.4

12.0

10.6

8.1

12.9

11.0

9.2

12.7

11.3

8.4

13.4

11.4

8.4

14.2

11.9

8.9

14.2

12.0

8.3

10.9

9.8

7.2

11.0

9.4

Manufacturing industry

1.0

11.0

6.9

0.9

10.8

6.7

0.8

11.8

7.3

1.5

11.2

7.2

0.9

10.8

6.8

0.4

9.5

5.9

0.4

10.8

6.6

0.8

10.6

6.6

0.6

10.3

6.4

0.7

11.2

6.9

1.0

10.9

6.9

0.2

8.8

5.3

Construction

43.1

27.3

33.9

42.9

28.0

34.1

40.6

27.0

32.6

30.6

29.9

30.1

29.6

30.5

30.1

29.4

31.1

30.4

30.1

31.2

30.8

30.5

30.5

30.5

29.6

30.7

30.2

27.6

24.5

25.8

28.4

26.5

27.3

30.1

28.0

28.9

Trade

2.2

12.2

8.0

2.8

11.8

8.1

2.3

11.5

7.7

2.8

12.9

8.8

2.3

12.6

8.4

2.7

12.1

8.4

1.8

12.3

8.0

1.9

12.2

8.0

1.9

12.2

8.1

2.7

8.6

6.2

2.3

10.1

7.0

3.0

11.6

8.1

Transportation. storage and communications

7.3

9.5

8.6

6.9

8.2

7.7

6.2

8.3

7.4

6.3

8.1

7.3

6.4

7.8

7.3

8.5

8.2

8.3

8.0

7.1

7.4

8.3

7.6

7.9

8.3

6.7

7.3

10.9

14.5

13.0

11.5

15.3

13.8

10.6

13.4

12.3

Financial establishments

30.9

14.8

21.6

30.8

15.0

21.5

34.8

15.0

23.2

49.4

16.8

30.0

50.0

17.3

30.5

49.6

17.4

30.3

48.7

16.7

29.7

48.8

16.0

29.3

49.2

16.4

29.4

46.6

17.6

29.4

45.8

18.2

29.4

47.2

19.8

31.1

Community. social and personal services

(continues...)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.4

0.3

Unspecified activities

126 Statistical Annex

100.0

100.0

Men

Women

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

Women

5.5

22.5

15.6

4.7

20.3

14.3

5.4

20.8

14.3

Statistical annex URBAN

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

1.5

9.5

5.8

1.4

10.5

6.2

1.5

11.5

6.8

1.9

12.2

7.3

2.1

12.5

7.7

1.8

12.3

7.3

4.4

11.5

8.6

5.0

11.7

9.0

3.9

10.4

7.8

Agriculture. fishing and mining

0.2

0.7

0.5

0.1

1.1

0.7

0.0

1.0

0.6

0.4

1.1

0.8

0.2

1.0

0.7

0.1

0.9

0.5

0.3

0.8

0.5

0.2

1.0

0.6

0.2

0.9

0.5

0.2

0.9

0.6

0.3

0.7

0.6

0.4

0.7

0.6

Electricity. gas and waterworks

11.3

15.5

13.8

18.1

18.3

18.2

23.4

16.1

19.2

19.2

17.8

18.4

17.6

16.5

17.0

16.9

16.5

16.7

17.7

18.2

18.0

18.4

17.5

17.9

18.2

17.7

18.0

10.3

13.5

12.2

10.1

14.4

12.6

11.7

14.4

13.3

Manufacturing industry

0.4

11.3

6.8

0.8

9.2

6.0

0.5

9.8

5.9

0.4

9.7

5.4

0.3

9.6

5.2

0.3

9.7

5.2

0.3

9.3

5.1

0.4

9.2

5.1

0.5

9.7

5.3

0.8

12.9

8.0

0.5

12.5

7.6

0.9

13.0

8.1

Construction

45.6

25.1

33.5

34.4

23.3

27.6

33.7

23.9

28.1

44.2

28.1

35.5

44.2

28.6

36.0

43.8

27.6

35.3

43.1

26.9

34.5

42.9

26.9

34.3

42.9

27.2

34.7

41.0

24.8

31.5

40.7

24.6

31.2

38.1

24.6

30.1

Trade

1.0

6.4

4.2

1.1

7.7

5.2

1.8

9.3

6.2

1.6

9.4

5.8

1.6

8.4

5.2

1.1

7.9

4.7

1.7

8.6

5.4

1.5

9.1

5.6

1.3

8.8

5.3

3.0

13.5

9.2

3.1

12.5

8.7

3.0

12.1

8.4

Transportation. storage and communications

4.3

5.2

4.8

5.6

7.0

6.4

4.5

5.5

5.1

4.9

8.9

7.0

4.9

8.6

6.8

5.7

9.5

7.7

5.4

8.3

6.9

5.6

8.8

7.3

5.3

8.3

6.9

7.0

7.5

7.3

6.4

7.8

7.2

8.2

8.2

8.2

Financial establishments

31.7

13.1

20.7

35.0

13.1

21.6

29.9

13.2

20.2

27.7

15.6

21.2

29.8

16.7

22.9

30.6

16.5

23.2

29.7

15.8

22.3

28.9

14.9

21.4

29.7

15.0

22.0

33.2

15.3

22.7

34.0

15.8

23.2

33.8

16.6

23.5

Community. social and personal services

(continues...)

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.8

0.4

0.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Unspecified activities

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Guatemala

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2015 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2014 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

El Salvador i/

100.0

100.0

Women

2015 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

2014 Total

100.0

Men

Total

2013 Total

Country, year and sex

127 Statistical Annex

100.0

100.0

Men

Women

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

100.0

Men

Women

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Mexico j/

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2015 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2014 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Honduras

