A History of the Department of Immigration - Managing Migration to

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A HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF IMMIGRATION Managing Migration to Australia

A HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF IMMIGRATION Managing Migration to Australia i

First published June 2015 Revised edition June 2017 © Commonwealth of Australia 2017 Unless otherwise noted, copyright in the content of this publication is owned by the Commonwealth of Australia, represented by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP). On and from 1 July 2015, the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service (ACBPS) is merging with DIBP to create the new Department of Immigration and Border Protection. This will include the Australian Border Force (ABF). All material presented in this publication is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence, with the exception of: • the Commonwealth Coat of Arms • ACBPS and ABF logos, emblems and trademarks • content supplied by any third parties (as identified). The details of the relevant licence conditions are available on the Creative Commons website: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode. Whenever a third party holds copyright in material in this publication, the copyright remains with that party. Their permission may be required to use this material. Use of the Coat of Arms The terms under which the Coat of Arms can be used are detailed on the It’s an Honour website: www.itsanhonour.gov.au/coat-arms/index.cfm. Contact us Enquiries regarding the licence and any use of this document are welcome at: Communication and Media Branch Department of Immigration and Border Protection PO Box 25 BELCONNEN ACT 2616 Telephone: (02) 6264 2233 Email: [email protected]

Cover image: A group of ‘displaced persons’ on the train to Bonegilla, Victoria, 1949. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A8139, volume 7.

Contents Introduction A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia has been written to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the Department of Immigration in July 1945. It is intended to be a brief history that captures the key events, and has relied on extensive research to ensure that the information included is as accurate as possible. Any opinions, comments and analyses expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department.

Chapter One: Migration to Australia before Federation

vi 1

The first Australians

2

Early exploration of the continent by Europeans

3

Britain claims Australia and begins a bold experiment

4

Colony expansion and the gold rush

5

Authors

Non-British arrivals

6

Victoria Mence, Simone Gangell and Ryan Tebb from the Irregular Migration and Border Research Section, DIBP.

Immigration policies in the lead-up to Federation

7

Designer Nihara Weerasinha from the Production and Design, Communication and Media Branch, DIBP.

Chapter Two: Federation to the end of World War II

9

‘One people, one destiny’

10

Acknowledgements

Early immigration and the ‘White Australia Policy’

12

The authors are grateful for the assistance and advice provided by Alex Parrinder and Christopher Ritchie, DIBP, in preparing this publication. We would like to thank senior executive officers and other colleagues in the Department for their valuable comments on earlier drafts. We would especially like to acknowledge the time given by long-serving officers who provided fascinating personal stories and reflections on some key events in the Department’s history.

The dictation test

14

Immigration patterns following Federation

16

World War I

17

Post-war immigration boom in the 1920s

18

Refugee rescue

20

World War II

21

iii

Chapter Three: ‘Populate or perish’

25

Resettlement of those in humanitarian need

59

The Displaced Persons Scheme

28

Establishment of the Humanitarian Programme

60

Assistance to settle in Australia

31

Australia becomes a popular destination

65

Immigration and nation building

33

Assisted immigration schemes in the 1950s and 1960s

35

‘Ten Pound Poms’

36

Nationality and citizenship

40

The Department drives a new approach to immigration

43

Non-European immigration

44

A new secretary and policy reform

45

Humanitarian resettlement

46

Chapter Four: Migration and multiculturalism

49

Chapter Five: Managing migration in a dynamic and complex world

67

Managing short-term visitors and encouraging migration

70

Shifting the emphasis to business and skills

71

Strengthening the border

72

The second wave of unauthorised migration by sea and by air

73

Operation Safe Haven

74

The Pacific Strategy

76

The Department’s work with the international community

77

Special events

78

Transition to multiculturalism

51

International travel temporarily declines

80

The Department’s functions expand

52

A shift in the Department’s culture

81

Assimilation, integration, multiculturalism

53

Working holiday schemes

82

Settlement services

54

The third wave of unauthorised migration

83

Reduced immigration

56

The Department of Immigration and Border Protection

84

A new approach to attracting migrants

57

Snapshot of departmental business

85

iv  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Conclusion

86

Appendix

87

Former and current ministers

88

Former and current departmental secretaries

90

History of departmental names

92

Notes

93

References

99

Timeline photo captions

106

Right: A family leaves the Australian Migration Office in Birmingham after an interview, 1962. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1962/14/31.

v

Introduction

T

his publication is a brief history of the Department of Immigration (the Department) and captures some of the key events, highlights and challenges relating to immigration to Australia. It has been prepared in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Department’s establishment in July 1945. It also marks the formal amalgamation of the Australian Government’s immigration and customs portfolios and the establishment of the Australian Border Force that will officially take place on 1 July 2015. Chapters one and two look back at the early history of immigration to Australia. This early history provides a useful context for understanding the challenges faced by the new Department in overseeing an ambitious nation-building plan in the post-World War II period. These chapters reflect upon the historical policies which maintained a restricted approach to immigration that primarily favoured migration from Britain. Throughout the first half of the 20th century non-British migrants were not encouraged, and non-Europeans were excluded altogether, although some European groups did manage to filter through. The immigration history of Australia prior to the establishment of the Department provides an indispensable backstory to appreciate the magnitude of the transformation of Australian society that the Department presided over in implementing the immigration programme following the end of World War II. Chapter three examines the establishment of the Department in 1945 and the first two decades of the immigration programme. By necessity, the new Department had to look beyond the British Isles to achieve the scale of immigration the Curtin and Chifley Governments championed with bipartisan support. The first two substantive secretaries of the Department, Tasman Heyes and Peter Heydon, both engineered and guided the establishment of the Migration Programme.

vi  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Heyes oversaw the diversification of the programme to include people from across Europe, beginning a process that transformed the social and cultural landscape of Australia. When Heydon became the Secretary of the Department in 1961, he began a process of dismantling the ‘White Australia Policy’ approach to immigration, which had defined Australia’s approach to immigration since before Federation. Heydon prepared the way for a nondiscriminatory programme that considered applicants on the basis of merit and skills rather than the colour of their skin. Chapter four covers the 1970s and 1980s, exploring how the Department managed the advent of jet travel and the decline of the migrant ships that had been such a feature of the migration journey to Australia. During this period, the Department shifted the Migration Programme away from the assisted migration schemes, which had characterised immigration to Australia since settlement, to a programme that started to respond more specifically to Australia’s economic, social and labour concerns through a greater focus on skills and family reunion. The Department further refined its migrant settlement services, creating a model that was admired and emulated by other countries. The chapter also traces the tradition and practice of humanitarian resettlement which began with the resettlement of 170,000 people from displaced persons camps in Europe and continued throughout the 1960s with discrete groups of refugees resettled from Europe, South America and the Middle East. This was followed by refugee boat arrivals from Indochina after the end of the Vietnam War and the Khmer Rouge takeover of Cambodia in 1975. In response to the unprecedented phenomenon of asylum seekers arriving on Australia’s doorstep, the Humanitarian Programme was established in the late 1970s to provide a more targeted and orderly response to future refugee crises.

The final chapter surveys the rapidly expanding responsibilities of the Department as Australia’s interconnectedness with the rest of the world gathered pace in the final decades of the 20th century and into the 21st century. The Department managed huge increases in visitor numbers and prepared for special events such as the Sydney Olympics and World Youth Day. This was a period during which the Department refined its processes with the introduction of advanced technology and augmented the skills of its workforce to manage increasingly complex systems and policy. There were also significant challenges for the Department in managing the arrival of large numbers of asylum seekers by boat from 1999 to 2001 and again from 2009 to the end of 2013. The Department managed sensitive and complex legal, policy and operational environments while being increasingly subject to significant public scrutiny and criticism. The Department also demonstrated the capacity to learn from past mistakes and to continually seek to reform and adjust to new circumstances. On the eve of the official consolidation of the immigration and customs functions into one agency, the history reflects upon some of the dramatic changes to the nature and composition of immigration to Australia and business of the Department since its establishment in 1945.

Right: On her last voyage the liner Strathmore brought to Australia a young married couple of different backgrounds. They are Brian Jonmundsson, 23, formerly of Iceland, and his wife Visitacion, formerly of Spain. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1963/4/41.

vii

Pre-1788

1847

Estimated 40,000–60,000 years of Indigenous settlement and civilisation. Indigenous population estimated at between 300,000 and 1.5 million.

1780

First indentured labourers from the Pacific Islands brought to New South Wales to work on private farms.

1815–40

1800

Approximately 58,000 free settlers arrived under various migration schemes, of whom many were assisted by government funding.

1820

1890s A weakened economy and severe drought resulted in widespread unemployment, poverty and industrial strikes, and brought immigration to a standstill.

1840

1860

1880

1900

1788 The First Fleet arrived in Botany Bay carrying more than 1,300 convicts and military personnel.

1889

1850s–60s

Population reached 3 million.

The gold rush brought more than 600,000 immigrants to Australia between 1851 and 1860.

1880s Immigration increased as a result of a thriving economy.

CHAPTER ONE Migration to Australia before Federation 1

The first Australians

M

igration to the Australian continent has ancient origins. Based on current thinking, DNA evidence indicates that the ancestors of Australian Aboriginals first dispersed from the African continent into eastern Asia around 62,000 to 75,000 years ago, and are likely to be one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.1 The first people to migrate to the Australian continent most likely came from regions in South-East Asia between 40,000 and 60,000 years ago.2 Some anthropologists suggest that these early migrants crossed onto what became the continent of Australia before the separation of what was originally one landmass joining Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania. Prior to European settlement, best estimates suggest that the Aboriginal population was likely to have been between 300,000 and 1.5 million3, consisting of around 600 different tribes speaking more than 200 distinct languages and located primarily along the food-rich coastal regions and main river systems.4 The Aboriginal population declined dramatically following European settlement, as a consequence of conflict, disease and a declining birth rate. By Federation in 1901, the Aboriginal population was estimated to have fallen to around 94,000.5

2  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Trade links with Melanesia and Asia Long before Europeans came to Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Northern Australia traded regularly with Macassans from the southern region of the Indonesian archipelago. For several hundreds of years, Macassan fishermen arrived in great fleets of traditional wooden praus with goods to trade in exchange for access to annual sea urchin harvests. Melanesians from Papua New Guinea also made regular excursions to the Torres Strait and northern regions.a

Early exploration of the continent by Europeans

T

he exploration of the Australian continent took place as part of a geopolitical expansion of European colonial empires. The first European to chart parts of the Australian coastline is thought to be a Portuguese explorer, Captain Cristovao de Mendoca, in 1522.6 Most recorded history of the era focuses on the visit by a Dutch ship in 1606 (captained by Willem Jansz) as the beginning of European interest in the ‘Great Southern Land’. In the 30 years that followed, Dutch ships made nine visits to the continent together with French, Spanish and English explorers.7 In 1642, Abel Tasman claimed present-day Tasmania as Van Diemen’s Land for the Dutch, and in 1770 James Cook sailed his ship, the Endeavour, into Botany Bay before sailing up the coast to Cape York, where he claimed the eastern part of Australia as New South Wales for Britain.8

Right: First map of Australia from Nicholas Vallard’s atlas, 1547. Image courtesy of the National Library of Australia.

3

Britain claims Australia and begins a bold experiment

M

igration to the continent from the British Isles began in earnest 18 years later. The British regarded their new colonial outpost as an ideal location for a network of penal colonies to replace the loss of colonies in America, which had served as a repository for Britain’s law breakers until the American War of Independence brought an end to British control. In 1788, the first convict transport arrived in Botany Bay. The First Fleet of 11 ships carried more than 1,300 convicts and military personnel.9 Two years later, another six ships arrived and a further 11 ships arrived in a third fleet in 1791.10 A second convict settlement was established in 1803 in Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania).11 Between 1788 and 1868 around 160,000 convicts were transported, of whom 85 per cent were male.12 Accounts of the early years of the convict settlements describe a very desperate situation. The convict settlers and their guards faced grim conditions and struggled for survival in an environment starkly different to that they had come from. In the hot, dry, debilitating conditions they battled to find adequate water supplies or grow enough food to sustain the population and experienced severe food shortages. Despite these difficulties the colony continued to grow.

Convicts of African descent There were 11 convicts of African descent in the First Fleet originating from a small community in London who had retreated as loyalists with the British following the end of the American War of Independence. Sources indicate that many more people of African origin arrived either as convicts (rebellious slaves from the West Indies) or as free settlers.13

Political activists The ranks of the convicts swept up in transportation to Australia included many deported for political activism, such as the Scottish ‘martyrs’ of 1794 and 1795 who advocated fiscal and electoral reform, the naval mutineers of 1791, the Irish rebels of 1798 and 1803, and trade unionists and insurrectionists from Canada, as well as military prisoners from India and rebellious slaves from the West Indies.b Right: Thomas Muir was the most celebrated of Australia’s first political prisoners. John Kay, engraving. Image courtesy of the National Library of Australia.

4  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Colony expansion and the gold rush

I

n the 1820s, the British authorities began to consider encouraging the immigration of free settlers, but initially restricted access to land grants to those with adequate resources to develop the land and employ convict labour.14 In 1831, land grants ceased and a new policy was initiated based on the sale of land to fund assisted immigration schemes from the British Isles. The first assisted migrants arrived in 1832 and included a majority of single women in an effort to address the gender imbalance that had emerged in the population. In 1840, British authorities established the Colonial Land and Emigration Commission, which effectively took over the regulation and implementation of immigration to Australia.15 The commission was dependent on the funds raised by various schemes to support assisted migration and without a consistent source of funding the number of arrivals fluctuated over the next two decades. The impetus for a significant upsurge in the number of arrivals was the discovery of gold in New South Wales in 1851. Further gold discoveries in Victoria followed. During the height of the gold rush between 1851 and 1860, more than 600,000 people arrived in Australia (81 per cent from the United Kingdom, 10 per cent from Europe and 7 per cent from China).16 Another significant migration interchange during these years occurred between California and New South Wales. By 1889, Australia’s population had reached three million.17 Arrivals dropped away as the gold discoveries dwindled and an economic depression set in during the 1890s.18

Right: Chinese gold digger starting for work, circa 1860s. Image courtesy of the State Library of Queensland.

5

Non-British arrivals

W

hile the overwhelming majority of arrivals were from the British Isles19, small groups of non-British citizens also arrived in Australia during the 19th century, especially during the gold rush and also under various contract arrangements. For example, small numbers of Germans, Italians and Swiss were admitted to Australia under a contract scheme that had failed to attract much interest from the British.

Prior to Federation, non-Europeans, including significant numbers of Chinese, arrived in the colonies. Most were brought in as indentured labour, initially to supplement the diminishing supply of convict labour. It is estimated that around 3,000 Chinese arrived in Australia prior to 1850. The Chinese population increased substantially after the discovery of gold in the 1850s, with more than 12,000 arriving in 1856 alone.20 By 1861, around 3.3 per cent of the total Australian population was of Chinese origin.21

Early settlement by Afghans The ‘Afghan’ cameleers originated mainly from Baluchistan, Afghanistan and the north-west of British India (today’s Pakistan). Their ‘ships of the desert’ became the backbone of transportation in the outback and were integral in transporting supplies, equipment and tools for construction of the Overland Telegraph and Trans-Australian Railway. It is estimated that from 1870 to 1900, more than 2,000 cameleers came to Australia.c Right: Artistic jottings of camel trains accompanying an exploration expedition in South Australia. Esam, Arthur, 1882, wood engraving. Image courtesy of the National Library of Australia.

