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EXAMINING LEADERSHIP STYLE AND ETHICAL REASONING IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SECTOR

CHIKELU OKEY FELIX (94861)

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY UTARA MALAYSIA 2016

EXAMINING LEADERSHIP STYLE AND ETHICAL REASONING IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SECTOR

BY

CHIKELU OKEY FELIX (94861)

A Thesis submitted to the Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government in fulfilment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy Universiti Utara Malaysia

Permission to Use In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for PhD degree from Universiti Utara Malaysia, I agree that the Universiti Library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for coping of this thesis in any manner either in whole or in part, for scholarly purpose may be granted by my supervisor(s) or, in their absence, by the Dean of Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government, College of Law, Government and International Studies (COLGIS). I understand that any coping or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis.

Request for permission to copy or to make other use of materials in this thesis, in whole or in part, should be addressed to:

Dean (Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government) UUM College of Law, Government and International Studies Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 UUM Sintok Kedah Darul Aman

iv

ABSTRAK Berdasarkan daripada Model Empat Komponen Neo-Kohlbergian dan pelbagai teori etika normatif, kajian ini mengkaji perhubungan antara gaya kepemimpinan dan tahap pasca konvensional pembangunan kognitif moral. Secara asasnya, kajian ini mempertimbangkan persepsi subordinat terhadap gaya kepemimpinan para pemimpin penjawat awam yang mempunyai hubungan dengan tahap pasca taakulan konvensional dalam kalangan subordinat, dengan meneroka peranan komitmen agama, individualisme dan kolektivisme (khususnya dimensi vertikal individualisme dan kolektivisme) sebagai moderator. Pendekatan kuantitatif digunakan dan melibatkan seramai 285 orang penjawat awam Nigeria dengan melengkapkan soal selidik yang mengandungi alat ukuran taakulan moral Defining Issue Test 2 (DIT2) dan soal selidik pelbagai gaya kepemimpinan (multileadership questionnaire (MLQ) ). Kaedah Partial Least Square (PLS) digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis kajian. Dapatan menunjukkan kesan positif dan signifikan dalam hubungan yang dihipotesiskan. Secara khususnya, dapatan kajian membuktikan bahawa gaya kepemimpinan transformasi dan transaksional adalah berhubungan secara signifikan dengan tahap taakulan pasca konvensional. Dapatan juga menunjukkan bahawa hubungan antara gaya kepemimpinan transformasi dan tahap taakulan pasca konvensional dimoderasikan secara signifikan oleh komitmen agama dan individualisme vertikal dan kolektivisme. Namun begitu, individualisme vertikal dan kolektivisme tidak mempunyai kesan moderasi yang signifikan dalam hubungan antara gaya kepemimpinan transformasi dan tahap taakulan pasca konvensional. Dapatan kajian juga menunjukkan komitmen agama tidak mempunyai kesan moderasi yang signifikan ke atas gaya kepemimpinan transaksional. Semua dapatan kajian ini menyokong dapatan kajian lalu dan turut memberi sumbangan kepada ilmu tentang gaya kepemimpinan dan taakulan etika. Justeru itu, kajian ini menyediakan suatu hala tuju untuk organisasi sektor awam yang ingin menambahbaik tenaga kerja yang beretika. Katakunci : Neo-Kohlbergian Model, Taakulan Etika, Gaya Kepemimpinan, Sektor – Awam Nigeria. .

v

Abstract Drawing from the Neo-Kohlbergian Four-Component Model of moral reasoning and diverse normative ethical theories on moral behavior, this study investigated the relationship between leadership styles and post conventional cognitive moral development in propelling ethical behaviors in the Nigerian public sector. Primarily, it considered subordinates‘ perception of public leaders‘ leadership style in relation to post conventional reasoning of the subordinates, by exploring the roles of religiosity commitment, individualism and collectivism as moderators, with emphasis on their dimensions of vertical individualism and collectivism. A quantitative approach was employed and 285 public servants completed the self-administered questionnaires using the defining issue test (DIT2) for moral reasoning and the multi-leadership questionnaire (MLQ) for leadership. Partial Least Squares Method (PLS) algorithm was used for testing of the study‘s hypotheses. Results provided a significant positive effect for some of the hypothesized relationships. Specifically, the result revealed that transformational and transactional leadership styles were significantly related to post-conventional reasoning. Findings also showed that the relationship between transformational leadership and post conventional cognitive moral development was found to be significantly moderated by religiosity commitment and vertical individualism and collectivism. However, vertical individualism and collectivism did not have a significant moderating effect on transactional leadership style and post-conventional reasoning. The findings also indicated that religiosity does not have a significant moderation effect on transactional leadership style. The results supported prior study‘s findings, thereby contributing to the body of knowledge on leadership style and ethical reasoning. Thus, it has provided a road map for public sector organizations desiring improved ethical workforce.