100.0

100.0

Women

2015 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

2014 Total

100.0

Men

Total

2013 Total

Country, year and sex

Statistical annex URBAN

1.3

7.9

5.2

1.4

7.8

5.2

1.3

8.0

5.3

1.3

12.0

7.1

1.7

13.2

8.1

1.3

14.7

8.6

1.2

14.6

8.7

1.2

12.0

7.2

1.6

13.4

8.1

4.4

20.0

14.0

2.4

16.2

10.5

2.8

21.3

13.9

Agriculture. fishing and mining

0.2

0.6

0.5

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.5

0.5

1.7

1.1

0.3

1.1

0.7

0.4

1.1

0.8

0.4

1.0

0.7

0.3

1.0

0.7

0.3

1.1

0.7

0.1

0.7

0.4

0.2

1.1

0.7

0.3

0.9

0.6

Electricity. gas and waterworks

14.3

17.7

16.3

14.2

17.7

16.3

14.4

17.8

16.4

20.6

16.7

18.5

20.6

17.2

18.7

19.0

15.3

17.0

22.7

16.0

19.0

20.4

17.9

19.0

18.9

15.7

17.1

15.9

14.0

14.7

17.0

18.8

18.1

10.2

12.9

11.8

Manufacturing industry

0.8

11.9

7.4

0.8

12.4

7.7

0.7

12.4

7.8

0.2

11.9

6.6

0.7

10.9

6.4

0.4

12.3

6.9

0.6

12.3

7.1

0.5

11.7

6.8

0.5

12.7

7.2

0.3

10.4

6.5

0.6

7.9

4.9

0.4

10.3

6.3

Construction

37.7

23.6

29.3

37.7

23.6

29.2

37.4

23.8

29.2

35.8

26.4

30.7

37.6

29.9

33.3

41.0

28.7

34.2

37.8

27.4

32.0

37.3

29.1

32.7

38.4

27.6

32.4

39.3

26.9

31.7

38.3

26.4

31.3

44.1

26.3

33.4

Trade

1.7

8.1

5.5

1.7

8.0

5.5

1.8

8.1

5.6

0.9

8.4

5.0

0.9

7.9

4.9

1.4

8.4

5.2

1.5

9.0

5.7

1.5

7.5

4.9

1.6

9.2

5.8

1.4

8.2

5.5

2.0

6.9

4.9

1.5

7.5

5.1

Transportation. storage and communications

2.1

1.9

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.8

2.0

1.6

1.7

6.3

7.8

7.1

5.1

6.3

5.7

4.5

6.3

5.5

4.5

6.1

5.4

4.9

5.9

5.5

5.8

6.8

6.4

5.5

6.3

6.0

2.1

1.8

1.9

5.1

7.4

6.5

Financial establishments

41.1

27.5

33.0

41.4

27.5

33.0

41.6

26.8

32.7

34.3

15.2

23.9

32.7

13.1

21.7

31.9

13.1

21.6

31.2

13.6

21.3

33.6

14.8

23.1

32.2

13.1

21.7

33.2

13.5

21.1

37.4

20.9

27.7

35.7

13.3

22.3

Community. social and personal services

(continues...)

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.8

0.7

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.0

0.1

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Unspecified activities

128 Statistical Annex

100.0

100.0

Men

Women



Women

100.0

Women

Statistical annex URBAN

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

0.7

3.7

2.4

0.4

3.4

2.1



















2.4

14.2

8.5

1.8

14.9