6 

From 1863 to 1904, more than 62,000 indentured labourers from the Pacific Islands were also brought to Australia to work, mainly on the sugar plantations in Queensland.22 Their ‘recruitment’ at times involved the practice of ‘blackbirding’ whereby people (some as young as 12 years old)23 were kidnapped and forced to work in conditions little better than slavery.24 The Polynesian Labourers Act 1868 was an attempt to regulate the trafficking of Pacific Islanders into Queensland and stop the practice of blackbirding.25 Small groups of other non-Europeans arrived during the 19th century, including Malays and Japanese, to work in the pearl industry.26

New Zealand Maoris New Zealand Maoris engaged in a flourishing trade in timber and flax with the Australian colonies during the 1830s.27 A lane in The Rocks area of Sydney is still named Maori Lane after the Maori whalers who lived there.28

Immigration policies in the lead-up to Federation

F

rom the outset, Britain appears to have been intent on making Australia a cultural and political outpost of Britain. The majority of immigrants were very deliberately sourced from the British Isles in an apparent effort to keep the population as racially and culturally British as possible. There was a strong focus on policies that sought to restrict non-Europeans from settling permanently in Australia.

‘[T]he English race shall spread from sea to sea unmixed with any lower caste.’

While assisted migration schemes did not account for all immigration to Australia in these early years, they were a crucial mechanism in creating a system that enabled a ‘pick and choose’ approach to immigration.30 In 1856, the established colonies of Tasmania, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia became self-governing, followed by Queensland in 1859. The independent colonies competed fiercely for immigrants and argued over establishing uniform tariffs and trade rules.31 In this environment the states began to consider the advantages of becoming a federation.

James Stephen, Head of the Colonial Office in London in 184129

7

1901

1920s

Federation of the Commonwealth of Australia. Immigration Restriction Act 1901 introduced, a key part of what became known as the ‘White Australia Policy’, which included a dictation test.

1914–18

Australia received a net gain of more than 340,000 immigrants, of which two-thirds arrived under assisted migration schemes.

1939–45 World War II brought major immigration to a halt, with the exception of small numbers in need of a safe haven.

Immigration virtually ceased during World War I.

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1929–30s 1905–14 Approximately 390,000 new settlers arrived, predominantly British.

During the Great Depression, unemployment rates increased to nearly 32 per cent and community attitudes towards immigrants hardened.

1939 Population reached 7 million.

CHAPTER TWO Federation to the end of World War II 9

‘One people, one destiny’

I

n the meetings and negotiations in the decades leading up to Federation, the ties to Britain and the desire to continue building the population, primarily through immigration to Australia from Britain, remained powerful. In a speech to a Federation Conference held in Sydney in 1891, Sir Henry Parkes proposed a toast to the gathering: ‘one people, one destiny’.

‘We seek in the best way that is possible, by federated power, to master our own destinies and to win our own position in the world … We shall seek to remain side by side with that dear old England that we all love so well.’ Sir Henry Parkes, March 18911

Right: Sir Henry Parkes, circa 1890. Image courtesy of Stanton Library. Far right: The Opening of the First Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia by His Royal Highness the Duke of Cornwall and York, 9 May 1901. Tom Roberts, 1903, oil on canvas. Image courtesy of the Parliament of Australia.

10  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

On 1 January 1901, six colonies – New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, Queensland and Western Australia – became part of the Federation of the Commonwealth of Australia. The new federal Parliament met for the first time in Melbourne on 9 May 1901.2 Immigration was high on the national agenda and was prioritised as a constitutional responsibility.3 An important order of business was to enact legislation that would set the framework for future immigration to Australia for several decades to come. In 1901, 78 per cent of those born overseas were of British origin.4

11

Early immigration and the ‘White Australia Policy’

T

he conceptual and philosophical foundations relating to the way in which policy on immigration evolved in the decades leading up to Federation were developed partly in response to the antagonism felt towards the arrival of significant numbers of non-British and non-European migrants, especially during the gold rush. New arrivals, including large numbers of Chinese (and other ‘aliens’), were subject to xenophobic hostility, but the influx of Chinese migrants was also regarded as a threat to wages and employment. One analysis of their presence suggests that ‘their work practices … [were] undermining … “fair go” principles’.5 The early bias to limit non-European immigration was clearly illustrated by a range of restrictive immigration measures designed to block entry or deport those considered to be ‘undesirable’, introduced by Western Australia in 1897 and by New South Wales and Tasmania in 1898.6

An important order of business for the new Australian Government was the introduction of a suite of measures that included the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 and a few years into Federation the Naturalization Act 1903. These laws provided the legislative framework for what eventually became known as the ‘White Australia Policy’.7

Right: Excerpts from the Immigration Restriction Act 1901. Images courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A1559, 1901/17.

12  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Immigration Restriction Act The Act prohibited entry of all those who failed to pass a ‘dictation test’ of 50 words in a European language.8 The Act was amended in 1905 so that officers could apply the test in any prescribed language at their discretion, which enhanced the capacity to exclude ‘undesirable’ applicants.9

Pacific Island Labourers Act This Act sought to reduce the numbers of South Sea Islanders working in sugar industries in Queensland and northern New South Wales. After March 1904, South Sea Islanders were prohibited from entering the Commonwealth and their forcible repatriation was organised from December 1906 onwards. Between 1904 and 1914, 7,262 South Sea Islanders were deported.10

Naturalization Act In the words of this Act, an applicant for naturalisation could not be ‘an aboriginal native of Asia, Africa or the Islands of the Pacific’.11 The Act also excluded non-Europeans from bringing their spouses or children to Australia.12 Amendments to the Act made the process more onerous over time, with applicants required to prove they could read and write in English.13

13

The dictation test

W

hile race was not specifically referred to in the Immigration Restriction Act, the ‘dictation test’ became a tool with which to exclude non-Europeans and other ‘undesirable’ applicants.14 The dictation test, based on a model used in South Africa, comprised a 50-word dictation test. The test was not necessarily in English, or the native language of the applicant. The language used was at the discretion of the customs officer administering the test. If by some chance an ‘undesirable’ applicant passed the test, they could be asked to write in different languages until they failed. As Alfred Deakin stated in the House of Representatives in 1905, ‘the object of applying the language test is not to allow persons to enter the Commonwealth but to keep them out’.15 This proved highly effective in most cases, although attempts to deport Egon Kisch, a Jewish communist from Czechoslovakia, on the basis of failing the dictation test proved difficult. Kisch spoke English, as well as several European languages, and passed each test with fluency. He was then asked to write the Lord’s Prayer in Scottish Gaelic, at which point he refused. The matter went to the High Court, which ruled that the dictation test used, in this case, had been invalid on the basis that Scottish Gaelic was too obscure.16 After 1901, non-Europeans could only enter Australia on a temporary basis under a strict permit. The determination to exclude non-Europeans from settling permanently reflected a strong desire to build a population that was overwhelmingly British in origin. This determination to keep Australia homogeneous was deeply embedded in widely held views during this era, based on racial theory, eugenics, polygenesis and Darwinism that had been fundamental to the process of building colonial empires.17

14  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Example of a dictation test passage, July 1927 ‘The tiger is sleeker, and so lithe and graceful that he does not show to the same appalling advantage as his cousin, the lion, with the roar that shakes the earth. Both are cats, cousins of our amiable purring friend of the hearth rug, but the tiger is king of the family.’a

Right: Certificate Exempting from Dictation Test for Dempsey Hong, 1919. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, E752, 1919/68. Far right: Certificate of Domicile for Wong Bow, 1906. This certificate also exempted the holder from the dictation test. Images courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, J2482, 1906/16.

15

Immigration patterns following Federation

I

n the first two decades of the 20th century, apart from the legislative measures that provided the key points of reference by which policy on immigration would evolve, each state continued to administer its own immigration intake to some degree. Under these state-by-state arrangements,

between 1905 and 1914 approximately 390,000 new settlers arrived, predominantly of British (Irish, English and Scottish) and New Zealand origin. By the outbreak of World War I, Australia’s population had grown to almost five million.18

Overseas-born population in Australia (1901–1971)19 1,200,000 1,000,000

United Kingdom Europe Other

800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 0

1901

1911

1921

16  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

1933

1947

1954

1961

1966

1971

World War I

D

uring the war, immigration virtually ceased.20 The German community was subjected to considerable antagonism during the war, despite the fact that some Germans had been in Australia for generations. At the end of the war, almost 700 German citizens were deported, and more than 4,600 volunteered to be repatriated to Germany.21

Following the war, immigration to Australia from Greece and Malta, whose allegiance was uncertain, was prohibited until 1920.22 As nationals from countries that had fought against British Empire forces during World War I, Germans, Austrians, Hungarians and Bulgarians were prevented from migrating to Australia until 1926, and Turkish nationals until 1930.23

Right: Australian troops ready to move off from Romani, 1916. Image courtesy of State Library of Queensland.

17

Post-war immigration boom in the 1920s

I

n 1921, responsibility for immigration was transferred to the Commonwealth under the Joint Commonwealth and States Scheme.24 During the 1920s, Australia received a net gain of more than 340,000 immigrants.25 Two-thirds of the arrivals were assisted to migrate to Australia under a scheme co-funded by the British Government. Farmers, domestic workers and juveniles were especially sought after by Australia.26 There were also increasing numbers of Greek, Italian and Yugoslav migrants arriving in Australia during the 1920s, joining the small groups who had arrived pre-federation, especially during the gold rush.27 Compared to the wider community who were mainly of British origin, their numbers remained small. However, they represented sentinels for larger migration flows following World War II and played a significant part in shifting concepts of ‘whiteness’ to pave the way for greater diversity. The Great Depression, which began in 1929 with the stock market crash in New York, brought severe hardship to many Australians. Unemployment rates increased to nearly 32 per cent and community attitudes towards immigrants hardened. Immigration declined sharply throughout most of the 1930s. Assisted migration schemes came to a halt and did not resume until 1938.28

Right: Dole queue at Harold Park during the Great Depression, Sydney, 26 July 1932. Far right: Unemployed man reading outside a tent during the Great Depression at Domain Park, Sydney, 1932. Images courtesy of the National Library of Australia.

18  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Greek, Italian and Yugoslav migrants The mass expulsion of Greeks from Asia Minor in 1922–23 and quotas imposed by the United States on Greek immigration saw the number of Greek immigrants to Australia rise from 2,000 in 1911 to more than 12,000 by 1947.b Between 1922 and 1930, 23,000 Italians immigrated to Australia, largely due to the economic hardships in Italy as a result of World War I and, again, immigration quotas imposed by the United States.c More than 8,000 Yugoslavs arrived in Australia between the two world wars, of whom over 80 per cent were Croats. The majority of Yugoslav migrants were male peasant farmers who worked as unskilled labourers.d

19

Refugee rescue

I

n 1938, with war imminent, Australia attended an international conference convened to discuss measures to assist with the rescue of German and Austrian Jews trapped in Europe. Australia was initially reluctant to make a commitment, with the Australian delegate T.W. White noting, ‘as we have no real racial problem, we are not desirous of importing one’.29 However, the Australian Government eventually agreed to resettle 15,000 Jewish refugees, representing the first formal undertaking, in cooperation with other countries, by the Australian Government to resettle refugees. More than 5,000 arrived in 1939 before migration for Jews in Europe was no longer possible. They became known as ‘the thirty-niners’.30 A long-standing departmental officer, who was contacted during the preparation of this publication, recalled the accounts of officers, who were involved in establishing the Department, that the Australian Government’s inability to deliver the agreed programme for European Jews and the terrible consequences for those who were unable to be rescued were part of the impetus for establishing a department to better manage immigration programmes and processes. Following the end of World War II, at a time when Jews who had survived the Holocaust were desperate to escape Europe, Jews wishing to immigrate to Australia were subject to various restrictions and quotas, including a limit on Jewish refugees to around 25 per cent of the total number of refugees on any vessels disembarking in Australia.31 By 1954, over 17,000 had arrived from Europe and Shanghai.32

Jewish community Early Jewish settlement in Australia began with the First Fleet, which included at least eight Jewish convicts.e Jews who arrived as free settlers were mostly of British origin. They were joined by a small number of Jews from Russia and Poland who arrived in the late 19th century.f Around 2,000 Polish Jews arrived in the 1920s, fleeing pogroms in Eastern Europe.g Today Australia has a vibrant Jewish community that is estimated to number 112,000 people, the vast majority of whom live in Sydney and Melbourne.h Above: Members of the Jewish ‘Kadimah’ community organisation enjoying their annual picnic in Warrandyte, Melbourne in 1937–38. Image courtesy of Museum Victoria.

20  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

World War II

B

y the time World War II began, the Australian population had reached seven million.33 Once again immigration virtually shut down for the duration of the war. However, Australia did provide sanctuary to people who managed to flee ahead of the Japanese occupation of China, SouthEast Asia and many islands in the Pacific.34 Anti-Japanese Chinese business communities in the South Pacific and non-European crew members of ships in Australian ports were also offered temporary protection. Although around 6,000 non-Europeans were permitted to remain in Australia for the duration of the war, the Australian Government expected them to leave after the war.35

When World War II began, Australia interned Germans and Italians residing in Australia. Japanese civilians were also later interned when the war with Japan started. Prisoners of war who were captured or had surrendered in the European, Middle East and Asian theatres of war were sent to a number of allied countries, including Canada, the United States and Australia.36 In 1944, Australia’s Prime Minister, John Curtin, expressed his belief that Australia should commit itself to an immigration programme when the war ended. The notion of expanding immigration was based on the realisation that Australia’s isolation had made it vulnerable. A population of at least 30 million, he said, was essential for Australia’s security.37

‘Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom … we know too, that Australia can go and Britain can still hold on.’ Prime Minister Curtin, 27 December 194138

21

But the attachment to Britain remained strong. The tension between the notion of a ‘White Australia’ and the need for higher levels of immigration was evident in Curtin’s attempt to explain Australia’s position on immigration in 1941: ‘[T]his country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race.’39 The ‘White Australia Policy’ approach to immigration had, however, caused deep affront to Australia’s Asian neighbours and had tainted Australia’s image internationally.40 As early as 1942, an Interdepartmental Committee on Migration was set up by the Australian Government which had begun to focus on non-British migration, foreshadowing Australia’s acceptance of large numbers of refugees and displaced persons from a diverse number of European countries following the end of the war.41 In 1943, a national opinion poll found that 90 per cent of Australians wanted post-war immigration and 40 per cent favoured unlimited immigration.42 On 13 July 1945, the Department of Immigration was formally established, with Arthur Calwell as its first minister.43

Right: Arthur Calwell, Minister for Immigration, welcoming the 100,000th British migrant, Isobel Savery, 1949.

22  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Prisoners of war Australia took responsibility for approximately 18,000 Italian, 5,000 Japanese and 1,500 German prisoners of war. Many Italian prisoners were allowed to work unsupervised in industry and on the land. With thousands of Australian men serving in the armed forces, Italian prisoners played a crucial role in the national war effort. German and Japanese prisoners of war were held in camps throughout the country. Some of the German and Italian prisoners of war remained in Australia following the end of the war.i Above: These Italian prisoners of war who have just arrived in Australia seem quite happy to be out of the war. They were photographed while awaiting transport to a prisoner-of-war camp. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A11663, PA189.

