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A Thesis submitted to the Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government in fulfilment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy Universiti Utara Malaysia

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ABSTRAK Berdasarkan daripada Model Empat Komponen Neo-Kohlbergian dan pelbagai teori etika normatif, kajian ini mengkaji perhubungan antara gaya kepemimpinan dan tahap pasca konvensional pembangunan kognitif moral. Secara asasnya, kajian ini mempertimbangkan persepsi subordinat terhadap gaya kepemimpinan para pemimpin penjawat awam yang mempunyai hubungan dengan tahap pasca taakulan konvensional dalam kalangan subordinat, dengan meneroka peranan komitmen agama, individualisme dan kolektivisme (khususnya dimensi vertikal individualisme dan kolektivisme) sebagai moderator. Pendekatan kuantitatif digunakan dan melibatkan seramai 285 orang penjawat awam Nigeria dengan melengkapkan soal selidik yang mengandungi alat ukuran taakulan moral Defining Issue Test 2 (DIT2) dan soal selidik pelbagai gaya kepemimpinan (multileadership questionnaire (MLQ) ). Kaedah Partial Least Square (PLS) digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis kajian. Dapatan menunjukkan kesan positif dan signifikan dalam hubungan yang dihipotesiskan. Secara khususnya, dapatan kajian membuktikan bahawa gaya kepemimpinan transformasi dan transaksional adalah berhubungan secara signifikan dengan tahap taakulan pasca konvensional. Dapatan juga menunjukkan bahawa hubungan antara gaya kepemimpinan transformasi dan tahap taakulan pasca konvensional dimoderasikan secara signifikan oleh komitmen agama dan individualisme vertikal dan kolektivisme. Namun begitu, individualisme vertikal dan kolektivisme tidak mempunyai kesan moderasi yang signifikan dalam hubungan antara gaya kepemimpinan transformasi dan tahap taakulan pasca konvensional. Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan komitmen agama tidak mempunyai kesan moderasi yang signifikan ke atas gaya kepemimpinan transaksional. Semua dapatan kajian ini menyokong dapatan kajian lalu dan turut memberi sumbangan kepada ilmu tentang gaya kepemimpinan dan taakulan etika. Justeru itu, kajian ini menyediakan suatu hala tuju untuk organisasi sektor awam yang ingin menambahbaik tenaga kerja yang beretika. Katakunci : Neo-Kohlbergian Model, Taakulan Etika, Gaya Kepemimpinan, Sektor – Awam Nigeria. .


Abstract Drawing from the Neo-Kohlbergian Four-Component Model of moral reasoning and diverse normative ethical theories on moral behavior, this study investigated the relationship between leadership styles and post conventional cognitive moral development in propelling ethical behaviors in the Nigerian public sector. Primarily, it considered subordinates‘ perception of public leaders‘ leadership style in relation to post conventional reasoning of the subordinates, by exploring the roles of religiosity commitment, individualism and collectivism as moderators, with emphasis on their dimensions of vertical individualism and collectivism. A quantitative approach was employed and 285 public servants completed the self-administered questionnaires using the defining issue test (DIT2) for moral reasoning and the multi-leadership questionnaire (MLQ) for leadership. Partial Least Squares Method (PLS) algorithm was used for testing of the study‘s hypotheses. Results provided a significant positive effect for some of the hypothesized relationships. Specifically, the result revealed that transformational and transactional leadership styles were significantly related to post-conventional reasoning. Findings also showed that the relationship between transformational leadership and post conventional cognitive moral development was found to be significantly moderated by religiosity commitment and vertical individualism and collectivism. However, vertical individualism and collectivism did not have a significant moderating effect on transactional leadership style and post-conventional reasoning. The findings also indicated that religiosity does not have a significant moderation effect on transactional leadership style. The results supported prior study‘s findings, thereby contributing to the body of knowledge on leadership style and ethical reasoning. Thus, it has provided a road map for public sector organizations desiring improved ethical workforce.

Keywords: Neo-Kohlbergian Model, Ethical Reasoning, Leadership Style, Nigeria Public Pector


Acknowledgment Having this copy of dissertation in my hands fills me with an emotional and psychological pride, satisfaction, reliefs, upliftment and, accomplishment. No doubt my doctoral journey would have remained a mirage, talk less of completed without the direction and guidance of the almighty God, who answered my prayers and granted me the unyielding and enduring spirit to actualize this dream. This dissertation is a product of a long toil, a process mixed with ups and downs throughout the duration of the program several thousand miles away from home and loved ones.