Keywords: Neo-Kohlbergian Model, Ethical Reasoning, Leadership Style, Nigeria Public Pector

vi

Acknowledgment Having this copy of dissertation in my hands fills me with an emotional and psychological pride, satisfaction, reliefs, upliftment and, accomplishment. No doubt my doctoral journey would have remained a mirage, talk less of completed without the direction and guidance of the almighty God, who answered my prayers and granted me the unyielding and enduring spirit to actualize this dream. This dissertation is a product of a long toil, a process mixed with ups and downs throughout the duration of the program several thousand miles away from home and loved ones.

I will forever remain grateful and highly indebted to my supervisor Prof. Abd Halim B Ahmad and my co-supervisor Dr Rozita Binti Arshad for their kind advice and expertise that paved the way and facilitated this dissertation. Equally of significance were the untiring efforts of Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmmad. M. Mohamed and Prof Dr. Nik Rosnah Wan Abdullah in reviewing this dissertation. I am indeed honoured and appreciative.

For Prof, Abd Halim B Ahmad, words alone cannot express my gratitude, for accepting me as his doctoral student, guiding me throughout the whole process, responsive attention to details, challenging my cognition and thinking through thought provoking questions that propelled and facilitated my development and learning. What an outstanding Professor who is always available, calmly listens to questions, and allows sufficient time for the student to incorporate and develop new perspectives to the best of his ability based on his inspiration. My capacity to embrace complexities, ambiguities and the need for responsiveness towards contexts are part of the enduring learning legacy for me which is crucial in empirical studies as well as in professional life.

My co-supervisor, Dr Rozita Binti Arshad gave me enough support especially during some critical presentations, and I always felt welcome in her presence. Her clarity of thought was a great relief whenever I felt overwhelmed by most suitable path to follow. My dissertation vii

topic relates to ethics, morals and leadership, specifically ethical reasoning and leadership style and blending the two in Nigerian public sector seems to be a mirage until recently. The quest for a Phd is over, but I am still motivated to continue research on ethical judgment and transformational leadership, specifically its processes and practices in the public sector.

Many people and a few organizations gave valuable assistance during this dissertation especially my doctoral colleagues at the UUM, as well as other researchers I met and exchanged ideas with at international conferences and seminars. I equally appreciate the efforts of management and staff of Wufed poly Kebbi, my deepest thanks go to my uncle Igwe Tom Inyiama, Gen. Felix Okafor, Dan and lovely Nkem Kpekerebiam, Chief Dr and lady Charlie Ngwu (Phd), Elder Louis Ani, Chief Benedict Ngwu and family, Dr Raji Jimoh, Dr Badru Bazeet and Osagie Davies (Phd) for all their encouragement and prayers that led to the actualization of this dream.

I wish to express my sincerest and heartfelt thanks to the whole family of Chief Henry Obueze Chikelu, Barrister M.B Audie and family, a worthy friend and neighbour, Alhaji Sadiq M Diggi for their patience, support, understanding and encouragement throughout this journey. Finally, I thank my children for their perseverance, especially their mother Ifeoma my beloved jewel of inestimable value, who always stood by me and supported me in all my aspirations, without her, I could never have possibly navigated and conquered the odds, her love is encompassing, her encouragement, sacrifice and milk of human generosity overflowed and overwhelmed me, words are not just enough to express my gratitude, she is a worthy partner made in heaven. Chikelu Okey Felix (94861) 25th July 2016.