23

1945 The Department of Immigration was formally established on 13 July 1945, with Arthur Calwell as its first minister.

1949 The Department used advertisements to emphasise the importance of immigration in boosting the population.

1948

1949–75 More than 100,000 migrants worked on the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Scheme.

1958

The Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 created the status of ‘Australian citizen’.

1940

1947–54 The Australian Government signed an agreement with the International Refugee Organization to settle persons under the Displaced Persons Scheme, admitting more than 170,000 Europeans by 1954.

1950

The revised Migration Act 1958 abolished the dictation test and reformed entry processes.

1960

1970

1956–57 Presentation of the ‘Heroes of Freedom’ medal to the grandson of former immigration minister Athol Townley for his grandfather’s role in the humanitarian resettlement of Hungarian refugees.

1959 Population reached 10 million.

1963–66 Immigration restrictions on non-Europeans were further relaxed.

CHAPTER THREE ‘Populate or perish’

25

W

orld War II, and especially the war in the Pacific, had raised concerns relating to Australia’s vulnerability to invasion. There was also a critical shortage of labour to meet the demands of the post-war reconstruction of the economy.1 Arthur Calwell, the first Minister for Immigration, declared that Australia must ‘populate or perish’.2 The Australian Government committed to increasing the population by 2 per cent per year. One per cent of that growth would be based on large immigration programmes.3 The Department of Immigration was formally established on 13 July 1945 to plan, manage and implement an ambitious programme of immigration, and in the decades that followed the end of the war, the Department was at the forefront of what became a defining nation-building enterprise.

Migration to Australia in high demand On the other side of the world, departmental officers working in the High Commission in London were inundated with letters from people who wanted to migrate to Australia. By the time assisted passage schemes recommenced in March 1947, an estimated 650,000 applications had been submitted to the London office. There were ‘huge daily intakes of mail’, said Arthur Hughes, a locally engaged officer who had joined the Department in May 1947, and ‘an enormous volume of telephone traffic, which, at times, swamped the antiquated exchange’.a

Tasman Heyes was appointed the first Secretary of the Department of Immigration in 1946. Heyes faced the daunting task of building a new department and establishing a migration programme that would rapidly diversify in a way few anticipated in 1946. During his term as secretary, Heyes also oversaw a huge increase in the scale of the migration programme from 11,000 in 1947 to 89,000 in 1960.4 The Department began operations with just three offices – one in Canberra, one in Melbourne and the first overseas office located in London. There were just 24 staff members.5 In 1947, the number of departmental staff in London was increased and officers were posted in Berlin, New Delhi, New York, Paris and San Francisco.6

Page 24, 1956–57: (L–R) First Assistant Secretary Peter Vardos, Athol Townley’s grandson Brian Townley, Secretary Andrew Metcalfe, former chief migration officer Ron Metcalfe, Hungarian ambassador Lajos Fodor, ambassador’s secretary Judith Pummeroy and counsellor Béla Bozsik of the Hungarian Embassy. Right: Display poster in reception rooms, dining halls etc. at migrant centres. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A434, 1949/3/21685.

26  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

‘In the first years, the great majority of officers who joined the Department of Immigration were returned soldiers, sailors and airmen. It was often called “an ex-servicemen’s Department”.’7

In the first few years of the Department’s existence, the priority was to maintain a focus on Britain as the primary source for immigrants. Arthur Calwell reassured the public that, ‘for every foreign migrant there will be ten from the United Kingdom’.8 While immigration for British migrants would continue to be unrestricted, and often supported by assisted schemes, immigration for non-British applicants through permanent settlement was limited to Europeans sponsored by relatives already residing in Australia, and remained closed to most non-Europeans. (The effectiveness of the restrictions that had been imposed on non-European immigration was reflected in the 1947 Census, which estimated the non-European population to be only 0.25 per cent of the total Australian population.)9

27

The Displaced Persons Scheme

I

n spite of the preference for applications from Britons, the number of British people wanting to migrate to Australia fell far short of the numbers needed to fill the quota set for the migration programme. The Empire and Allied Ex-servicemen Scheme was established offering assisted migration to Australia for former soldiers who had fought with Allied forces during the war.10

In 1947, Minister Calwell visited Europe to arrange shipping for migrants from Britain. He also met with the International Refugee Organization and agreed to consider immigration to Australia from the displaced persons camps in Europe.11 Calwell spoke of the ‘splendid human capital’ in the camps as a ready labour pool and was keen for the Department to secure the ‘best’ migrants for migration to Australia.12 Initially, the Department planned for a quota of 12,000 people per year from the camps.13 A small team of departmental officers was dispatched to the camps in Germany to interview potential migrants. Applicants were required to sign work contracts and have the capacity to work as labourers to be accepted for immigration. The officers found that the conditions for the people living in the camps were often extremely challenging, with food shortages, overcrowding and disease common. Right: HMAS Kanimbla arrives in Melbourne with the first group of displaced persons in December 1947 from where they will join the train bound for the Bonegilla Migrant Reception and Training Centre. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1947/3/6.

28  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

The first shipload arrived in 1947 and brought 839 migrants from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. All were carefully selected. Departmental staff were required to choose candidates who were young, physically strong and attractive. Considerable efforts were made to promote them in a positive light to the Australian public as willing and valuable contributors to the national workforce.14

‘Calwell’s beautiful Balts’ ‘We would bring one shipload with nobody under fifteen and nobody over thirty-five, all of whom had to be single … Many were red-headed and blue-eyed. There was also a number of natural platinum blondes of both sexes. The men were handsome and the women beautiful. It was not hard to sell immigration to the Australian people once the press published photographs of that group.’b Arthur Calwell

In 1949, immigration officer Harold Grant was sent to Berlin to organise an expansion of the scheme, with the remit to select as many people as possible so that the ships sailing to Australia could be filled.15 Countries like Australia saw displaced persons camps as the solution to widespread labour shortages in the post-war period and Australia often competed with other nations to attract applicants.16

In 1955, the Department set up a publicity section to produce material to reassure the Australian public that migrants were being carefully selected and would easily assimilate into the Australian way of life.17 Hugh Murphy was one of the first departmental journalists based in Germany with the job of promoting immigration to Australia to Europeans.18

The number of people eventually assisted to immigrate to Australia by the Department under the Displaced Persons Scheme far exceeded the original yearly quota envisioned by Calwell. Between 1947 and 1954, more than 170,000 displaced persons arrived in Australia from countries across Eastern and Western Europe.19

29

30

Assistance to settle in Australia

F

rom the outset, the Department also administered and implemented a number of programmes providing a range of services to immigrants that would assist them in their sea journey and their settlement in Australia when they arrived.20 English language teaching was a key focus. The Department provided intensive English language instruction that began before migrants left Europe. There were also English classes on board the migrant ships travelling to Australia, and adult education classes once migrants arrived in Australia. Classroom teaching was supplemented by radio broadcasts and correspondence courses.21 The Department worked closely with other areas of government to provide accommodation and employment to new migrants.22 In 1948, the Department assumed control of the Adult Migrant English Programme and established the Migrant Workers’ Accommodation Division to administer a network of migrant hostels that provided accommodation for up to 12 months if needed.23 New arrivals living in the hostels were also provided with additional support while they worked in jobs often chosen for them by the Commonwealth Employment Service.24 Settlement support services would become more sophisticated over time, but in these early years migrants were encouraged to ‘assimilate’ quickly into Australian society, ‘adopt existing cultural norms and become indistinguishable from the Australian-born population as rapidly as possible’.25 The Department developed strong relationships with the community and non-government sectors in the delivery of settlement services. Seeking the involvement of members of the Australian community was regarded as an essential way to maintain support for immigration.26

Social workers and decision makers Ann-Mari Jordens in her book Alien to Citizen reported that the departmental workforce providing most of the assistance services to migrants were largely women. They were employed in the Department’s Social Welfare Section, and in Jordens’ words, presented the ‘compassionate face’ of the Department. ‘The Department of Immigration reflected the culture of the society from which its officers were drawn.’ Power within the Department resided with men in positions with responsibility for implementing government policy – the migration planners and selectors.c

Left: An English class at Bathurst Reception Centre, New South Wales. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1951/22/34.

31

Good Neighbourhood Councils Hazel Dobson, a Department of Immigration social worker, suggested modelling organisations to help immigrants ‘assimilate’ into the Australian community on the social clubs that had been established in the 1920s for British migrants.27 A full-time coordinator was employed by the Department to provide support for a network of Good Neighbour Councils in every state. The Good Neighbour movement involved the broader community in helping new arrivals overcome the challenges they faced and provided migrants already residing in Australia an opportunity to develop valuable skills. By January 1954, there were 100 branches of the Good Neighbour movement in Australia with over 10,000 people directly engaged in its various committees delivering advice and guidance.28

Left: A Good Neighbour Council member greets British migrants arriving in Sydney, 1962. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1962/4/56. Right: Norwegian migrants at work on the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Scheme, Guthega, New South Wales. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A11016, 2153.

32

Immigration and nation building

T

he immigration programme administered by the Department played a major role in providing the labour and capacity for Australia to undertake major infrastructure projects such as the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Scheme.

Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Scheme In August 1949, the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Scheme – one of the largest and most ambitious infrastructure projects ever undertaken in Australia – commenced construction, employing thousands of newly arrived migrants.29 The scheme took 25 years to complete and employed more than 100,000 men and women from 30 different countries.30 At its peak, the workforce numbered approximately 10,000.31 The scheme became ‘a focal point within the broader vision of Australia’s post-war immigration policy’.32

‘I’d four years in the [Australian] army ... I could have hated those German chaps, but ... the war was over and they were there to kick off again and start a new life.’33 Tom Little, Snowy Mountains Authority Foreman 33

34

Assisted immigration schemes in the 1950s and 1960s

I

n the early 1950s, the Department continued to manage a number of assisted immigration schemes designed to encourage migration from more than thirty European countries. Over a four-year period, Australia entered into agreements with Italy and the Netherlands in 1951, Austria, Belgium, Greece, Spain and West Germany in 1952 and Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States in 1954. During the late 1940s, and throughout the 1950s, migration from countries other than Britain represented around two-thirds of the immigration programme.34 Family reunion was also recognised as an important component of successful settlement, and in 1955 the Department implemented ‘Operation Reunion’. This scheme was intended to assist family members overseas to migrate to Australia to be reunited with family already living in Australia.35 Over the course of a decade, around 30,000 people would migrate from countries such as Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the former Yugoslavia under this scheme.

Left: Austrian migrants disembark from a Vickers Viscount onto the tarmac of Essendon Airport in Melbourne, 1956.

35

‘Ten Pound Poms’

B

y 1961, 9 per cent of the 10.5 million Australians were of non-British origin, comprising predominantly Italians, Germans, Dutch, Greeks and Poles.36 However, despite the increasing number of non-British Europeans arriving in Australia during the 1940s and 1950s, British migration was still strongly encouraged. The majority of Britons who migrated to Australia from 1945 to 1959 came under some kind of assisted passage scheme. Most were young married couples or single people. Of the married men who migrated to Australia during this period, 80 per cent were ex-servicemen.37 From 1945 to 1959, several British migration schemes were launched by the Department. The ‘Ten Pound Pom’ scheme was the colloquial term for the general Assisted Passage Migration Scheme, which was launched in 1945 to enable British migrants from any British colony to come to Australia for the price of £10 per adult, provided the adult was under 45 years of age and in good health.38 Bill McLoughlin, who worked for the Department for 40 years, recalled setting up in a local pub in Bristol in the UK and interviewing 12 people a day, five days a week who were applying to immigrate to Australia under this scheme. ‘Bring out a Briton’ was another campaign launched in 1957 that encouraged Australians to sponsor British families.39 The Minister for Immigration, Athol Townley, sent a letter to his fellow Australians encouraging them to participate.40 In 1959, the first migrants arrived under the ‘Nest Egg’ scheme, which offered assisted passage to Britons who had more than £500 and were willing to make their own accommodation arrangements.41 Right: Leaflet from the Minister for Immigration, Athol Townley, to his fellow Australians explaining the ‘Bring out a Briton’ campaign launched in 1957. Image courtesy of Museum Victoria. Far right: Passersby admire the window displays at Australia House, London. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1962/14/13.

36  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

37

38  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

‘But this is a British country’ ‘“Bring out a Briton,” however, does not mean that non-British people are not welcome, or that the significant contribution to this country by European migrants is not deeply appreciated. But this is a British country, with blood ties and responsibilities within a British Commonwealth, and Australians would naturally like to keep a reasonable balance between British migrants and those who come from other countries.’42

The Big Brother Movement Immigration officers located in Britain played a key role in assisting young males aged between 15 and 19 from disadvantaged backgrounds to settle in Australia under the Big Brother Movement .d Established in 1925, the movement involved assigning an adult in Australia (the ‘Big Brother’) to an emigrating youth from Britain (the ‘Little Brother’). The Department was responsible for organising accommodation, training and/or employment for the youth on arrival.e During the 1950s and 1960s, up to 500 youths arrived each year under this arrangement. The Big Brother Movement was considered the most successful and enduring of the youth migration schemes until its gradual cessation in the 1970s.f

Far left: Ten Pound Poms advertisments. Image courtesy of Museum Victoria. Left: A migration officer interviews a family at Australia House, London. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1962/14/17.

39

Nationality and citizenship

T

he settlement of large numbers of non-British-born people raised concerns about how well new migrants would assimilate into Australian society. For some, this included a fear of ‘the danger of Australia being swamped by peoples of alien thought and dubious loyalty’.43

The naturalisation of migrants was regarded as an important part of the assimilation process. Prior to 1948, Australians could only hold the status of British subjects.44 Having been given the power to define its own citizenship criteria since 1946, the Australian Government created the status of ‘Australian citizen’ through the enactment of the Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948. The first citizenship ceremony was held at Albert Hall in Canberra in 1949.45 From the early 1950s, the Department had responsibility for naturalisation processes. Before 1952, less than half of all migrants had declared an intention to become naturalised, and of those who had declared an intention to do so, less than 25 per cent had actually followed through. The process of naturalisation was onerous – including long waiting periods and a complicated and time-consuming application procedure. The Nationality and Citizenship Act 1955 included measures that simplified this process. As a consequence of these changes, the number of naturalisations jumped from almost 5,000 in 1954 to more than 49,000 in 1959.46

Right: First Australian citizenship certificate. Far right: A citizenship ceremony in St Kilda, Victoria, December 1955.

40  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

41

42 

The Department drives a new approach to immigration The first citizenship ceremony Angelo Muguira was one of seven people to become an Australian citizen at the first-ever Australian citizenship ceremony. Angelo was born in Spain – his family fled the Spanish Civil War when he was only 14 years old. After their months-long boat trip to Australia, the family were reunited with Angelo’s father, who had already established the Muguira family’s cane farm in Queensland.g

I

mmigration policy had undergone dramatic changes with the arrival of migrants from across Europe during the 1950s. The Migration Act 1958 replaced the Immigration Restriction Act 1901 and in doing so abolished the much-maligned dictation test.47 The expansion of the Migration Programme to actively encourage migration from non-British Europeans had been in part driven by the need for an increased population and, in the process, made room for community acceptance of a more diverse population. By the 1960s, Australia was keen to distance itself from the idea that its immigration policies had been based on race. Other countries with high immigration levels, such as Canada and the United States, had also begun to dismantle their discriminatory immigration regimes.48

Left: Six of the first seven Australian citizens pose on the steps of the Hotel Kurrajong. They were awarded citizenship in Canberra on 3 February 1949. Angelo Muguira is on the far left. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 2/1949/12A/1.