I will forever remain grateful and highly indebted to my supervisor Prof. Abd Halim B Ahmad and my co-supervisor Dr Rozita Binti Arshad for their kind advice and expertise that paved the way and facilitated this dissertation. Equally of significance were the untiring efforts of Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmmad. M. Mohamed and Prof Dr. Nik Rosnah Wan Abdullah in reviewing this dissertation. I am indeed honoured and appreciative.

For Prof, Abd Halim B Ahmad, words alone cannot express my gratitude, for accepting me as his doctoral student, guiding me throughout the whole process, responsive attention to details, challenging my cognition and thinking through thought provoking questions that propelled and facilitated my development and learning. What an outstanding Professor who is always available, calmly listens to questions, and allows sufficient time for the student to incorporate and develop new perspectives to the best of his ability based on his inspiration. My capacity to embrace complexities, ambiguities and the need for responsiveness towards contexts are part of the enduring learning legacy for me which is crucial in empirical studies as well as in professional life.

My co-supervisor, Dr Rozita Binti Arshad gave me enough support especially during some critical presentations, and I always felt welcome in her presence. Her clarity of thought was a great relief whenever I felt overwhelmed by most suitable path to follow. My dissertation vii

topic relates to ethics, morals and leadership, specifically ethical reasoning and leadership style and blending the two in Nigerian public sector seems to be a mirage until recently. The quest for a Phd is over, but I am still motivated to continue research on ethical judgment and transformational leadership, specifically its processes and practices in the public sector.

Many people and a few organizations gave valuable assistance during this dissertation especially my doctoral colleagues at the UUM, as well as other researchers I met and exchanged ideas with at international conferences and seminars. I equally appreciate the efforts of management and staff of Wufed poly Kebbi, my deepest thanks go to my uncle Igwe Tom Inyiama, Gen. Felix Okafor, Dan and lovely Nkem Kpekerebiam, Chief Dr and lady Charlie Ngwu (Phd), Elder Louis Ani, Chief Benedict Ngwu and family, Dr Raji Jimoh, Dr Badru Bazeet and Osagie Davies (Phd) for all their encouragement and prayers that led to the actualization of this dream.

I wish to express my sincerest and heartfelt thanks to the whole family of Chief Henry Obueze Chikelu, Barrister M.B Audie and family, a worthy friend and neighbour, Alhaji Sadiq M Diggi for their patience, support, understanding and encouragement throughout this journey. Finally, I thank my children for their perseverance, especially their mother Ifeoma my beloved jewel of inestimable value, who always stood by me and supported me in all my aspirations, without her, I could never have possibly navigated and conquered the odds, her love is encompassing, her encouragement, sacrifice and milk of human generosity overflowed and overwhelmed me, words are not just enough to express my gratitude, she is a worthy partner made in heaven. Chikelu Okey Felix (94861) 25th July 2016.























1.0 Introduction


2.1 Background of the study


2.2 Problem statement


2.3 Research Questions


2.4 Research Objectives


2.5 Policy Implications


2.6 Significance of the Study


2.7 Scope of the Study


2.8 Limitations of the Study


2.9 Structure of the Study


2.10 Chapter Summary






3.1 An Overview of Ethical Philosophical Theories



Egoistic Theory



Utilitarianism Theory (Teleology)

34 ix


Kantianism Theory (Deontology)


3.2 Ethics in Public Administration 3.2.1


Ethics and Leadership Theories


3.3 Ethics and Cognitive Moral Decisions in the Work Place


3.4 An Overview of Ethics and Leadership Style in Nigeria



Post Conventional Ethical Reasoning in Nigeria Public-sector.