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION OF THESIS

II

PERMISSION TO USE

IV

ABSTRAK

V

ABSTRACT

VI

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS

IX

LIST OF TABLES

XV

LIST OF FIGURES

XVII

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

XVIII

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1

1.0 Introduction

1

2.1 Background of the study

8

2.2 Problem statement

13

2.3 Research Questions

20

2.4 Research Objectives

21

2.5 Policy Implications

22

2.6 Significance of the Study

23

2.7 Scope of the Study

25

2.8 Limitations of the Study

26

2.9 Structure of the Study

27

2.10 Chapter Summary

28

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

29

2.0 INTRODUCTION

29

3.1 An Overview of Ethical Philosophical Theories

30

3.1.1

Egoistic Theory

34

2.1.2

Utilitarianism Theory (Teleology)

34 ix

2.1.3

Kantianism Theory (Deontology)

35

3.2 Ethics in Public Administration 3.2.1

36

Ethics and Leadership Theories

43

3.3 Ethics and Cognitive Moral Decisions in the Work Place

47

3.4 An Overview of Ethics and Leadership Style in Nigeria

52

3.4.1

Post Conventional Ethical Reasoning in Nigeria Public-sector.

56

2.5 Overview of Leadership Style and values in Nigeria Public Sector

59

3.6 Ethics and Transformational Leadership Style

64

3.7 Dimensions of Transformational leadership

66

3.8 Pseudo Transformational leadership

70

3.9 The Full-Range Leadership Theory

71

3.10 Transactional Leadership Style

72

3.11 Servant Leadership

74

3.12 Spiritual leadership

74

3.12.1

Measuring the Cognitive Moral Development (CMD)

75

3.12.2

The Neo-Kohlbergian summary

77

2.13 General Overview of cultural distinctions: Vertical Individualism and Collectivism 79 2.14 Religiosity Commitment

81

3.15 Individualism and Collectivism, Leadership Style and Post Conventional Level of Reasoning

82

3.15.1

Universality of Value Structure

87

3.15.2

Individualism-Collectivism (IND-COL) Typology

89

3.15.3

Individualism-Collectivism as Potential Moderator

90

3.16 Religiosity Commitment as a Potential Moderator

96

3.17 Theoretical Underpinning

97

3.17.1

The Teleological Ethical Theory (Utilitarianism)

100

3.17.2

The Deontological Theory (Kantianism)

101

3.17.3

Justice Theory

102

3.18 Hypotheses Development 3.18.1

102

Ethical Post Conventional Reasoning and Leadership Theory x

104

3.18.2

Post Conventional Reasoning and Transformational leadership

107

3.18.3

Post Conventional Reasoning and Transactional Leadership Style

108

3.18.4

Vertical Collectivism and Post Conventional Reasoning

110

3.18.5

Vertical Individualism and Post Conventional Reasoning

111

3.18.6

Religiosity Commitment and post conventional Reasoning

112

3.18.7

Vertical Individualism, Collectivism and Religiosity Commitment as Moderators of the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Post conventional Reasoning.

113

3.19 Theoretical Framework

119

3.20 Chapter Summary

122

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

124

3.0 Introduction

124

4.1 Research Design

124

4.1.1

Population of the Study

125

4.2 Population and Sampling Frame

128

4.3 Sample Frame

128

4.4 Sample Size Determination

129

4.5 Conceptual Definitions

134

4.6 Variables of the Study

134

4.6.1

Independent Variables

134

4.6.2

Dependent Variable

138

4.6.3

Post Conventional level of Cognition

138

4.7 Measurement of Variables

146

4.7.1

Measurement of Cognitive Moral Development

146

4.7.2

Reliability, Internal Checks and Validity

147

4.7.3

Measurement of Religiosity

149

4.7.4

Measurement of Transformational and Transactional leadership:

149

4.7.5

Measurement of Individualism and Collectivism

151

4.7.6

Demographic variables

153

4.8 Data Collection

154 xi

4.9 Techniques of Data Analysis (Triangulation)

157

4.10 Descriptive

158

4.11 Partial Least Square Modeling (PLS-SEM)

160

4.12 Pilot Study

162

4.13 Ethical Considerations

164

4.14 Chapter Summary

165

CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

166

4.0 Introduction

166

4.1 Descriptive Analysis

166

4.1.1 Survey Response Rate Analysis

167

4.2 Data Screening and Preliminary Analysis

168

4.2.1

Test of Non-Response Bias

169

4.2.2

Data Coding

171

4.2.3

Missing values

171

4.2.4

Outlier Detection and Treatment

173

4.3 Fundamental Statistical Assumption

174

4.3.1

Linearity

174

4.3.2

Normality Test

175

4.3.3

Normality test for Major Variables

177

4.3.4

Common Method Variance Test

178

4.4 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents

179

4.5 Descriptive Statistics of Main Variables

181

4.6 Descriptive Statistics of Post Conventional Reasoning Categories

182

4.6.1

Post conventional Categories

184

4.6.2

Ministries by Post Conventional Reasoning

185

4.7 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

191

4.8 Descriptive Analysis of Main Variables by Post conventional

193

4.8.1

Cognitive Moral Development Threshold.

199

4.9 Data Analysis: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)

200

4.10 Partial Least Square Analysis (PLS)

201 xii

4.11 Assessment of Measurement Model

202

4.12 Instrument Validity and Reliability

202

4.12.1

Convergent Validity

202

4.12.2

Discriminant Validity

203

4.13 Reliability of Measures

208

4.14 Assessment of the measurement and Structural Model

210

4.15 Overall Model

211

4.15.1

Direct Hypotheses

214

4.15.2

Moderating Hypotheses

219

4.15.3

Moderating Effect of Culture and Religiosity commitment on the relationship between Leadership style and Post Conventional Reasoning

224

4.16 Assessment of Variance Explained in the Endogenous Latent Variable

226

4.17 R-Square

226

4.18 Determining the Effect Size

227

4.18.1

Plotting Interactions between Vertical Individualism and Collectivism and Religiosity Commitment on the relationship between Leadership styles and Post conventional Reasoning.

4.18.2

229

Plotting interaction between Religiosity Commitment, transformational leadership style and Post Conventional Reasoning.

233

4.19 Relevance (Q2) of the Model

236

4.20 Determining the Goodness of Fit (GOF)

237

4.21 Summary of Findings

238

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION

239

5.0 Introduction

239

5.1 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

240

5.2 Leadership Style and Post conventional Reasoning in Nigeria Public Sector 5.3 Relationship between Leadership Style and Ethical reasoning

242 246

5.4 Relationship between Transactional Leadership and Post Conventional Reasoning 253 5.4.1

Relationship between Vertical Collectivism and Post Conventional Reasoning Level

255 xiii

5.4.2

Relationship between Vertical Individualism and Post Conventional Reasoning Level

5.4.3

257

Relationships between Religiosity Commitment and Post Conventional Reasoning Level.

261

5.5 Discussion on the Moderating Effect Vertical Individualism, Collectivism and Religious Commitment on the relationship between Leadership styles and POSTCONV 5.5.1

263

Significance and implications of Moderation Effects of Vertical Collectivism and Vertical individualism and Religiosity commitment

264

5.5.2

The Effect of Culture

267

5.5.3

Significance of Religious Commitment on the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Post Conventional Reasoning Level

5.6 Contributions of the Study

272 276

5.6.1

Theoretical Implications

277

5.6.2

Methodological Implications

282

5.6.3

Practical Implications

284

5.7 Limitations of the Study

286

5.8 Direction for Future Research

288

5.9 Conclusion

290

REFERENCES

293

APPENDICES

370

APPENDIX A RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE

370

APPENDIX B LIST OF CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATION 381 APPENDIX C SUMMARY OF THE RELEVANT STUDIES ON ETHICAL VALUE RELEVANCE LITERATURE