43

Non-European immigration

N

on-European migrants had a long history in Australia in spite of strenuous efforts to restrict their presence. Even in the immediate aftermath of war in 1945, 500 Chinese refugees residing in Australia, many of whom had helped with the war effort, were forcibly deported.49 By the 1960s, Australia’s focus on ‘European only’ immigration was regarded by many in the community as being out of step with the post-war realities.50

Japanese war brides One of the first signs of a relaxed approach towards non-European immigration occurred in 1952, when the government allowed the Japanese wives of Australian servicemen who had served in the Pacific War, as well as 800 other non-European refugees also permitted to settle in Australia. Others were not so lucky.h Right: Cherry Parker, the Japanese wife of an Australian serviceman, becomes an Australian citizen, Ringwood, Victoria, 1957. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A1501, 908/1.

44  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

A new secretary and policy reform

P

eter Heydon was named as the Secretary of the Department in 1961 and was responsible for implementing a process of dismantling the administrative and policy framework that supported the ‘White Australia Policy’ approach to immigration. Heydon adopted a new approach that sought to remove the barriers to immigration for people from non-European backgrounds. One of Heydon’s officers observed, ‘his biggest contribution to [policy development] was his ability to test the water and then proceed as far as the Minister’s toe could stand the heat’.51 Jordens notes that Heydon ‘believed that Australia’s sense of racial superiority damaged Australia’s interests overseas’.52

A formal review of policy relating to non-European immigration in 1966 recommended a focus on an applicant’s suitability to settle, their ability to integrate and their professional qualifications, regardless of their race or nationality. Further, non-Europeans who had been required to reside in Australia for 15 years before they were permitted to apply for citizenship were finally able to become citizens after five years, in line with the requirements that applied to European applicants.53 The requirement that applicants be ‘distinguished and highly qualified’, which had been used to restrict entry to non-Europeans, was replaced by a requirement that an applicant be well qualified. Once the restrictive policy towards non-European migration was relaxed in 1966, numbers started to gradually increase from around 750 arriving in 1966 to almost 2,700 arriving in 1971. There was a substantial increase in the number of part-European settlers, with over 6,000 arrivals in 1971.54

Indian and Lebanese migration Migrants from India included mainly professionals such as doctors, university teachers and engineers. Of the non-European population in Australia in 1966, 19 per cent were born in India, increasing to approximately 32 per cent in 1981.i Around three-quarters of the Indian-born population that migrated to Australia during this period are believed to have been of mixed British and Indian descent.j By 2011, there were an estimated 295,000 Indian-born people residing in Australia.k The arrival of Lebanese migrants in Australia dates back to the earliest days of settlement. By 1976, some 43,000 Lebanese nationals had arrived in Australia since the end of World War II, the majority arriving during the civil war in Lebanon in 1975–76. Today there is a large and diverse community with over 200,000 identifying as having Lebanese ancestry in the 2011 Census .l

45

Humanitarian resettlement

O

ne of the key features of the post-war immigration programme was Australia’s willingness to offer resettlement to people in humanitarian need in Europe. The targeting of people based on their national, political, religious, cultural or ethnic characteristics during the 1930s and 1940s, the scale of the war crimes committed during World War II and the huge loss of life involved in the deliberate slaughter of ‘undesirable’ groups had left a deep impression on many countries including Australia. The number of people displaced at the end of the war reflected the changed European landscape with new borders, new political systems and the mass movement of populations from countries where they were no longer welcomed. The offer of resettlement in Australia to displaced persons in Europe had been an early expression of Australia’s desire to be active in averting a repeat of the tragedy that had unfolded in the 1930s and 1940s. In 1954, Australia ratified the 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. As a result, Australia would continue to resettle vulnerable groups on an ad hoc basis in response to specific crisis situations.

Right: The first group of refugees following the 1956 Hungarian Revolution arrive at Sydney Airport, December 1956. This was one of the first times that aircraft were used to bring migrants from Europe. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1956/5/4. Far right: Australia’s 100,000th Dutch migrant, 27-year-old Adriana Zevenbergen, who arrived at Port Melbourne with her husband and children. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1958/4/80.

46  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Hungarian Revolution After the Soviet repression of the Hungarian Revolution in 1956, Australia was one of the first countries to offer sanctuary to Hungarian refugees. By the end of 1957, 14,000 Hungarian refugees had been resettled in Australia.55

Prague Spring In August 1968, the Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia to quash attempts by the government to introduce greater political freedoms. Non-violent resistance to the invasion lasted several months, but was eventually suppressed. Around 240,000 Czechs left the country, with around 6,000 coming to Australia.56

Australia’s population nearly doubles In 1945, Australia’s population was around 7.4 million and by 1970 it had almost doubled to nearly 13 million. Between 1947 and 1971, immigration was responsible for 59 per cent of Australia’s population growth. Post-war migrants and their Australia-born children increased the Australian population by 3.3 million. Arthur Calwell’s vision of using immigration to build the Australian population had worked.m

47

1972–74 1971–75 Concerns over increasing unemployment levels led to significant reductions in the planned intake of the Migration Programme.

1976–81

The remnants of the ‘White Australia Policy’ were further dismantled under the Whitlam Government, which took a non-discriminatory approach to immigration and provided additional services to migrants.

1970

Between 1976 and 1981, a total of 56 boats carrying 2,100 Indochinese refugees landed on Australian shores.

1976 To reflect its multicultural role, the Department became the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs.

1980

1990

1977 The rise in the number of refugees prompted the government to introduce a refugee policy framework and administrative machinery that set the foundations for Australia’s Humanitarian Programme.

1988–89

1978 The Galbally Report presented to Parliament stressed the need for additional services and programmes for migrants.

1981 Australia’s population was 15 million.

Major immigration reforms divided the Migration Programme into three streams (family, skilled and humanitarian) and developed a research capacity within the Department.

CHAPTER FOUR Migration and multiculturalism 49

B

y the 1970s, the Department had gained valuable experience and expertise in administering and managing what was becoming a much more complicated business landscape. The Department became adept at introducing and managing new policy and operational functions. It had also developed the capacity and experience to plan for future migration programmes based on a more strategic understanding of the economic and social implications. The Department worked with successive governments to ensure that Australia would not only manage the positive aspects of its growing cultural diversity but also tailor the Migration Programme in a way that contributed to the future prosperity of the country, while ensuring that effective controls were in place.1

The scale and diversity of the Migration Programme since the end of the war had transformed Australia into a country with a rapidly expanding population base. By 1971, one in three people residing in Australia was either a post-war migrant or the child of a migrant.2 In 1971, 12 per cent of the nation’s population were born outside of Australia and Britain, compared with only 3 per cent in 1947.3 Between 1945 and 1976, 1.5 million migrants came from countries other than Britain.4 The influence of new migrant groups from Europe and other countries, and the vibrant cultural traditions they brought with them, began to manifest itself at many levels in Australian society. Dramatic changes were underway.5 Following the reforms to immigration policy in 1966, the Department oversaw a further diversification of the programme, with migration to Australia from Asian countries steadily growing as restrictions were gradually relaxed. During the 1970s, international agreements relating to immigration were negotiated with a number of Asian countries to remove any remaining barriers for people wishing to make an application to migrate to Australia.

50  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Migrant ships and the beginning of jet travel Until the 1960s, the main form of transportation for migrants journeying to Australia was ‘migrant ships’.a Air travel to Australia began in the 1930s; however, this form of transportation was limited to wealthier migrants. The introduction of long-range jet aircraft in the late 1950s saw a significant surge in the number of migrants arriving by air.b The last Australian ship to carry assisted migrants was the Australis, which arrived in 1977.c Above: Belgian migrants arrive by Qantas aircraft chartered by the Intergovernmental Committee on European Migration, 1962. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1962/4/66.

Transition to multiculturalism

I

n 1972, the newly elected Labor Government continued what had become a trend towards a liberalisation of public policy across government, which reflected a resounding rejection of the racial restrictions of the past. The Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam, promised to ‘remove methodically from Australia’s laws and practices all racially discriminatory provisions ... that seek to differentiate peoples on the basis of their skin’.6 Part of the government’s agenda was a commitment to implement further changes to immigration policy that would finally eliminate any lingering measures that discriminated against applicants on the basis of race and nationality.7 In 1973, legislative changes to citizenship criteria allowed all migrants, regardless of race or origin, to apply for Australian citizenship after three years of residence. The Department issued instructions to all overseas staff to disregard nationality and race as factors in immigrant assessment processes.8

‘[The White Australia Policy] is dead, give me a shovel and I will bury it.’ Al Grassby, Minister for Immigration, 19739

Right: Prime Minister Gough Whitlam and Immigration Minister Al Grassby at the Proclamation of the Racial Discrimination Act, 1975. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A6180, 4/11/75/23.

51

The Department’s functions expand

B

y 1975, the Department had grown to more than 1,500 staff, including 197 staff in 34 countries, and had responsibility for the delivery of an increasingly complex and dynamic range of programmes.10

‘This work is not glamourous but necessary. Public opinion is rarely kind to the Department. Those with intentions to migrate who are not approved see us as frustrating and heartless bureaucrats.’11 At times, migration officers working for the Department overseas found themselves in uncomfortable and even dangerous situations. The Department had also responded to the rapidly changing and culturally diverse nature of immigration by beginning to tailor programmes that took greater account of the multicultural and multilingual characteristics of new migrants.12 The concept of Australia as a ‘multicultural society’ was mentioned for the first time in 1973 in a speech by the Minister for Immigration, Al Grassby, titled ‘A multi-cultural society for the future’. In the decades to come, ‘multiculturalism’ would become an all-encompassing touchstone that strongly influenced the direction of public policy development, including immigration.13

Right: Migrant education (learning English) – intensive language course at Canberra College of Advanced Education. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1970/24/3.

52  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Bilingual officers recruited Research conducted by the Department in 1972 showed that many migrants were unable to gain access to services to which they were entitled because of language barriers. In response, the Department recruited and trained 48 bilingual welfare officers.14 The first-hand experience of people who had recently immigrated to Australia became an important resource for the Department. In 1978, a staff survey showed that nearly a third of departmental staff had an immigrant background.15

‘Frightening place to be’ Departmental migration officer Sandy Fox recalls the time bullets struck a wall of the Australian Embassy in Beirut during the Lebanese Civil War in 1975–76: ‘Just before we were evacuated [to Athens], The Canberra Times carried a report that four bullets had hit our embassy. I felt like writing back and telling them they’d gotten it wrong – it was more like 44. I know, because I was sitting one metre away from them, interviewing a poor woman who wanted to emigrate.’d

Assimilation, integration, multiculturalism

A

core part of the Department’s business from the outset had been the provision of settlement services for new migrants. There have been three dominant policy approaches to migrant settlement that have had

a significant impact on the experiences of migrants. These policy frameworks were also very influential across local, state and federal government jurisdictions in relation to a broad range of social policy issues. In the immediate post-war period, there was a strong focus on English language training and meeting the immediate material needs of migrants in relation to accommodation and employment. The principal notion guiding this approach to settlement was the view that assimilating into the community would be quick, easy and beneficial for the new arrivals.16

By the 1960s, it became clear that settling into life in a new country was not an easy process, and that it was unrealistic and undesirable to expect new arrivals to completely abandon their heritage and language. This allowed for the development of services by the Department that focused on the cultural and linguistic needs of new migrants, as well as their physical needs, to aid their integration into the community. From the mid-1970s notions of ‘multiculturalism’ based on ‘a respect for cultural diversity’ became the defining objective underpinning the provision of settlement services to migrants and refugees.17 By the 1970s, Australia had become a country of diverse cultures, with almost 400 different languages spoken (including Indigenous languages), and migrants contributing to a rich array of art, literature, drama, music, fashion, sport and cuisine.

53

Settlement services

I

n 1973, the Department established the Settlement Services Branch.18 This initiative was supported by both sides of politics, recognising the value and prudence of providing assistance to immigrants to help them overcome the ordeal of leaving behind everything that was once familiar and adjusting to their new life in Australia. The work of the branch was briefly interrupted in 1974 when the Department was ‘disbanded’. The function now known as client visa services was merged into one of the biggest agencies, the Department of Labour (becoming the Department of Labor and Immigration). Other functions, including settlement services, were redistributed to other government agencies by the incumbent Labor Government; welfare and community services were transferred to the Department of Social Security; English language training was transferred to the Department of Education; migrant accommodation was transferred to the Department of Housing and Construction; and passport issuing was transferred to the Department of Foreign Affairs.19

Following a change of government in late 1975, most of these changes were reversed and the Department was renamed the Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. The ‘Ethnic Affairs’ wing of the new department became responsible for most of the administrative functions relating to migrant settlement.20 The restored Settlement Services Branch implemented a range of measures to improve services for migrants. Migrant children were provided with additional educational support and migration centres were established in most state capitals, with multilingual officers to assist migrants to access social services. There was also a focus on conducting field surveys to better identify the challenges migrants faced in the settlement process.

54  A history History of of the the Immigration DepartmentDepartment of Immigration - Managing – Managing migration Migration to Australia to Australia

In an effort to provide more robust engagement between the Department and communities, and to facilitate broader community networks, the Department compiled a directory of national and ethnic groups for publication. It also introduced the first telephone interpreter service offering translations in more than 50 languages and championed the establishment of multilingual radio and television stations, such as the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS).21

Demand for visas in Burma Departmental officer Elaine Moloney, posted to Yangon, Burma in February 1975, recalls how the demand for visas from Burmese people seeking to immigrate to Australia led to some creative strategies to evade the attention of the military junta: ‘Applicants who had a good chance of getting approval were sometimes interviewed at home, during a dinner party. It was far too hazardous for them to be seen entering the Embassy. Paper was in desperately short supply and some embassies found their documents in the market place used as wrapping for peanuts or fish.’e

‘[T]here is a need to overcome the complex problems confronting migrants, especially non-English speaking migrants, who already live in the multi-cultural society of today’s Australia.’ Malcolm Fraser, Opposition Spokesperson for Labor and Immigration, 30 April 197422

Migrant resource centres In 1977, the Department opened two experimental multicultural resources centres for migrants. The first was in Melbourne – operated by the Australian Greek Welfare Society – and the second in Parramatta, operated by the Department.f The 1978 Galbally Report, which stressed the need for further improvements to settlement services and programmes for all migrants, led to an additional 20 migrant resource centres being established by 1981.g Above: Eastbridge Migrant Resource Centre, Melbourne, 1978. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 1/1962/4/66.

55

Reduced immigration

T

he reforms of the early 1970s that had further liberalised immigration to Australia coincided with a period when economic pressures had begun to intensify. By 1971, Australia was at the tail end of a long period of economic prosperity. Concerned about increasing unemployment levels, the Department was directed by the government to reduce the planned migration quota in 1971 from 170,000 to 140,000. Again, in the 1972–73 programme year, the planned intake was revised down to 110,000, and there was a further reduction in 1974 to 80,000. In 1975, the number of places was set to 50,000, the lowest level since the end of the war in 1945.23

Right: Immigration Minister Michael MacKellar welcomes the Beradis family from Italy – the first family to be selected under the new points system, 1979. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 2/1979/44A/8.