2.5 Overview of Leadership Style and values in Nigeria Public Sector


3.6 Ethics and Transformational Leadership Style


3.7 Dimensions of Transformational leadership


3.8 Pseudo Transformational leadership


3.9 The Full-Range Leadership Theory


3.10 Transactional Leadership Style


3.11 Servant Leadership


3.12 Spiritual leadership



Measuring the Cognitive Moral Development (CMD)



The Neo-Kohlbergian summary


2.13 General Overview of cultural distinctions: Vertical Individualism and Collectivism 79 2.14 Religiosity Commitment


3.15 Individualism and Collectivism, Leadership Style and Post Conventional Level of Reasoning



Universality of Value Structure



Individualism-Collectivism (IND-COL) Typology



Individualism-Collectivism as Potential Moderator


3.16 Religiosity Commitment as a Potential Moderator


3.17 Theoretical Underpinning



The Teleological Ethical Theory (Utilitarianism)



The Deontological Theory (Kantianism)



Justice Theory


3.18 Hypotheses Development 3.18.1


Ethical Post Conventional Reasoning and Leadership Theory x



Post Conventional Reasoning and Transformational leadership



Post Conventional Reasoning and Transactional Leadership Style



Vertical Collectivism and Post Conventional Reasoning



Vertical Individualism and Post Conventional Reasoning



Religiosity Commitment and post conventional Reasoning



Vertical Individualism, Collectivism and Religiosity Commitment as Moderators of the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Post conventional Reasoning.


3.19 Theoretical Framework


3.20 Chapter Summary




3.0 Introduction


4.1 Research Design



Population of the Study


4.2 Population and Sampling Frame


4.3 Sample Frame


4.4 Sample Size Determination


4.5 Conceptual Definitions


4.6 Variables of the Study



Independent Variables



Dependent Variable



Post Conventional level of Cognition


4.7 Measurement of Variables



Measurement of Cognitive Moral Development



Reliability, Internal Checks and Validity



Measurement of Religiosity



Measurement of Transformational and Transactional leadership:



Measurement of Individualism and Collectivism



Demographic variables


4.8 Data Collection

154 xi

4.9 Techniques of Data Analysis (Triangulation)


4.10 Descriptive


4.11 Partial Least Square Modeling (PLS-SEM)


4.12 Pilot Study


4.13 Ethical Considerations


4.14 Chapter Summary




4.0 Introduction


4.1 Descriptive Analysis


4.1.1 Survey Response Rate Analysis


4.2 Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis



Test of Non-Response Bias



Data Coding



Missing values



Outlier Detection and Treatment


4.3 Fundamental Statistical Assumption






Normality Test



Normality test for Major Variables



Common Method Variance Test


4.4 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents


4.5 Descriptive Statistics of Main Variables


4.6 Descriptive Statistics of Post Conventional Reasoning Categories



Post conventional Categories



Ministries by Post Conventional Reasoning


4.7 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)


4.8 Descriptive Analysis of Main Variables by Post conventional



Cognitive Moral Development Threshold.


4.9 Data Analysis: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)


4.10 Partial Least Square Analysis (PLS)

201 xii

4.11 Assessment of Measurement Model


4.12 Instrument Validity and Reliability



Convergent Validity



Discriminant Validity


4.13 Reliability of Measures


4.14 Assessment of the measurement and Structural Model


4.15 Overall Model



Direct Hypotheses



Moderating Hypotheses



Moderating Effect of Culture and Religiosity commitment on the relationship between Leadership style and Post Conventional Reasoning


4.16 Assessment of Variance Explained in the Endogenous Latent Variable


4.17 R-Square


4.18 Determining the Effect Size



Plotting Interactions between Vertical Individualism and Collectivism and Religiosity Commitment on the relationship between Leadership styles and Post conventional Reasoning.



Plotting interaction between Religiosity Commitment, transformational leadership style and Post Conventional Reasoning.


4.19 Relevance (Q2) of the Model


4.20 Determining the Goodness of Fit (GOF)


4.21 Summary of Findings




5.0 Introduction




5.2 Leadership Style and Post conventional Reasoning in Nigeria Public Sector 5.3 Relationship between Leadership Style and Ethical reasoning

242 246

5.4 Relationship between Transactional Leadership and Post Conventional Reasoning 253 5.4.1

Relationship between Vertical Collectivism and Post Conventional Reasoning Level

255 xiii


Relationship between Vertical Individualism and Post Conventional Reasoning Level



Relationships between Religiosity Commitment and Post Conventional Reasoning Level.