8.6

1.7

14.6

8.6

1.3

7.9

5.2

1.3

8.0

5.3

1.3

7.8

5.2

Agriculture. fishing and mining

0.9

1.5

1.3

0.5

0.6

0.6



















0.2

0.7

0.5

0.3

1.0

0.7

0.3

1.2

0.8

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.4

Electricity. gas and waterworks

5.1

8.2

6.9

6.1

9.9

8.3



















15.0

14.3

14.6

14.9

14.6

14.7

16.1

14.9

15.5

15.0

18.7

17.2

14.8

18.7

17.1

14.8

18.3

16.9

Manufacturing industry

1.9

18.9

11.7

1.0

17.7

10.8



















0.2

11.0

5.8

0.2

10.5

5.6

0.2

9.7

5.2

0.8

12.3

7.6

0.8

12.2

7.6

0.7

11.9

7.3

Construction

29.7

24.8

26.9

29.7

24.9

26.9



















45.7

29.1

37.1

45.4

28.3

36.5

41.9

27.6

34.2

37.4

23.4

29.1

37.5

23.6

29.1

37.7

23.5

29.3

Trade

4.5

13.8

9.9

3.7

14.3

9.9



















1.1

9.2

5.3

1.2

8.9

5.2

1.1

9.4

5.5

1.6

8.3

5.6

1.7

8.1

5.5

1.7

8.2

5.6

Transportation. storage and communications

12.9

11.1

11.8

11.7

9.9

10.6



















2.8

6.2

4.6

3.1

6.3

4.7

3.2

6.0

4.7

2.1

1.9

2.0

2.2

1.7

1.9

2.1

1.7

1.9

Financial establishments

44.2

17.9

29.1

47.1

19.4

30.8



















32.6

15.1

23.5

33.3

15.5

24.0

35.3

16.6

25.3

41.1

26.3

32.3

41.2

26.5

32.4

41.0

27.3

32.8

Community. social and personal services

(continues...)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0



















0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.5

0.7

0.6

0.4

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.7

0.6

Unspecified activities

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Panama



Men



Women





Men

2015 Total





Women

2014 Total



Men

100.0

Women



100.0

Men

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Nicaragua k/

100.0

100.0

Women

2015 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

2014 Total

100.0

Men

Total

2013 Total

Country, year and sex

129 Statistical Annex

100.0

Women

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

Women

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Peru e/

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2015 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2014 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Paraguay

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2015 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2014 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