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A new approach to attracting migrants

T

he Department began to steadily shift the focus away from large-scale assisted programmes that sought to attract migrant groups from particular source countries, to more targeted migration policy initiatives that concentrated on attracting immigrants to fill skill and labour shortages.24

The first regular annual review of the role and functions of the Department over the previous year was published in 1976. The review became a permanent feature of departmental business until 1989 when it was renamed the annual report.25 The first review in 1976 provided interesting hints into future trends. The review reported that ‘the number of people travelling to Australia as migrant settlers comprised only a small (3.5 per cent) proportion of the traffic being handled by the Department’.26 In terms of movement across the border in that year, there were more than 1.6 million arrivals and a similar number of departures.27 The Department also noted that controlling the entry of such a significant volume of travellers was proving to be an increasingly challenging task.28 In 1979, the Department developed the Numerical Multi-factor Assessment System for migrant selection, which gave weight to factors such as family ties, occupation and language skills. Immigration targets were also set to achieve an average net gain of 70,000 people per year across three years.29 In the following year, the Department advised that all travellers entering Australia were now required to carry a passport. By 1981, Australia’s population was estimated to be 15 million.30

57

Amnesties to legalise migration status There have been a number of occasions when the Department has implemented amnesties allowing people to regularise their residence and visa status. In 1973, the new Labor Government introduced the first ‘dispensation’ programme intended to regularise the status of people who had overstayed their visas. The programme was not well publicised and only about 300 applicants came forward. In 1976, another ‘dispensation’ programme was offered that attracted more than 8,600 applications, including nationals from Britain, Greece, Indonesia and China.31 Again in 1980, a widely advertised amnesty was offered via the Regularisation of Status Program. At the same time, the Department tightened border controls, instructing officers to be more stringent and to look more closely at the bona fides of people applying for visitor visas.32

58  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Resettlement of those in humanitarian need

A

ustralia had been an early signatory to the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention and signed the 1967 Protocol in 1973 that extended the geographical scope of refugee protection beyond Europe.33 Since the end of the war, Australia had accepted refugees from more than 40 countries. Throughout the 1970s, the Department continued to accept small groups of refugees from a range of countries on an ad hoc basis in response to crises as they arose. There were no dedicated visas or formal dedicated programmes for refugees during these years.

Chileans, Cypriots and Lebanese The Australian Government provided assisted passage to many Chileans who left Chile as refugees in the years following the overthrow of the Allende Government in 1973.h Displaced persons from Cyprus were resettled in Australia after the Turkish occupation of northern Cyprus in 1974 displaced nearly half of the island’s population.i When civil war broke out in Lebanon in 1975, the Australian Government waived the usual requirements for entry into Australia, treating Lebanese people as quasi-refugees. They were permitted to come to Australia for humanitarian reasons, provided that they had domiciled relatives who were prepared to guarantee their accommodation and other needs. By 1980, more than 16,000 Lebanese migrants had arrived in Australia.j

Left: East Timorese refugees arrive in Darwin, 1975. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A6180, 18/8/75/23.

59

Establishment of the Humanitarian Programme

T

he mid-1970s were busy years for the Department. In 1975, the Vietnam war ended and Khmer Rouge forces occupied Phnom Pehn, Cambodia. By 1978, at least 1.5 million Cambodians had died from execution, forced hardships and starvation.

Most of the Indochinese refugees initially sought asylum in neighbouring countries that had scant resources to cope with the influx of people in desperate humanitarian need. In many countries these refugees languished in detention camps in dire conditions. In 1976, the first boat carrying five Vietnamese asylum seekers arrived in Australia.34 Other boats followed and by the end of 1981, 56 boats carrying more than 2,000 people had made the hazardous journey.35 In 1976, the Department established the first immigration detention processing centre near Sydney as a measure intended to better manage the arrival of people by boat.36 Departmental staff were sent to interview refugees in the countries neighbouring Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia in an attempt to relieve the pressure and hopefully remove the motivation for people to travel to Australia by boat. Between 1975 and 1985, the Department had processed around 95,000 Indochinese refugees for resettlement in Australia.37 The 1970s had been a period during which the dramatic increase of refugees in the region had placed significant pressure on countries like Australia, with the arrival of boats with refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos on board. A Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence 1977 report based on extensive investigations found that there was a ‘complete lack of policy for the acceptance of people into Australia as refugees rather than as normal migrants’

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and ‘recommend[ed], as a matter of urgency, an approved and comprehensive set of policy guidelines and the establishment of appropriate machinery to be applied to refugee situations’.38 In a speech to Parliament in May 1977, the Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, Michael MacKellar, outlined the government’s plans to put in place ongoing policy and mechanisms to develop humanitarian programmes for refugee resettlement.39 The Australian Humanitarian Programme was formally established as a small, but integral part of the Migration Programme.

Interviews with Indochinese refugees in camps in Malaysia In 1978–79, there were eight immigration officers based in Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok to select refugees from camps. Departmental immigration officer Steve Carter, who was posted in Kuala Lumpur, would sleep on the interviewing table at night.k A group of 15 women – nine wives of departmental officers posted with the Australian High Commission in Kuala Lumpur and six spouses of private company employees – taught basic English and provided practical information on Australia to Vietnamese refugees who had been selected for resettlement in Australia in Belfield Camp, Kuala Lumpur.l

Right: Migration officers interview a Vietnamese refugee in Thailand, 1984. From the 1970s assistance programmes were confined to refugee groups selected for resettlement in Australia. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 2/1984/46A/16.

61

In 1989, Australia joined the Comprehensive Plan of Action, along with other countries seeking an integrated and coordinated international response to recurring outflows of refugees from Vietnam and the existing refugee population who had languished in camps in South-East Asian countries for more than a decade.40 Some of the countries involved went on to establish formal, quotabased refugee resettlement programmes.

Snapshot of major humanitarian groups42 • Eastern Europe (Romania, USSR, Ukraine) Post-World War II

• Central Europe (Romania, Hungary, Slovakia) • The Balkans (Croatia, Bulgaria) • Baltic states (Lithuania)

Only ten countries have established annual resettlement programmes of 500 or more refugee places. Refugees are mostly referred to resettlement countries by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) after refugee status determination processes have been completed. Australia consistently ranks in the top three resettlement countries, along with the United States and Canada. These countries provide over 80 per cent of resettlement places globally.41

• Chile 1960s and 1970s

• Czech Republic • Lebanon • Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)

1980s and 1990s

• The former Yugoslavia • East Timor • El Salvador

Contribution of humanitarian entrants Research published in 2011 on the economic, social and civic contributions of first and second generation humanitarian entrants found that they demonstrated a greater commitment to life in Australia compared to other migrants. Humanitarian entrants also volunteered more and displayed strong entrepreneurial skills, with a higher than average proportion engaging in small and medium business enterprises. There was also strong evidence of upward mobility between generations in terms of labour participation over time.m

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• Horn of Africa (Sudan, Eritrea, Somalia) • Central Africa Recent Arrivals

• Middle East and Afghanistan • Burma • Sri Lanka

Right: Refugee families arriving in Australia with their children.

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64 

Australia becomes a popular destination

B

etween 1984 and 1986, the Department processed huge numbers of overseas visitors, with 1.3 million people entering Australia over the two-year period.43 Again, in 1988, the Department managed the processing and operational challenges involved in the entry and exit of large numbers of travellers during Australia’s bicentennial celebrations. Events such as the 1988 World Expo in Brisbane alone were estimated to have attracted more than 15 million local and international visitors.44

The growing complexity and scope of the Migration Programme prompted the Department to further refine its functions and processes to manage the challenges ahead. In 1986–87, the quota for the Migration Programme was substantially increased from 84,000 to 115,000. The focus was again on attracting migrants with skills, business expertise and capital, an emphasis that to some extent was influenced by concerns about an ageing population and declining fertility rate.45 Around this time, the Department implemented further reforms by dividing the Migration Programme into three distinct streams – family, skilled and humanitarian.46 In 1989, migration regulations that codified the requirements for visas were introduced.

By the end of the 1980s, the population of Australia had grown substantially from just over 10.5 million in 1961 to more than 17 million in 1990.47 The social, political and economic liberalisation that characterised the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were pivotal influences on a Department that had also come of age in terms of policy, operational and administrative experience, expertise and know-how. The decades spanning the 1960s and 1970s had been a time of unprecedented change for the Department, driven in the first instance by the post-war diversification of the Migration Programme and then by more enlightened approaches to immigration. By the 1980s, the focus was shifting towards a more targeted approach to immigration taking into account a broad sweep of social and economic considerations as Australia became more connected and susceptible to global forces.

Left: Mai Thanh Thuy was the four-millionth migrant to be helped by the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration. She was reunited with her husband, Nguyen Lloang Thanh, at Adelaide Airport. Nguyen Hoang Thanh had escaped from Vietnam by boat in November 1982, and was selected for resettlement in Australia under the Indo-Chinese Refugee Programme. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 2/1988/20A/1.

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1995 Between 1945 and 1995, Australia accepted more than five million migrants, including over half a million refugees and displaced persons.

1999–2001 In 1999 and 2000, over 6,600 illegal maritime arrivals reached Australian shores, with a further 5,500 arriving in 2001.

2001 The Tampa incident provided the catalyst for a revised border protection regime and the creation of the Pacific Strategy.

1990

1997–98 The Department underwent a major restructure that aimed to align policy and operational areas and to strengthen border management. Greater priority was given to the business and skilled migration streams.

2015

2001–03 The September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, an economic downturn and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic all had significant but short-term impacts on international travel.

2000

On 1 July 2015, the Department of Immigration and Border Protection and the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service will officially amalgamate as a single department, with the commencement of the Australian Border Force.

2010

2020

2000 The Department facilitated the entry of thousands of international visitors attending the 2000 Sydney Olympic and Paralympic Games.

2009–13

2003 Population reached 20 million.

2005 The Department received criticism for its handling of Vivian Alvarez Solon’s and Cornelia Rau’s cases and, in response, initiated an agency-wide programme to change its culture, performance, systems and business.

Over this five-year period, Australia saw more than 50,000 people arrive on boats seeking asylum.

CHAPTER FIVE Managing migration in a dynamic and complex world 67

T

he economic, political, social and technological changes in the latter part of the 20th century transformed communications, transport and financial arrangements and were accompanied by a dramatic rise in international movement. These changes presented some significant challenges for the Department.

From the beginning of the 1980s, the Department was managing an unparalleled increase in business traffic. In 1980–81, the Department processed around 4.5 million cross-border movements. By 1996–97, there were around 14.5 million cross-border movements recorded and by 2013–14, approximately 35.4 million.1 More than six million short-term visitors arrived in 2013–14, a number three times higher than in 1990–91.2 While quotas set for permanent migration have remained relatively steady in comparison, there has been a dramatic change in the composition of the Migration Programme since the 1990s. Over the last two decades, the number of Chinese-born residents has more than tripled to almost 450,000 and the number born in India has more than quadrupled to almost 400,000. China and India are now the third and fourth largest contributors respectively to Australia’s overseas-born population, after the United Kingdom, with more than 1.2 million, and New Zealand, with around 600,000.3 Innovation and technology became increasingly important for the Department to expand its capacity to process the large numbers of migrants and travellers arriving in and departing from Australia. In 1987, the Department began using computers to process visitor visa applications in its overseas posts for the first time; information technology in 1986–87 was creating ‘a quiet revolution’ in the Department.4 In 1990, a second version of the Immigration Records and Information System (IRIS) was introduced to replace the original 1987 programme.5

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IRIS II was reputed to be the most advanced visa computer system in the world at the time6, enabling across-the-counter visa issue at Australian overseas posts and helping to simplify clearance processes for incoming passengers at major airports.7 In 1996, the Department introduced the Electronic Travel Authority system, which allowed for an electronically stored authority mechanism to immediately issue visas for visitors entering Australia, removing the need for application forms.8 As well as these technological developments, the Department recruited over 250 permanent and temporary staff in 1991 to clear a backlog of 17,000 humanitarian applications.9 The large number of applications was the result of several areas of conflict and unrest abroad, including in Sri Lanka, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Latvia and Lithuania, and also Indochinese who were part of the legacy caseload of refugees in South-East Asian countries.10 Between 1945 and 1995, Australia accepted over 500,000 refugees and displaced persons. This figure included around 215,000 Eastern Europeans, 135,000 Indochinese, 90,000 from the Middle East, 50,000 from Latin America and 25,000 Chinese students.11 In March 1991, the Special Assistance categories (SACs) of the Humanitarian Programme were introduced for ‘exceptional cases presenting features of threat to personal security and intense personal hardship’.12 These categories were created specifically for people who did not fit the definition under the UN Refugee Convention but were at significant risk.13 In the first year, 4,000 visas were granted to applicants from ethnic minority groups, including from Croatia, East Timor, Lebanon, the Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia. There were eventually ten SACs, which were all abolished by the early 2000s, ‘having fulfilled their purpose’.14

Refugees from Bhutan Asylum seekers from Bhutan began arriving in eastern Nepal at the end of 1990. They were recognised as refugees by the Government of Nepal and lived in seven refugee camps in south-eastern Nepal. There were around 107,000 refugees from Bhutan in these camps. Since 2005, Australia has played a key role in working with major resettlement countries and UNHCR to develop practical strategies to achieve resolution for this situation, one of the longest protracted refugee situations in Asia.15 Australia has welcomed close to 5,500 refugees from Bhutan, who have settled around the country, including in regional centres such as Albury, Launceston, and Cairns.16

Muslim migration to Australia Since the 1960s, there have been a number of significant migrations by groups who identify Islam as their religion, including migrants from Lebanon and Turkey.a From the 1990s, Muslim refugees and migrants from Afghanistan, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Horn of Africa, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq and Malaysia have also migrated to Australia.b By 2003, it was estimated that Muslims in Australia came from more than 70 different countries.c

Right: Resettled Bhutanese refugee Deo Maya Khadka and her daughter, in their home, 2015.