5.5 Discussion on the Moderating Effect Vertical Individualism, Collectivism and Religious Commitment on the relationship between Leadership styles and POSTCONV 5.5.1


Significance and implications of Moderation Effects of Vertical Collectivism and Vertical individualism and Religiosity commitment



The Effect of Culture



Significance of Religious Commitment on the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Post Conventional Reasoning Level

5.6 Contributions of the Study

272 276


Theoretical Implications



Methodological Implications



Practical Implications


5.7 Limitations of the Study


5.8 Direction for Future Research


5.9 Conclusion













List of Tables Table


2.1 The Nigerian Map showing Kebbi State


2.2 Relationship between some ethical theories


3.1 Population Frame


3.2 Summary of Variables, Dimensions and Total Number of Items


3.3 Variable and its characteristics


3.4 Measurement for Individualism and Collectivism


3,5 Pilot Test for Reliabilty


4.1 Response Rate


4.2 Test of Non- Response Bias


4.3 Data Coding for the constructs


4.4 Missing Values


4.5 Normality Test


4.6 Demographic of Major Variables


4.7 Descriptive characteristics of the Respondents


4.8 Descriptive Statistics of Constructs


4.9 Post Conventional Reasoning Categories


4.10 TFL & TSL by Post Conventional Reasoning


4.11 Transformational leader post-conventional Level


4. 12 Transactional Leadership Style by Ministries


4.13 Item Loadings for the constructs


4.14 Descriptive Statistics of Ministries by Post Conventional Reasoning


4.15 Transformational Leadership Indicators


4.16 Transactional Leadership Style by Indictors


4.17 Vertical Individualism by Mean


4.18 Vertical Collectivism by Mean


4.19 Descriptive Statisticsby Religiosity


4.20 Cognitive MoralDevelopment Threshold


4.21 Latent Variable Correlation

205 xv

4.22 Religiosity by Mean


4.23 Item Loadings, Average Variance Extracted


4.24 Test of Direct Hypotheses


4.25 Test of Moderating Hypotheses


4.26 R-Square Result


4.27 The Effect Size


4.28 Construct Cross Validated Redundancy Test



List of Figures 1.1The Nigerian Map showing Kebbi State


2.1 Theoretical framework


3.1 X-Y Plot for Medium Effect Power Analysis


3.2 Output of Power Analysis


4.1 Graph Plot for Ministries


4.3 Measurement Model


4.4 Model for the Direct Hypotheses


4.5 Direct Model T Statistics


4.6 Simple Model with moderating influence


4.7 Structural Model with Moderators


4.8 Structural Model T Statistics


4.9 Moderating Effect of VIM on the relationship between POSCONV and TFL


4.10 Moderating Effect of VCM on the relationship between TFL and POSCONV


4. 11 Moderating Effect of REL on the relationship between TFL and POSCONV


4.12 Moderating Effect of VCM on the relationship between TSL and POSCONV



List of Abbreviations List of Abbreviations AMOS

Analysis of Moment Structures


Average Variance Extracted


Common Factor Analysis




College of Law, Government and International Studies


Cognitive Moral Development


Common Method Variance


Contingent Reward


Composite Reliability








Horizontal Collectivism


Horizontal Individualism




Individualized Influence


Inspirational Motivation


Intellectual Stimulation


Individualized Consideration


Management by Exception Active


Management by Exception Passive


Partial least Squares




Transformational Leadership


Transactional Leadership


Vertical Collectivism


Variance Inflated factor


Vertical Individualism xviii


1.0 Introduction The normative ethical theories provide moral rules that guide ethical reasoning and other human resources activities in an organization with regards to what is right or wrong. Most studies on ethical principles centers on its application to business organizations and moral behavior (Kimberling, 2008; Toor & Ofori, 2009). Other theoretical foundation used to assess ethical reasoning or decision making is the cognitive moral development (Kohlberg, 1969) and ethical values (Abrhiem, 2012; Hunt & Vitell, 1986). Ethical reasoning is more than a justification for an action when faced with morally challenging dilemma.

The most applied theories to rationalize ethical decisions are the utilitarianism and deontology (Fritzsche & Becker, 1984; Jaramillo, Bande & Varela, 2015), although some do rely on a combination of both or more which shows a diversity in ethical reasoning approaches. Thus, addressing ethical lapses in the public sector organization by examining the correlation between leadership style and post conventional level of reasoning, specifically, the application of reasoned thought (judgment) in challenging ethical situation and its influence on subordinates‘ general ethicality is one major objective of this study. More specifically, it explored the effects of specific content of individual values on the linkages between leadership style and post conventional level of reasoning as secondary objective. Thus, this study builds on the question of how 1

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