384

APPENDIX D MEASUREMENT AND STRUCTURAL MODELS RELATING THE STUDY CONSTRUCTS TO POST-CONVENTIONAL LEVEL OF REASONING

395

xiv

List of Tables Table

Page

2.1 The Nigerian Map showing Kebbi State

36

2.2 Relationship between some ethical theories

78

3.1 Population Frame

129

3.2 Summary of Variables, Dimensions and Total Number of Items

145

3.3 Variable and its characteristics

151

3.4 Measurement for Individualism and Collectivism

153

3,5 Pilot Test for Reliabilty

163

4.1 Response Rate

168

4.2 Test of Non- Response Bias

170

4.3 Data Coding for the constructs

171

4.4 Missing Values

172

4.5 Normality Test

177

4.6 Demographic of Major Variables

179

4.7 Descriptive characteristics of the Respondents

182

4.8 Descriptive Statistics of Constructs

184

4.9 Post Conventional Reasoning Categories

185

4.10 TFL & TSL by Post Conventional Reasoning

187

4.11 Transformational leader post-conventional Level

190

4. 12 Transactional Leadership Style by Ministries

191

4.13 Item Loadings for the constructs

192

4.14 Descriptive Statistics of Ministries by Post Conventional Reasoning

193

4.15 Transformational Leadership Indicators

194

4.16 Transactional Leadership Style by Indictors

196

4.17 Vertical Individualism by Mean

197

4.18 Vertical Collectivism by Mean

198

4.19 Descriptive Statisticsby Religiosity

198

4.20 Cognitive MoralDevelopment Threshold

199

4.21 Latent Variable Correlation

205 xv

4.22 Religiosity by Mean

206

4.23 Item Loadings, Average Variance Extracted

209

4.24 Test of Direct Hypotheses

218

4.25 Test of Moderating Hypotheses

224

4.26 R-Square Result

226

4.27 The Effect Size

228

4.28 Construct Cross Validated Redundancy Test

236

xvi

List of Figures 1.1The Nigerian Map showing Kebbi State

08

2.1 Theoretical framework

122

3.1 X-Y Plot for Medium Effect Power Analysis

131

3.2 Output of Power Analysis

133

4.1 Graph Plot for Ministries

189

4.3 Measurement Model

213

4.4 Model for the Direct Hypotheses

216

4.5 Direct Model T Statistics

217

4.6 Simple Model with moderating influence

219

4.7 Structural Model with Moderators

222

4.8 Structural Model T Statistics

223

4.9 Moderating Effect of VIM on the relationship between POSCONV and TFL

231

4.10 Moderating Effect of VCM on the relationship between TFL and POSCONV

232

4. 11 Moderating Effect of REL on the relationship between TFL and POSCONV

233

4.12 Moderating Effect of VCM on the relationship between TSL and POSCONV

235

xvii

List of Abbreviations List of Abbreviations AMOS

Analysis of Moment Structures

AVE

Average Variance Extracted

CFA

Common Factor Analysis

COL

Collectivism

COLGIS

College of Law, Government and International Studies

CMD

Cognitive Moral Development

CMV

Common Method Variance

CRD

Contingent Reward

CR

Composite Reliability

EDU

Education

EXP

Experience

GEN

Gender

HCM

Horizontal Collectivism

HIM

Horizontal Individualism

IND

Individualism

INF

Individualized Influence

INM

Inspirational Motivation

INST

Intellectual Stimulation

INC

Individualized Consideration

MBA

Management by Exception Active

MBP

Management by Exception Passive

PLS

Partial least Squares

REL

Religiosity

TFL

Transformational Leadership

TSL

Transactional Leadership

.VCM

Vertical Collectivism

VIF

Variance Inflated factor

VIM

Vertical Individualism xviii

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction The normative ethical theories provide moral rules that guide ethical reasoning and other human resources activities in an organization with regards to what is right or wrong. Most studies on ethical principles centers on its application to business organizations and moral behavior (Kimberling, 2008; Toor & Ofori, 2009). Other theoretical foundation used to assess ethical reasoning or decision making is the cognitive moral development (Kohlberg, 1969) and ethical values (Abrhiem, 2012; Hunt & Vitell, 1986). Ethical reasoning is more than a justification for an action when faced with morally challenging dilemma.

The most applied theories to rationalize ethical decisions are the utilitarianism and deontology (Fritzsche & Becker, 1984; Jaramillo, Bande & Varela, 2015), although some do rely on a combination of both or more which shows a diversity in ethical reasoning approaches. Thus, addressing ethical lapses in the public sector organization by examining the correlation between leadership style and post conventional level of reasoning, specifically, the application of reasoned thought (judgment) in challenging ethical situation and its influence on subordinates‘ general ethicality is one major objective of this study. More specifically, it explored the effects of specific content of individual values on the linkages between leadership style and post conventional level of reasoning as secondary objective. Thus, this study builds on the question of how 1

The contents of the thesis is for internal user only

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