69

Managing short-term visitors and encouraging migration Throughout the early 1990s, Australia continued to be a magnet for short-term visitors. In the 1993–94 programme year, the Department facilitated the entry of more than three million short-term visitors. Tourism became an important part of the economy. The number of people coming to Australia under a Business Skills visa had also increased – tripling between the 1992–93 and 1993–94 programme years. An ongoing challenge for the Department was balancing the facilitation of entry for legitimate visitors with deterrent measures to prevent attempts to circumvent immigration control.17 The Migration Reform Act 1992, introduced in September 1994, signalled a move away from discretionary powers with significant legislative changes, ‘making immigration decisions easier, fairer and more certain’.18 A single streamlined visa entry system was introduced, removing the need to apply for a separate permit to stay in Australia. The reforms also created a single category of ‘unlawful non-citizen’, regardless of how the person entered Australia, with a provision stipulating that unlawful non-citizens were now subject to mandatory detention and removal.19 By 1995, 75 per cent of the population was Australian-born compared to 90 per cent in 1945. New Zealand-born migrants in Australia overtook migrants from the United Kingdom for the first time.20

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In 1996, the Department was renamed the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. The name change was significant because it reflected the Department’s focus on continuing to develop policy and programmes in support of multiculturalism. Various immigration measures were also introduced to make it easier for refugees and other humanitarian entrants to bring their immediate family members to Australia. Concessional family reunion (‘split family’) provisions were created within the Humanitarian Programme with effect from the following year, on 1 July 1997.21

New Zealand migrants Between 1989 and 2009, the number of New Zealand-born people living in Australia almost doubled from 280,000 to 530,000.d By 2013, an estimated 641,000 New Zealand citizens were present in Australia.e Approximately 15 per cent of New Zealand-born people in Australia were of Maori ancestry.f Brisbane and the Gold Coast are now the third and fourth largest Maori population centres in the world respectively, with an estimated 40,000 Maoris living on the coastal strip running from Brisbane to the New South Wales border.g

Shifting the emphasis to business and skills

F

rom October 1996, the newly elected Coalition Government shifted the focus of the Migration Programme from family towards skilled migration. In 1997, the government announced that greater priority would be given to business and skilled migration, with the skill stream representing around 37 per cent of the total programme outcome of 73,900, compared to 29 per cent of the previous year’s total programme outcome of 82,500.22

The proportion of skilled migration has continued to grow ever since. In 2006, the Migration Programme was the largest for several decades, with almost 143,000 allocated places, which included the largest skill stream ever, with over 97,000 places.23 In 2013–14, the Migration Programme was set at 190,000 places, with approximately 120,000 places allocated to the skill stream.24

International students The Department’s student visa programme is an integral part of Australia’s international education sector.25 In the 2013–14 programme year, the Department granted over 292,000 student visas, around 32,000 more than in the 2012–13 programme year.26 The People’s Republic of China is Australia’s largest source country for student visa grants, followed by India, the Republic of Korea, Vietnam and Brazil.27 Many international students have subsequently become permanent residents and Australian citizens.28

Migration Programme outcome by family and skill stream 29 150,000 120,000

Family stream Skill stream

90,000 60,000 30,000 0

1984–89

1989–94

1994–99 1999–2004 2004–09

2009–14

71

Strengthening the border

I

n 1997–98, the Department began a major restructure to align policy and operational areas and strengthen its border management functions. Many of the functions under the new structure were outsourced to the private sector.30 The increased focus on border integrity was in response to the number of unauthorised arrivals and visa over-stayers apprehended by the Department. In 1996–97, airport staff intercepted 626 passengers of concern outside Australia, compared with 436 the previous year.31 A ‘crackdown’ resulted in almost 12,000 visa over-stayers and illegal workers being located and detained by the Department.32 The 1998–99 federal budget included specific initiatives designed to strengthen border management. Increased funding was allocated to improving the Movement Alert List, the primary checking tool for identifying passengers of immigration concern, and the surveillance of movements in the Torres Strait Protected Zone.33 Departmental staffing at airports was also increased.34

The Torres Strait Movement Monitoring Officers The Department has Movement Monitoring Officers located on 13 islands in the Torres Strait, who play an important role in protecting Australia’s border to the north. They also facilitate and monitor the free movement of inhabitants for traditional activities including the collection of food, hunting, barter and market trade and religious and social gatherings and between Australia and Papua New Guinea. The islands lie within the protected zone prescribed in the Torres Strait Treaty. The treaty agreed to by Australia and Papua New Guinea acknowledges and protects the traditional way of life and the livelihood of the inhabitants.h Above: Torres Strait Movement Monitoring Officer Aaron Anau.

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The second wave of unauthorised migration by sea and by air

F

rom 1998 to 2001, Australia experienced increases in both unauthorised boat arrivals and unauthorised passengers travelling to Australia by air. In 1998–99, more than 2,000 people were refused entry at airports.35 In 1999 and 2000, over 6,600 unauthorised maritime arrivals reached Australian shores, with a further 5,500 arriving in 2001.36

The Department increased the presence of compliance officers at seven overseas posts (Ankara, Colombo, Guangzhou, Nairobi, New Delhi, Pretoria and Shanghai) and five key airports (Bangkok, Denpasar, Dubai, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore) in an effort to combat people smuggling.39 Heavier penalties were also imposed on airlines for allowing passengers to board flights without suitable documentation.40

The government took a range of measures designed to curb the arrival of boats. The Border Protection Legislation Amendment Act 1999 gave officers of the Department and customs officers the power to enforce Australia’s border strategies in international waters, unconstrained by the 12-mile territorial waters rule. The Act also gave powers to officers to detain, forfeit, seize and dispose of ships and aircraft used in people smuggling operations.37 In 1999, the Department implemented new measures to curb the growing number of unauthorised arrivals. Unauthorised arrivals who were granted refugee status were provided with a three-year temporary protection visa, rather than permanent residence. Biometric testing was used to help ascertain the identity of asylum seekers. The latter measure was directed at people who might already have been granted refugee status through Refugee Status Determination processes elsewhere, or who had been refused refugee status by UNHCR or another country.38

People smuggling ring ‘smashed’ In 1999, the Department smashed a sophisticated Sydney-based people smuggling ring that had been bringing Iraqi nationals to Australia by air on false documentation, for between $6,000 and $12,000 per person. The ring was uncovered following a six-month operation conducted by the Department in conjunction with the Australian Federal Police.i

73

Operation Safe Haven

I

n April 1999, the Department was the lead agency responsible for coordinating Operation Safe Haven, one of the largest humanitarian exercises ever undertaken by a government agency. Operation Safe Haven provided temporary sanctuary for almost 4,000 Albanian Kosovars from camps in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.41 The Department was involved in selecting evacuees for charter flights to Australia, for their temporary settlement in Australia and for their eventual return to their home region.42

By September 1999, approximately half of the Kosovars who had been brought to Australia under Operation Safe Haven had returned home. By April 2000, only around 100 still remained in Australia for medical reasons. In 1999, a group of 1,450 East Timorese were evacuated from a UN compound in Dili and given temporary safe haven visas in Australia for several months. Most returned to East Timor in late 1999, after a UN peace operation led by Australia – the International Force in East Timor – secured the region.45

The Department’s response to the refugee crisis was rapid. Within days of the government’s announcement that Australia would accept Albanian Kosovars, a team of seven Departmental officers and support staff were working at border camps in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, with an additional 12 officers joining them a month later. Priority was given to keeping family groups together and identifying women at risk.43 ‘Every effort was made to enable the Kosovars to participate in the local community. Australians donated toys and money, and issued Kosovars with invitations and passes to entertainment and sporting events.’44

Regional centres welcome refugees Singleton was one of six ‘Safe Havens’ in Australia that accommodated displaced people from Kosovo. A small group were accommodated in the army barracks in Singleton.

Right: An elderly Kosovar enjoys the peacefulness of the East Hills Safe Haven in Sydney, 1999.

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One of the young men arriving in Singleton exclaimed ‘Look, look’, pointing to a mob of perhaps 200 kangaroos leaping through the camp. On the path between the bathroom and the bedrooms, there was a sign – Gjarprinjet! (Beware, snakes).j

75

The Pacific Strategy

T

he ‘MV Tampa crisis’ provided the catalyst for the Pacific Strategy – a revised border protection regime. The Pacific Strategy became derisively known as the ‘Pacific Solution’.46

A package of seven Bills was passed through the Senate in 2001.47 The new legislation imposed minimum prison terms for people smugglers, excised certain territories from Australia’s migration zone and allowed for the detention of unlawful non-citizens in an excised offshore place. There were also provisions for the transfer of arrivals to a third country, which included the establishment of offshore processing centres (OPCs).48 In September 2001, an administrative agreement was signed with the Government of Nauru. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed with the Government of Papua New Guinea in October.49 This allowed asylum seekers on board intercepted vessels to be transferred to OPCs on Nauru or Manus Island in Papua New Guinea.50 The Pacific Strategy was effectively ended when the Labor Government came to power in 2007. The OPCs on Nauru and Manus Island were closed and temporary protection visas were abolished in 2008.51

Right: Departmental officer, Judith O’Neill interviewing refugee children in Palau Galang, Indonesia, 1992.

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The Tampa crisis On 26 August 2001, 433 Afghan asylum seekers on a sinking fishing boat were rescued by a Norwegian ship called the Tampa. There was a five-day stand-off between the captain of the Tampa and the Australian Government over where the Afghan asylum seekers were to be taken. The majority were eventually transferred to the newly established OPC on Nauru, while New Zealand agreed to take 150 others for resettlement.k

The Department’s work with the international community

T

he Department worked with UNHCR and other resettlement countries to assist with efforts to find durable solutions for refugees throughout the 1990s and 2000s. Between 2006 and 2013, Australia provided more than $230 million in funding to UNHCR, which was central in supporting the agency to respond to the needs of millions of refugees globally.52

The Department has taken an active role in international meetings relating to refugee protection. In recent years, Australia has also been the Chair of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s Programme53 in 2009, the Chair of the UNHCR Annual Tripartite Consultations on Resettlement and Working Groups on Resettlement54 in 2011–12 and the Chair of the Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees55 in 2014–15.

UNHCR Working Group on Resettlement meeting relocated from Geneva to Melbourne ‘For the two days before the meeting, we took the international delegates on site visits to refugee settlement support programmes in Melbourne and rural Victoria. They saw everything from initial settlement accommodation for newly arriving refugees; to organisations and volunteers – including former refugees – helping orient the new arrivals; right through to walking around communities with vibrant multicultural populations.’ Garry Fleming, First Assistant Secretary, 2012l

77

Special events

O

ver the years, the Department has developed considerable expertise in managing the influx of large numbers of visitors for special events. The key challenge for the Department during these events is facilitating seamless entry and exit processes while also maintaining the integrity of Australia’s borders.56 The Melbourne Olympics in 1956 was the first large event in the post-war period that attracted large numbers of overseas visitors to Australia. Sydney hosted the Olympics again in 2000. The Commonwealth Games has also been hosted by Australia three times. The 23rd World Youth Day was held in Sydney in July 2008. Around 500,000 young people from over 200 countries participated in the week-long festivities, with more than one million attending the World Youth Day events. Two days before the start of the official celebrations, Sydney Airport saw its largest ever number of international arrivals, with 20,000 passengers passing through the terminal. The Department granted 71,000 visas through processes established especially for World Youth Day.57

Left: Young people gathering in Sydney for World Youth Day celebrations in 2008.

78 

The 2000 Sydney Olympic and Paralympic Games The Games brought large numbers of international visitors to Australia. The Department processed a record 4.9 million short-term visitor arrivals in 2000.58 The Department worked closely with the Sydney Olympic Organising Committee to develop the ‘Olympics System’, an electronic interface incorporating immigration screening to ensure athletes and officials passed entry processes prior to receiving their Games accreditation.59 The Department undertook thousands of security checks and doubled the number of trained border clearance officers in New South Wales. There was general acknowledgement that the Department’s computerised border control systems for the Games represented world’s best practice.

The 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games Departmental staff worked closely with officials and volunteers in Victoria and around Australia to ensure seamless and efficient processing of the 4,500 athletes from 71 nations, their family members and a large number of visitors travelling to Australia for the Games. Departmental officers also travelled to countries such as Mauritius and Sierra Leone and to the Caribbean to provide advice to officials in those countries to ensure there was a clear understanding of Australia’s requirements for entry.60

79

International travel temporarily declines

I

n the first years of the 2000s, a number of factors combined to precipitate a decline in travel globally and an economic downturn in key tourism markets. The attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001 led to increased concerns over terrorism. Coalition forces drove the Taliban Government from power in Afghanistan later that year and war in Iraq commenced in 2003. Concerns relating to international travel at this time were further heightened by the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic that lasted from 2002 to 2004. The number of travellers arriving in Australia decreased significantly for the first and only time since the 1970s. The Department recorded a 3 per cent decline in the number of visitor visas issued in 2002–03 compared to 2001–02.61

Despite the downturn in visitor numbers, the six-millionth post-war migrant, Cristina Jurado from the Philippines (pictured), arrived with her husband and two children in Australia on 18 March 2002.62 By December 2003, the Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated that the population of Australia had reached 20 million.63

Women in leadership By 2004, the role of women in the Department had undergone a radical change, with 40 per cent of the senior executive positions held by women, up from 25 per cent in 1999. ‘Women in the DIMIA are doing a range of gutsy jobs, not only in those areas where women have traditionally made their mark, such as social policy, but also in less traditional areas.’ Senator Amanda Vanstone, 12 July 2004m

80  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

A shift in the Department’s culture

I

n 2005, the Department became the subject of significant public scrutiny and criticism for its handling of Vivian Alvarez Solon’s and Cornelia Rau’s cases.

The Palmer Report, which investigated Rau’s case, and the Comrie Report, which investigated Alvarez Solon’s case, were released in 2005 and detailed the serious mistakes made in both cases. In response to these and subsequent Commonwealth and Immigration Ombudsman reports, the Department initiated an agency-wide programme to reform its culture, performance, systems and business.64 The Department introduced specific programmes to improve client service, compliance, case management and training, and to improve health services for detainees and identity verification. The Department also introduced new approaches in the areas of governance, stakeholder engagement, quality assurance and risk management. All the work of the Department would be undertaken under three strategic themes: being an open and accountable organisation; ensuring fair and reasonable dealings with clients; and having well-trained and supported staff.65

Boxing Day tsunami Following the Asian tsunami on 26 December 2004, departmental officers stationed in Thailand, Sri Lanka and elsewhere in the region worked tirelessly to assist Australians who had lost their travel documents in the disaster. They also assisted with emergency relief and evacuation efforts, and confirmed the safety of departmental staff, locally engaged employees and their families. Australian based staff also ensured rapid clearance processes for those returning to Australia.n Above: Indonesian tsunami survivors receive food and water from a US Air Force helicopter in a damaged village in Aceh Jaya district, 2004. Image courtesy of ABC News.

81

Working holiday schemes

T

he Department has also administered working holiday and work and holiday schemes with a range of countries since 1975. The first working holiday scheme in Australia involved young people from Britain, Ireland and Canada.66 Working holiday schemes have since been expanded. In the 2003–04 programme year, Italy and France joined Australia’s Working Holiday visa programme.67 In the same programme year, over 93,000 working holiday visas were processed, a record for the Department.68 Australia now has active agreements with 31 partner nations and regions69 and in the 2013–14 programme year, more than 240,000 work and holiday visas were granted.70

The schemes have been important for the economies of rural Australian communities as they encourage working holiday makers to seek employment in those areas. In 2005, for example, the Work and Holiday programme was expanded to allow visa holders to be granted a further stay of one year if they undertook seasonal work in regional Australia.71

Right: A worker sorts vegetables after a harvest at the Naytuna Permaculture Research Institute Farm in The Channon, New South Wales. Image courtesy of Willing Workers on Organic Farms Australia and Ingrid Pullen Photography.