2013 Total

100.0

Men

Total

2012 Total

Country, year and sex

Statistical annex URBAN

6.5

12.2

9.6

6.1

11.4

9.1

1.4

3.9

2.8

2.3

3.2

2.8

3.2

4.0

3.6

4.1

4.7

4.4

2.9

4.8

4.0

2.5

4.4

3.6

0.7

3.1

2.0

0.6

3.7

2.4

0.6

3.3

2.2

0.7

3.7

2.4

Agriculture. fishing and mining

0.1

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.4

0.3

0.5

1.1

0.8

0.4

1.0

0.7

0.4

1.5

1.0

0.3

1.3

0.9

0.6

0.9

0.7

0.3

1.2

0.8

0.5

1.3

1.0

0.7

1.4

1.1

0.8

1.5

1.2

0.6

1.1

0.9

Electricity. gas and waterworks

10.8

13.8

12.5

11.1

14.6

13.0

10.3

17.0

14.0

9.4

15.1

12.6

8.5

15.4

12.2

9.9

15.1

12.8

10.4

15.6

13.3

8.8

15.9

12.9

5.8

8.9

7.6

5.9

8.2

7.2

5.7

8.3

7.2

4.8

7.9

6.6

Manufacturing industry

0.7

11.5

6.7

0.4

11.5

6.6

0.3

12.2

6.8

0.8

14.7

8.6

0.3

12.7

6.9

0.2

11.7

6.6

0.4

14.0

8.1

0.4

15.0

8.9

1.6

18.2

11.1

2.3

21.1

13.0

2.2

20.3

12.7

2.0

18.6

11.5

Construction

43.6

21.0

31.1

44.2

21.6

31.7

34.0

31.6

32.7

32.9

32.5

32.7

31.4

30.8

31.1

32.9

32.6

32.7

33.4

31.3

32.2

33.8

30.5

31.9

29.6

24.3

26.6

30.1

23.6

26.4

30.0

24.4

26.8

29.9

25.0

27.1

Trade

2.6

15.8

9.9

2.3

15.4

9.6

1.7

7.3

4.8

1.9

7.6

5.0

2.4

7.5

5.1

1.8

8.9

5.7

2.4

8.0

5.6

2.4

7.2

5.2

5.1

14.6

10.5

3.7

13.8

9.5

4.4

15.3

10.7

4.3

14.8

10.3

Transportation. storage and communications

6.0

7.9

7.1

5.2

7.8

6.6

7.2

8.4

7.9

8.0

8.2

8.1

6.6

9.5

8.1

7.0

7.2

7.1

6.8

7.1

7.0

5.9

7.5

6.8

13.0

11.1

11.9

12.8

11.5

12.0

12.8

10.0

11.2

12.5

11.2

11.8

Financial establishments

29.8

17.5

23.0

30.6

17.2

23.2

44.6

18.6

30.2

44.3

17.5

29.4

47.1

18.6

31.8

43.9

18.6

29.7

43.2

18.0

29.0

45.8

18.2

29.8

43.6

18.5

29.3

43.8

16.7

28.4

43.6

16.8

28.1

45.2

17.7

29.4

Community. social and personal services

(continues...)