82  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

The third wave of unauthorised migration

A

third wave of boats carrying unauthorised migrants to Australia began in 2008 and lasted until late 2013. During this period, more than 840 boats arrived in Australia, the majority of which arrived in 2012 and 2013. The total number of people who arrived exceeded 50,000.72

In response to the unprecedented number of unauthorised boat arrivals, the Australian Government reopened both offshore processing centres.73 Under these arrangements, those found to be refugees would be resettled in Papua New Guinea or Nauru and non-genuine refugees would be repatriated or sent to an alternative safe country. The Coalition Government continued this approach when it came to power in September 2013. The new government tightened its border security measures with the establishment of Operation Sovereign Borders and the Joint Agency Task Force in an attempt to combat people smuggling and stop the arrival of boats. The arrival of illegal entry vessels ceased altogether in 2014.74

83

The Department of Immigration and Border Protection

I

n 2013, the Government announced that the Department of Immigration and Citizenship and the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service would be amalgamated and managed under a single portfolio. The Department’s settlement and multicultural affairs functions were transferred to the Department of Social Services and the Adult Migrant English Programme was transferred to the Department of Industry. The Department was also renamed the Department of Immigration and Border Protection, signifying an increased focus on protecting Australia’s borders and managing the lawful movement of people and goods across them.75 In May 2014, the Minister for Immigration and Border Protection announced that the Australian Border Force would be established and in operation by 1 July 2015.76 As the frontline operational arm of the Department, the Australian Border Force will have a dedicated and important operational role to play in implementing border protection measures to tackle the multilayered and multifaceted tasks and challenges involved in securing Australia’s border domestically, regionally and internationally. The new Department of Immigration and Border Protection and the Australian Border Force will officially begin operating on 1 July 2015.

Right: The Australian Border Force crest.

84  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Snapshot of departmental business A statistical snapshot, 1945–2014 From the establishment of the Department to June 2014, the Department facilitated:

Departmental staff numbers since 1945 Year

Total number of staff

Overseas staff

1945

24

12

1958

1,864

313

Approximately

More than

560 MILLION

7 MILLION

movements across Australia’s border.

permanent settler arrivals to Australia.

1972

2,088

560

1985

2,094

148

4.6 MILLION

825,000

1995

3,399

133

citizenship grants.

arrivals under the Humanitarian Programme.

2014

8,489

203

Australia’s population grew from 7.4 million in 1945 to an estimated at 23.5 million by June 2014.77

Overseas staff refer to Australia-based staff and exclude overseas locally engaged staff administered by Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade on behalf of the Department.78

85

Conclusion

T

he Department has a long and impressive history that has fundamentally been bound up in the economic, social, cultural and political history of Australia. It has often been at the forefront of some of the most important developments in Australia’s growth as a nation, as well as its relationship to the region and beyond. Further, the people who have worked for the Department over the past 70 years have recognised the importance of their work – showing commitment, passion, agility and adaptability. Like most countries, Australia’s relationship with the rest of the world has undergone a dramatic transformation since 1945, with the pace and complexity of change accelerating markedly since the 1980s. Australia is now inextricably linked to complex international networks of governance, business, finance, trade, travel, technology, knowledge exchange, cultural links and family connections. Global migration patterns and trends have also shifted significantly in recent decades in response to changing international forces and have influenced the shape of national immigration priorities.

86  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

A crucial imperative for the Department, as the pace of change has accelerated, has been to find a balance between facilitating the benefits of the interconnected nature of the world today, and mitigating the negative aspects that these changes bring. As the architects of Australia’s Migration Programme, Curtin, Chifley, Calwell and Heyes probably realised that they were engaged in something momentous when they established the Department. It is unlikely, however, that they would have anticipated that the Department would preside over a Migration Programme that would change Australia to the extent that has transpired. The Department became one of the biggest government agencies with responsibility for every aspect of the migration journey from application to settlement. Through its administration of the Migration Programme, and related operations and services, the Department has been integral to Australia’s economic prosperity, national security and social harmony.

APPENDIX

87

Former and current ministers1 Name

Title

Commencement

Cessation

Arthur Calwell

Minister for Immigration

13 July 1945

19 December 1949

Harold Holt

Minister for Immigration

19 December 1949

24 October 1956

Athol Townley

Minister for Immigration

24 October 1956

19 March 1958

Alexander Downer

Minister for Immigration

19 March 1958

18 December 1963

Hubert Opperman

Minister for Immigration

18 December 1963

14 December 1966

Billy Snedden

Minister for Immigration

14 December 1966

12 November 1969

Phillip Lynch

Minister for Immigration

12 November 1969

22 March 1971

Jim Forbes

Minister for Immigration

22 March 1971

5 December 1972

Lance Barnard

Minister for Immigration

5 December 1972

19 December 1972

Al Grassby

Minister for Immigration

19 December 1972

12 June 1974

Clyde Cameron

Minister for Labor and Immigration

12 June 1974

6 June 1975

James McClelland

Minister for Labor and Immigration

6 June 1975

11 November 1975

Tony Street

Minister for Labor and Immigration

12 November 1975

22 December 1975

Michael MacKellar

Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

22 December 1975

8 December 1979

Ian Macphee

Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

8 December 1979

7 May 1982

John Hodges

Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

7 May 1982

11 March 1983

Stewart West

Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

11 March 1983

13 December 1984

Chris Hurford

Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

13 December 1984

16 February 1987

88  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Name

Title

Commencement

Cessation

Mick Young

Minister for Local Government and Ethnic Affairs

16 February 1987

12 February 1988

Clyde Holding

Minister for Local Government and Ethnic Affairs

12 February 1988

2 September 1988

Robert Ray

Minister for Local Government and Ethnic Affairs

2 September 1988

4 April 1990

Gerard Hand

Minister for Local Government and Ethnic Affairs

4 April 1990

24 March 1993

Nick Bolkus

Minister for Local Government and Ethnic Affairs

24 March 1993

11 March 1996

Philip Ruddock

Minister for Multicultural Affairs

11 March 1996

26 November 2001

Philip Ruddock

Minister for Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs

26 November 2001

7 October 2003

Amanda Vanstone

Minister for Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs

7 October 2003

27 January 2006

Amanda Vanstone

Minister for Multicultural Affairs

27 January 2006

23 January 2007

Kevin Andrews

Minister for Immigration and Citizenship

23 January 2007

3 December 2007

Chris Evans

Minister for Immigration and Citizenship

3 December 2007

14 September 2010

Chris Bowen

Minister for Immigration and Citizenship

14 September 2010

4 February 2013

Kate Lundy

Minister for Multicultural Affairs

5 March 2012

18 September 2013

Brendan O’Connor

Minister for Immigration and Citizenship

4 February 2013

1 July 2013

Tony Burke

Minister for Immigration, Multicultural Affairs and Citizenship

1 July 2013

18 September 2013

Scott Morrison

Minister for Immigration and Border Protection

18 September 2013

23 December 2014

Peter Dutton

Minister for Immigration and Border Protection

23 December 2014

Ongoing

89

Former and current departmental secretaries2 Name

Title

Commencement

Cessation

Albert Peters

Secretary Department of Immigration

July 1945

May 1946

Tasman Heyes

Secretary Department of Immigration

May 1946

November 1961

Peter Heydon

Secretary Department of Immigration

November 1961

May 1971

Robert Armstrong

Secretary Department of Immigration

May 1971

June 1974

Ian Sharp

Secretary Department of Labor and Immigration

June 1974

March 1975

Peter Wilenski

Secretary Department of Labor and Immigration

March 1975

December 1975

Lloyd Bott

Secretary Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

January 1976

August 1977

Lou Engledow

Secretary Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

August 1977

September 1980

John Menadue

Secretary Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

September 1980

March 1983

William McKinnon

Secretary Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

March 1983

May 1987

Ron Brown

Secretary Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs

July 1987

April 1990

Chris Conybeare

Secretary Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs

April 1990

March 1993

Chris Conybeare

Secretary Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

March 1993

March 1996

Helen Williams

Secretary Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs

March 1996

February 1998

Bill Farmer

Secretary Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs

February 1998

November 2001

Bill Farmer

Secretary Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs

November 2001

July 2005

90  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Name

Title

Commencement

Cessation

Andrew Metcalfe

Secretary Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs

July 2005

January 2006

Andrew Metcalfe

Secretary Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs

January 2006

January 2007

Andrew Metcalfe

Secretary Department of Immigration and Citizenship

January 2007

January 2013

Martin Bowles

Secretary Department of Immigration and Citizenship

January 2013

September 2013

Martin Bowles

Secretary Department of Immigration and Border Protection

September 2013

October 2014

Michael Pezzullo

Secretary Department of Immigration and Border Protection

October 2014

Ongoing

91

History of departmental names3 Name

Commencement

Cessation

Department of Immigration

1945

1974

Department of Labor and Immigration

1974

1975

Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

1976

1987

Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs

1987

1993

Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs

1993

1996

Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs

1996

2001

Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs

2001

2006

Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs

2006

2007

Department of Immigration and Citizenship

2007

2013

Department of Immigration and Border Protection

2013

Current

92  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

Notes Chapter one

16. Jupp (2001) p.35.

1. Rasmussen et al. (2011) p.98.

17. ABS (2006a).

Feature boxes a. Jupp (2001) p.9; Day (1992) p.1.

2. Williams (2013) p.2; Jupp (2001) p.6; ABS (1994); Migration Heritage Centre NSW (2010). This is a broad estimate based on a range of sources and remains subject to ongoing anthropological investigations. Other theories suggest that Aboriginal Australians originated on the continent rather than as part of migration flows.

18. Fisher & Kent (1999).

b. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.18.

19. The United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland) was, prior to the last quarter of the 20th century, strongly favoured as a source country by immigrant selection policies throughout Australia’s settlement history and remained the largest single component of the annual immigration intake until 1995–96 when the intake of New Zealand-born migrants became greater.

c. South Australian Museum (2011); Government of Australia (2009a); Day (1996) p.54. The cameleers belonged to four main ethnic groups: Pashtun, Baluchi, Punjabi and Sindhi.

5. ABS (2006b). Following Federation in 1901, section 127 of the Constitution prescribed that ‘Aboriginal natives’ would not be included in the calculation in subsequent censuses. Section 127 was finally removed from the Constitution in 1967.

20. Day (1996) p.54; Darnell (n.d.); Yimei (1988). ‘There is still a substantial proportion of labourers who continue to be unknown and unnamed.’

3. Jupp (2001) p.46; DIMA (2001b).

6. McIntyre (1977); DIMIA (2002) p.4.

23. Day (1992) p.329. ‘The Customs Department supervised the industry, regulating the employment of the Islanders.’

3. ABS (2008); Director of Parks (2007) p.1. 4. DIMIA (2002) p.3.

7. Ernst (1936); DIMIA (2002) p.4. 8. Ernst (1936). Captain Cook ‘took possession of the whole eastern coast by the name of New Wales’ or, as he later wrote, ‘New South Wales’. 9. Dunn & McCreadie (n.d.). 10. Bateson (1974). 11. Jupp (2001) p.39. 12. DIMA (2001b) p.33. 13. Pybus (2001). 14. Jupp (2001) pp. 39–41. 15. State Records Authority of NSW (2001).

21. Government of Australia (2015). 22. Miller (2010).

Chapter two 1. The Henry Parkes Foundation (n.d.). 2. Australian Electoral Commission (2011). 4. ABS (1908) p.147. 5. Griffiths (2013); Ozdowski (2012). Dr Ozdowski looks at the evolution of the ‘fair go’ concept in the Australian historical context. 6. Jupp (2001) p.45.

24. Miller (2010).

7. Although the expression ‘White Australia Policy’ was never in official use, it was common in political and public debate throughout the period.

25. Queensland Government (2012).

8. Langfield (1999) chapter 1.

26. Day (1992) p.359; SBS (2011).

9. Jupp (2001) pp.46–47.

27. Petrie (2002) p.3.

10. Jupp (2001) p.48.

28. Hamer (2008) p.155.

11. Naturalization Act 1903 (Cth) s.5.

29. Jupp (2001) p.45.

12. Museum Victoria (n.d.) (a).

30. Richards (2008).

13. Klapdor, Coombs & Bohm (2009) p.4.

31. Jupp (2001) p.42.

14. Jupp & Kabala (1993) p.88. 15. Jupp (2001) p.47.

93

16. Nicholls (2007).

37. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.63.

5. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.69; Jupp (2001) p.70.

17. Jupp (2001) p.45.

38. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.63.

6. National Archives of Australia (2015a).

18. DIMA (2001b).

39. DIBP (2015a).

7. Armit & DIMA (2006) p. 29.

19. ABS (various). Population figures prior to 1971 were based on the number of people actually present in Australia. From 1971 onwards, the population is based on ‘Australian residents’ (people who usually reside in Australia).

40. DIMIA (2002) p.54.

8. Calwell (1946).

41. DIMIA (2002) p.53.

9. Jupp (2007) p.10. Indigenous Australians were not yet counted in the national census.

20. DIMA (2001b) p.2. 21. Jupp (2001) p.372.

Feature boxes a. Robertson, Hohmann & Stewart (2005) p.252.

22. DIMA (2001b) p.45.

b. Jupp (2001) p.391.

23. Migration Heritage Centre NSW (2010).

c. Jupp (2001) p.500.

24. York (2003) p.8.

d. Jupp (2001) p.747.

25. Lynch & Simon (2003) p.88.

e. Jupp (2001) p.525.

26. Jupp (2001) p.57.

f. Israel & Judaism Studies (n.d.)

27. Jayaraman (2000) p.143.

g. Turnbull (1999).

28. Langfield (1999).

h. Graham (2014) pp.2–3.

29. Bornstein (2013).

i. Jupp (2001) pp.503–504.

19. Jupp (2001) p.72; York (2003) p.134; Sherington (1990) p.136.

Chapter three

20. DIAC (2010b).

30. Rutland (2005). From 1933 to 1939, between 7,000 and 8,000 Jewish refugees arrived in Australia from Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia (including ‘the thirty-niners’). 31. Jupp (2001) p.537. 32. Rutland (2005). 33. ABS (2006a). 34. York (2003) p.9. 35. York (2003) p.2. 36. Canadian War Museum (n.d.); Garcia (2009); Jupp (2001).

94  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

42. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.63. 43. Jordens (1997) p.2.

10. DIMIA (2003b); Heritage Council of Victoria (2011) p.8. 11. York (2003) p.10. 12. Sherington (1990) pp.135–136. 13. Sherington (1990) p.136. 14. Pennay & Persian (2010) p.2. 15. SBS (2011) Episode 2. 16. SBS (2011) Episode 2. 17. SBS (2011) Episode 2. 18. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.126.

1. York (2003) p.9.

21. ABS (1967) p.205.

2. DIBP (2015g). The phrase was first used by Prime Minister Billy Hughes in 1934 to raise the alarm about the declining birth rate during the depression.

22. National Archives of Australia (2015c). Hostels were eventually transferred to a Commonwealth -owned company to administer in 1952.

3. York (2003) p.9.

23. Martin (1998) pp.3–4.

4. Chubb (2010) p.5. Arthur Calwell wrote that ‘the name of Tas Heyes ... ranks with the best and most highly successful departmental heads in the history of our Federation’.

24. National Archives of Australia (2015c). 25. Smith et al. (2011). 26. Jordens (1997) p.9.

27. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.102.

50. SBS (2011) Episode 2.

4. DIEA (1976) p.4.

28. Jupp (2001) p.852.

51. Jordens (1997) p.217.

5. Government of Australia (2009b).

29. National Archives of Australia (2015b).

52. Jordens (1997) p.213.

6. Meyers (2004) p.189.

30. Griffin (2009) p.41.

53. DIMA (2001b) p.7.

7. Klapdor, Coombs & Bohm (2009) p.11.

31. Griffin (2009) p.41.

54. DIBP (2015a).

8. DIBP (2015a).

32. Griffin (2009) p.41.

55. Jupp (2001) p.423.

9. Hocking (2013).

33. Migration Heritage Centre NSW (2011).

56. Jupp (2001) p.251.

10. DIEA (1976) p.35.

34. Sherington (1990) p.134.

Feature boxes a. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.74.

11. L.W.B. Engledow, Secretary, Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, 1978, quoted in DIEA (1978) p.1.

35. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.131. Negotiated with the USSR and other Eastern European countries. 36. ABS (1968) p.140.

b. Pennay & Persian (2010) p.2; Calwell (1972) p. 103.

37. Sherington (1990) p.133.

c. Jordens (1997) p.31.

38. Museum Victoria (2009).

d. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.241.

39. DIMIA (2003b) p.ix.

e. Parliament of Australia (2001).

40. Museum Victoria (2013).

f. National Archives of Australia (2015d).

12. Jupp (2007) pp.22–23; DIEA (1977). A conference at the Australian National University in 1977 reported that some 1.5 million of Australia’s population had a non-English-speaking background, representing around 100 languages and dialects.

41. DIMIA (2003b) p.ix.

g. DIBP (2014a).

13. Spinks (2009) p.2.

42. The Australian Women’s Weekly (1957).

h. DIMA (2001b) p.5.

14. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.242.

43. The Sydney Morning Herald (1947).

i. Jupp (2001) p.428.

15. DIEA (1978) p.3.

44. Klapdor, Coombs & Bohm (2009) p.1; Smith et al. (2010).

j. Jupp (1988).

16. Spinks (2009) p.2.

45. Museum of Australian Democracy (2015); Klapdor, Coombs & Bohm (2009) p.6. Citizens of all Commonwealth countries continued to be regarded as British subjects until 1984.

k. ABS (2011a).

17. Spinks (2009) p.2.

l. ABS (2011b).

18. Klapdor, Coombs & Bohm (2009) p.10.

m. Jordens (1997) p.243.

19. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.249; DIEA (1976) p.4.

46. Klapdor, Coombs & Bohm (2009) p.7. 47. Chubb (2010) p.9. 48. Jupp & Kabala (1993) p.26. 49. SBS (2011) Episode 2.

Chapter four 1. DIEA (1976) pp.4–5. 2. Jordens (1997) p.243. 3. ABS (1973) p.140; ABS (1947) p.642.

20. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.253. The words ‘ethnic’ and ‘multicultural’ featured in the name of the Department for over three decades until 2007, when it was renamed the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (see Appendix).

95

21. Whitlam Institute (2015); Armit & DIMA (2006) p.244; DIEA (1978) pp.44–45; DIEA (1976).

46. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.329.

4. DIEA (1987) p.33; DIAC (2010d).

47. ABS (2006a). The 1961 Census figures included Indigenous Australians for the first time.

24. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.269.

Feature boxes a. Museum Victoria (n.d.) (b).

25. DILGEA (1989).

b. Museum Victoria (n.d.) (c).

5. DIEA (1987) p.33. IRIS II is still used at posts and at some state and territory offices for processing and storing information related to clients and their visa applications and assists in clearing travellers quickly through Australian ports of entry and monitoring passenger movements effectively.

26. DIEA (1976) p.4.

c. DIAC (2010c).

6. DIAC (2010d).

27. ABS (1978) p.119.

d. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.251.

7. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.325.

28. DIEA (1976) p.4.

e. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.256.

8. DIBP (2015c).

29. DIMA (2001b) p.10. 30. ABS (2006a).

f. DIEA (1978) p.43.

31. North (1984) pp.526–527.

h. Jupp (2001) p.196.

32. DIEA (1977) p.4.

i. Jupp (2001) p.419.

33. UNHCR (2015).

j. Jupp (2001) p.561; DIAC (2014).

34. DIMA (2001b) p.9.

9. York (2003) p.46. A Joint Standing Committee on Migration Regulations report in August 1991 states that ‘the case load of applications awaiting determination to the primary stage rose dramatically through 1991 to a peak of 23,066 in December of that year’.

k. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.255.

35. York (2003) p.17.

10. York (2003) pp.6-7.

l. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.274.

36. DIEA (1977) p.22.

11. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.391. 12. York (2003) p.45.

41. DIBP (2013).

m. Hugo (2011). The research included humanitarian entrants who arrived in Australia after 1978. The author of this research, Professor Graeme Hugo, died in January 2015. Professor Hugo was regarded as one of the eminent Australian geographers, public intellectuals and demographers. He undertook numerous research projects for the Department over many years.

42. Hugo (2011); Humanitarian Programme Management Section.

Chapter five

19. Migration Reform Act 1992 (Cth) s.54W.

1. ABS (2014a); DIBP (2014b).

20. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.408; DIMA (2001b) p.14.

2. ABS (2014a).

21. York (2003) p.70.

3. Pezzullo (2015).

22. York (2003) p.76.

22. Koleth (2010) p.5. 23. DIMA (2001b) p.9.

37. DIEA (1985) p.68. 38. Senate Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence (1976) p.77 & p.89. 39. MacKellar (1977). 40. Robinson (2004) p.320.

43. DIMA (2001b) p.12. 44. Queensland Government (2013). 45. DIMA (2001b) p.12.

96  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

g. DIEA (1981) pp.18–19.

13. York (2003) p.45. 14. DIMA (2001b) p.13. 15. DIBP (2014b) pp.95-98. 16. Humanitarian Policy Section (DIBP). 17. DIMA (2001b) p.14. 18. DIEA (1995).

23. DIMIA (2006) p.13. 24. DIBP (2014b) p.5. 25. DIBP (2014b) p.62. 26. DIBP (2014b) p.62. 27. DIBP (2014b) p.63. 28. Mares (2011). 29. DIBP (2015f). Data points correspond to programme year. For example, 1984–89 represents 1 July 1984 to 30 June 1989. 30. DIMA (1998). 31. DIMA (1998). 32. York (2003) p.78. 33. York (2003) p.78. 34. York (2003) p.78. 35. York (2003) p.89. 36. Phillips & Spinks (2013) p.22. 37. York (2003) p.54 & p.90. The 12-mile territorial waters rule is part of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 38. York (2003) p.91. 39. York (2003) p.86. 40. York (2003) p.97. 41. DIMA (1999). 42. DIMA (1999). 43. DIMA (1999). 44. DIMA (1999). 45. Robinson (2002); Ruddock (1999). 46. Banki & Katz (2009) p.87.

47. The seven Bills were the Migration Amendment (Excision from Migration Zone) Bill 2001, the Migration Amendment (Excision from Migration Zone) (Consequential Provisions) Bill 2001, the Border Protection (Validation and Enforcement Powers) Bill 2001, the Migration Legislation Amendment (Judicial Review) Bill 1998, the Migration Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 1) 2001, the Migration Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 5) 2001 and the Migration Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 6) 2001. 48. An offshore processing centre is located in a country other than Australia to process asylum seekers who have travelled to Australia by irregular or illegal means, including establishing identity, conducting health, character and security checks and assessing claims for refugee protection. 49. Phillips (2012) p.2. The Administrative Agreement with Nauru was replaced by a memorandum of understanding in December 2001. 50. Parliament of Australia (2012). 51. Phillips & Spinks (2013). 52. UNHCR (2013). 53. Currently made up of 85 UN members, UNHCR’s governing Executive Committee (ExCom) meets in Geneva annually to review and approve UNHCR’s programmes and budget, advise on international protection and discuss a wide range of other issues with UNHCR and its intergovernmental and non-governmental partners. ExCom’s Standing Committee meets several times each year to carry on the body’s work between plenary sessions.

54. Each year, representatives from governments, NGOs and UNHCR come together for the Annual Tripartite Consultation on Resettlement (ATCR) meeting in Geneva to review progress, discuss policy, identify key issues and refocus and shape a joint strategy on refugee resettlement. The Working Group on Resettlement meets one or two times a year to carry on the ATCR’s work between plenary sessions. 55. The Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees is an informal, nondecision-making forum for intergovernmental information exchange and policy debate on issues of relevance to the management of international migratory flows. It brings together 17 participating states, UNHCR, the International Organization for Migration and the European Commission. 56. DIMA (2001a). 57. DIAC (2009). 58. ABS (2004b). 59. DIMA (2001a). 60. OpenAustralia Foundation (2006). 61. DIMIA (2003a). 62. York (2003) p.119. 63. ABS (2004a). 64. DIAC (2010e). 65. Metcalfe (2007). 66. DIEA (1976) p.14. 67. DIMIA (2004) p.3. 68. DIMIA (2004) p.3.

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69. DIBP (2014d) p.3. Three additional working holiday visa arrangements with Greece, Israel and Papua New Guinea are not yet in effect. 70. DIBP (2014c) p.7. 71. DIMIA (2006) p.13. 72. Phillips (2014) p.2. 73. The Australian (2013). 74. ACBPS (2014). 75. DIBP (2014b) p.5. 76. Bourke (2014). 77. ABS (2014a); ABS (2014b); DIBP (2015f); DIBP (2014b) p.19; Humanitarian Programme Management Section; ABS (2006a). Settler arrivals comprise people arriving in Australia with a clear intention to settle permanently. Longterm arrivals (stays of more than 12 months) are included in permanent arrival statistics prior to 1959; therefore, this figure is approximate.

98  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

78. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.436; DIBP (2014b) p.267 & p.265. Overseas staff refer to Australia-based staff and exclude overseas locally-engaged staff administered by DFAT on behalf of the Department). Feature boxes a. Cahill, Bouma, Dellal & Leahy (2004) pp.37–47. b. DIAC (2010a). c. Cahill, Bouma, Dellal & Leahy (2004).

i. York (2003) p.81. j. Overington (1999). k. Parliament of Australia (2002); Phillips (2012) p.3. l. Fleming (2012). m. Armit & DIMA (2006) p.528. n. Armit & DIMA (2006) pp.538–539.

Appendix 1. DIBP (2015e).

d. ABS (2010).

2. DIBP (2015e).

e. DIBP (2015b).

3. DIBP (2015h).

f. ABS (2010). g. Schwartz (2012). h. DIBP (2015d); Torres Strait Treaty (Miscellanous Amendments) Act 1984.

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Phillips, J. (2014) Boat arrivals in Australia: a quick guide to the statistics, Parliamentary Library, www.aph. gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/ Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1314/QG/BoatArrivals.

Parliament of Australia (2012) The ‘Pacific Solution’ revisited: a statistical guide to the asylum seeker caseloads on Nauru and Manus Island, Parliamentary Library, www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/ Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/ BN/2012-2013/PacificSolution.

Phillips, J. & Spinks, H. (2013) Boat arrivals in Australia since 1976, Parliamentary Library, www.aph.gov. au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/ Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BN/2012-2013/BoatArrivals.

Pennay, B. & Persian, J. (2010) Receiving Europe’s displaced: Bonegilla Reception and Training Centre, 1947–53, www.bonegilla.org.au/research/ images/193802_europes_displaced.pdf.

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Pybus, C. (2001) ‘A touch of tar: African settlers in colonial Australia and the implications for Aboriginality’, London Papers in Australian Studies, University of London. Queensland Government (2012) Number 40 – Polynesian Labourers Act of 1868, Queensland State Archives, www. archives.qld.gov.au/Researchers/Exhibitions/Top150/026050/Pages/040.aspx.

Queensland Government (2013) 25th anniversary Expo 88, Queensland State Archives, http://archives.qld. gov.au/Researchers/Announcements/Pages/25thanniversary-Expo-88.aspx. Rasmussen, M., Guo, X., Wang, Y., Lohmueller, K.E., Rasmussen, S., Albrechtsen, A., ... & Krogh, A. (2011). ‘An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia’, Science, 334(6052): 94–98. Richards, E. (2008) ‘Migrations: the career of British White Australia’, in Schreuder, D. & Ward, S. (eds), Australia’s Empire, Oxford University Press. Robertson, K., Hohmann, J. & Stewart, I. (2005) ‘Dictating to one of “us”: the migration of Mrs Freer’, Macquarie Law Journal, 5: 241–275. Robinson, G. (2002) ‘If you leave us here, we will die’, in Mills, N. & Brunner, K. (eds), The new killing fields: massacre and the politics of intervention, Basic Books, New York. Robinson, W. (2004) ‘The Comprehensive Plan of Action for Indochinese Refugees, 1989–1997: sharing the burden and passing the buck’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 17(3): 319–333. Ruddock, P. (1999) Ministerial press release, 17 September. Rutland, S. (2005) ‘Australia’s postwar Jewish immigration: the transformation of a community’, Teaching History, 39(2): 12–15. SBS (Special Broadcasting Service) (2011) Immigration nation: the secret history of us, documentary series.

Schwartz, D. (2012) ‘Maori expats in danger of becoming economic underclass’, ABC News, 4 November, www. abc.net.au/correspondents/content/2012/s3625001.htm.

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Commonwealth legislation Border Protection Legislation Amendment Act 1999 Immigration Restriction Act 1901 Migration Act 1958 Migration Reform Act 1992 Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 Nationality and Citizenship Act 1955 Naturalization Act 1903 Pacific Islander Labourers Act 1901 Torres Strait Treaty (Miscellaneous Amendments) Act 1984

105

Timeline photo captions 1780–1900

1940–1970

1970–1990

Pre–1788: Yoo-long Erah-ba-diang, 2. James Neagle, engraving. Image courtesy of the State Library of Victoria.

1945: Portrait of Arthur Calwell. P.I. King, charcoal, 1940s. Image courtesy of the National Library of Australia.

1788: The First Fleet entering Port Jackson, 26 January 1788. E. Le Bihan, 1888. Image courtesy of the Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales.

1949: Immigration publication ‘Employers! Want Help?’. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, CP815/1, 021.193.

1977: Interpreter My Van Tran assists immigration officer Ian Marks (both centre) interview newly arrived Vietnamese refugees, Darwin, 1972. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 2/1977/46A/60.

1847: Recruiting Labourers in the South Sea Islands. W.T. Wawn, 1892. Image courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales. 1850s–60s: Washing Tailings,Chinese on the goldfields. Unidentified, circa 1870s. Image courtesy of the National Library of Australia.

1900–1950 1901: Excerpt from the Immigration Restrictions Act. Images courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A1559, 1901/17. 1920s: Migrants disembark from transport ships at the docks. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A12111, 2/1921/4A/3. 1929–30s: Five men looking for work in the Great Depression, circa 1930. Image courtesy of the National Library of Australia.

106  A History of the Department of Immigration – Managing Migration to Australia

1949–75: Norwegian migrants at work on the Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Scheme, Guthega, New South Wales. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A11016, 2153. 1956–57: (L–R) First Assistant Secretary Peter Vardos, Athol Townley’s grandson Brian Townley, Secretary Andrew Metcalfe, former chief migration officer Ron Metcalfe, Hungarian ambassador Lajos Fodor, ambassador’s secretary Judith Pummeroy and counsellor Béla Bozsik of the Hungarian Embassy. 1963–66: Annie O’Keefe with her daughter Mary Jacob, 1956. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A1501, A429/3.

1978: A family from the former Yugoslavia at Midway Hostel, Melbourne, 1975. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A6135, K2/7/75/21. 1976–81: Fishing vessels arrive in Darwin carrying Vietnamese refugees, 1977. Image courtesy of the National Archives of Australia, A6180, 8/12/78/24.

1990–2020 1995: Cambodian refugee Dr Manith Kha, 1993. 1997–98: University of Adelaide physicist Dr Jianbo Zhang, who came to Australia from China on a skilled business visa in 2003. 2015: The Australian Border Force crest.

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