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Unspecified activities

130 Statistical Annex

l/

100.0

Women

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Women

9.6

2.1

14.3

Statistical annex URBAN

100.0

Men

1.6

6.1

4.1

1.5

5.9

3.9

1.5

6.2

4.1

1.6

6.6

4.3

1.7

6.7

4.4

1.9

7.9

5.1

7.7

13.7

11.1

6.7

13.0

10.2

6.4

12.5

9.8

5.6

12.1

9.2

Agriculture. fishing and mining

0.3

0.6

0.5

0.5

1.1

0.8

0.5

1.2

0.9

0.6

1.3

1.0

0.6

1.3

1.0

0.5

1.3

0.9

0.6

1.2

0.9

0.1

0.4

0.3

0.1

0.4

0.3

0.1

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.2

Electricity. gas and waterworks

9.3

12.9

11.5

8.2

13.9

11.3

8.8

14.5

11.9

9.1

15.3

12.5

9.3

15.0

12.4

10.6

16.1

13.6

11.0

16.3

13.8

9.7

12.7

11.4

10.0

12.7

11.5

10.4

13.6

12.1

10.9

14.6

13.0

Manufacturing industry

0.9

14.1

8.9

0.9

14.2

8.1

0.8

14.8

8.4

0.7

14.5

8.2

0.8

14.2

8.0

0.7

13.6

7.6

0.6

13.4

7.5

0.7

13.2

7.7

0.7

12.7

7.4

0.8

12.3

7.2

0.8

11.8

6.9

Construction

31.9

18.1

23.5

23.1

23.1

23.1

22.3

23.0

22.7

22.5

22.5

22.5

23.2

22.8

22.9

22.4

23.5

23.0

22.8

23.6

23.2

44.1

20.1

30.7

44.9

21.6

31.9

44.9

21.8

32.1

45.0

20.9

31.6

Trade

2.1

13.8

9.2

3.7

11.5

7.9

3.5

11.0

7.6

3.4

10.8

7.4

3.1

10.5

7.1

2.8

9.2

6.3

2.7

8.5

5.8

2.3

16.0

9.9

2.5

15.4

9.7

2.4

14.7

9.2

2.2

14.8

9.2

Transportation. storage and communications

5.3

5.5

5.4

11.3

10.1

10.6

11.0

9.6

10.3

10.6

9.5

10.0

9.7

9.1

9.4

9.5

10.0

9.8

8.9

9.9

9.5

6.3

7.8

7.1

6.2

8.3

7.3

6.1

8.2

7.3

6.0

8.1

7.1

Financial establishments

47.9

20.3

31.1

50.6

20.0

34.0

51.6

19.9

34.4

51.6

19.9

34.3

51.8

20.5

35.0

51.8

19.6

34.4

51.5

19.2

34.1

29.0

16.2

21.8

28.9

16.0

21.7

28.9

16.6

22.1

29.5

17.4

22.8

Community. social and personal services

(continues...)

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Unspecified activities

ILO / Latin America and the Caribbean

2010 Total

Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of)

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2015 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2014 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2013 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2012 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2011 Total

100.0

2010 Total

Uruguay

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

Men

2015 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2014 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

2013 Total

100.0

Men

Total

2012 Total

Country, year and sex

131 Statistical Annex





Men

Women













2.2

13.0

8.8

2.0

13.4

9.0

2.0

13.7

9.1

Agriculture. fishing and mining













0.2

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.6

0.5

0.3

0.6

0.5

Electricity. gas and waterworks













8.6

12.9

11.2

8.6

12.6

11.0

9.0

12.8

11.3

Manufacturing industry













1.1

12.7

8.2

1.0

13.3

8.5

1.0

14.0

8.9

Construction

a/ b/ c/ d/ e/ f/ g/ h/ i/ j/ k/ l/













31.6

19.6

24.3

31.9

19.3

24.2

32.0

18.5

23.7

Trade













2.3

13.9

9.4

2.2

13.5

9.1

2.2

13.9

9.4

Transportation. storage and communications













5.7

5.7

5.7

5.4

5.6

5.5

5.5

5.7

5.6

Financial establishments













48.1

21.3

31.8

48.3

21.4

31.9

47.9

20.6

31.3

Community. social and personal services

The weighted averages 2010 do not include Bolivia. The weighted averages 2013, 2014 and 2015 do not include Nicaragua. The weighted averages of 2014 and 2015 do not include Venezuela (Boliv. Rep. of). To calculate the regional weighted average of 2010, Brazil was estimated based on the average of 2009 and 2011 given that the IBGE did not conduct the PNAD in 2010. INDEC, in the framework of the statistical emergency, recommends disregarding the series published between 2007 and 2015 for purposes of comparison and analysis of the labour market in Argentina. PNAD data, September of each year. The PNAD was not carried out in 2010. Data from the New National Employment Survey. Data correspond to the 3rd quarter, municipal capitals of the Comprehensive Household Survey. Data from the Continuous Employment Survey. Data refer to the 4th quarter of the Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment Survey. WAP 16 years and over. Data of the National Employment Survey (ENOE), urban total. Data correspond to the Continuous Household Survey. National total. Annual average.

Source: ILO estimates, based on information from household surveys of the countries. The data have urban coverage.





Women

2015 Total



Men

100.0

Women



100.0

Men

2014 Total

100.0

100.0

Women

2013 Total

100.0

Men

100.0

Women

100.0

100.0

2012 Total

100.0

Men

Total

2011 Total

Country, year and sex

Statistical annex URBAN













0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

Unspecified activities

132 Statistical Annex

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