Chapter 1: Introduction

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Mobile Personal Profile Tracker Using Tagging Technology By Than Sook Wei

A PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (HONS) Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus)

JANUARY 2015

UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

REPORT STATUS DECLARATION FORM Title: Mobile Personal Profile Tracker Using Tagging Technology

Academic Session: January 2015

I

_______________________________________________________________________ (CAPITAL LETTER)

declare that I allow this Final Year Project Report to be kept in Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Library subject to the regulations as follows: 1. The dissertation is a property of the Library. 2. The Library is allowed to make copies of this dissertation for academic purposes.

Verified by,

_________________________ (Author’s signature)

_______________________ (Supervisor’s signature)

Address: __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

_______________________ Supervisor’s name

Date: ______________________

Date: __________________

Mobile Personal Profile Tracker Using Tagging Technology By Than Sook Wei

A PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF COMPUTER SCIENCE (HONS) Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus)

JANUARY 2015

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY I declare that this report entitled “Mobile Personal Profile Tracker Using Tagging Technology” is my own work except as cited in the references. The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not being submitted concurrently in candidature for any degree or other award.

Signature

: _________________________

Name

: THAN SOOK WEI

Date

: _________________________

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere thanks and appreciation to my supervisors, Mr. Tan Teik Boon who has given me this bright opportunity to engage in this project. I am enthusiastically appreciative to him as he guides me and supervision motivates me from the beginning of the project to the conclusion of the project. His guidance and wisdom have expands my knowledge and widen my experience in developing a system. He is always willing to spare his time for his students and me throughout the development process even thought he is very busy. A million thanks to you. Besides, I would like to thanks my friends who are willing to share their ideas and opinions with me. I won’t forget the contribution from them as their opinions help me in improvise the project. Their supports means a lot to me during the FYP project development. Last but not least. I would like to express my appreciation to my parents and sisters for their dedication and the many years of supports during my studies.

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ABSTRACT In this project, the author developed a system that is primarily for the usage in the healthcare field. The primary aim of the project is to ensure the availability of important medical information and also to make increase the speed of accessibility to relevant medical information. The system shall be for assisting healthcare personnel to automate some of the work that are tedious and prone to the human errors. The system will be able to manage patient’s information by using a mobile application that support NFC feature to read the wristband of patient that embedded with NFC tag. Besides, the system will allow medical personal to check the vital signs of patients and decide whether there is a need to notify the respective doctor about the patient condition. The system only requires that the patient’s information needs to be entered into the wristband that embedded with NFC tag when they admit to the hospital at the beginning. Once that is done, the patient should be advice to wear the wristband all the time. Any hospital staff with a mobile that integrate with NFC feature and this system will be able to read the wristband to identify each patient. By uniquely identifying the patient, more data can be retrieved from backend database to support further decision making process. The final deliverable will enable the system to successfully help in automating some of the workflow in the hospital and allow more efficiency management in the hospital.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS REPORT STATUS DECLARATION FORM ........................................................................... ii DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY ...................................................................................... iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................... v ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... vii LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................................... ix LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ x CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1 1.1.

Problem Statement ........................................................................................................... 1

1.2.

Background and Motivation ............................................................................................. 4

1.3.

Project Scope .................................................................................................................... 9

1.4.

Project Objectives .......................................................................................................... 10

1.5.

Proposed Approach/Study .............................................................................................. 12

1.6.

Impact, Significance, and Contribution.......................................................................... 13

1.7.

Report Organization ....................................................................................................... 14

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................. 15 2.1.

Supporting Clinical Information Management by NFC Technology............................. 15

2.2.

An NFC Approach for Nursing Care Training............................................................... 18

2.3.

NFC Based Hospital Real-time Patient Management System ....................................... 21

2.4.

Personal Schedule Distribution Using Google Cloud Messaging .................................. 23

CHAPTER 3: SYSTEM DESIGN ............................................................................................. 26 3.1.

System Design Specification.......................................................................................... 26

3.2.

System Architecture ....................................................................................................... 29

3.3.

System Overview ........................................................................................................... 30

CHAPTER 4: Patient Identification Module ........................................................................... 32 4.1.

Mobile NFC Read/Write Technology ............................................................................ 32

4.2.

Screenshots of Module ................................................................................................... 37

CHAPTER 5: NOTIFICATION MODULE ............................................................................ 42 5.1.

Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) Service (Google Cloud Messaging for Android) ..... 42

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5.2.

Screenshots of Module ................................................................................................... 49

CHAPTER 6: IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING ........................................................... 52 CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION................................................................................................... 58 7.1.

Project Review, Discussion, Conclusion ....................................................................... 58

7.2.

Novelties and Contributions ........................................................................................... 59

7.3.

Future Work ................................................................................................................... 60

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................ 61

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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NUMBER Figure 1

TITLE Summary of current challenges faced by hospital

PAGE 2

Figure 2

Overview of NFC energy and data transfer

4

Figure 3

Example of functions of NFC Technology

5

Figure 4

Block Diagram of NFC based Hospital System

12

Figure 5

NFC devices and operation modes

16

Figure 6

Patient Monitoring Process

16

Figure 7

NFC patient record system concept overview

17

Figure 8

Medication Administration Service

20

Figure 9

Components of GCM

24

Figure 10

Block diagram of Personnel Schedule Distribution

24

Figure 11

System Design Specification

26

Figure 12

System Architecture

29

Figure 13

System Overview

30

Figure 14

System Flow Chart

30

Figure 15

Flow Chart of Patient Identification

32

Figure 16

Process when NFC tag detected

34

Figure 17

Flow Chart of Patient Checking

42

Figure 18 Figure 19

Flow Chart of Blood Supply Request Module Overview of GCM Service

43 43

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE NUMBER Table 1

TITLE Difference between RFID, Barcode and NFC

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Table 2

Table of services description

19

Table 3

Features to be tested

52

Table 4

Testing Table of Function F001

53

Table 5

Testing Table of Function F002

53

Table 6

Testing Table of Function F003

54

Table 7

Testing Table of Function F004

55

Table 8

Testing Table of Function F005

55

Table 9

Testing Table of Function F006

56

Table 10

Testing Table of Function F007

56

Table 11

Testing Table of Function F008

57

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Chapter 1: Introduction CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1.

Problem Statement Technology plays an important role in the human daily life. In recent years, technology

is improving in a fast pace. The technology improved either in aspect of memory storage, processing power, mobility or etc. Nowadays, it is not uncommon to see many companies and organizations emerging the use of technology to their business. There is an increasing concern on how to utilize the technology to help medical personnel better in their daily job tasks and hospital management. Healthcare is the world’s largest industry (Janz, Pitts, & Otondo, 2005) and its market size is continuously growing. Recent decades, most countries in the world assign large financial resources to the healthcare sector. To overcome this increment, the current healthcare industry has decided to transform the current base system to information technology (IT) base. Achieving a high operational effectiveness in the healthcare sector is an important objective for organization performance evaluation. Efficiency used to be considered as the primary indicator of hospital performance. Traditionally, some of the tasks in healthcare industry is done manually on papers or manually input to system. The manual power has its limitation which may delay the process of medication and management. Therefore, healthcare industry has been working hard to find solutions to utilize the current IT technology in order to deliver a more efficient and reliable system for the purpose of improving the quality of care. Since healthcare industry is a growing industry, it faces many challenges of providing safe and quality of healthcare services (Ngai, Poon, Suk, & Ng, 2009). Besides, healthcare industry also intent to reduce the operation costs which mainly caused by the human and systematic errors or current system. Normally, medical personnel like doctors, nurses, surgeons, or etc. have forced to take full responsible for those errors that may cause high risk to the patients. The following will be some significant challenges faced in most hospitals in the management of patients and equipments:

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Figure 1: Summary of current challenges faced by hospital 1. Inefficient work flow Inefficient workflow exists in hospital because of inefficient way of handling patients’ profile. For example, doctors or nurses wasted time looking for medical history of patient. The situation goes worse when the patient is in emergency. At the same time, nurses find it tedious to input and update patients’ record all the time and mistakes often occur after a hectic day of working. Most medical records of patients are still record by hand nowadays and nurses found it difficult to find different departments with the aim of complete the record. At the same time, most hospital encountered problem such as mistakenly identify newborn baby. This may caused a severe problem in a hospital. In order to solve the difficulty and decrease the mistake that might be occur in this process, a system is needed to automate most of the part of work. 2. Inefficient monitoring of patient condition Medical personnel often involved in emergency situation which any delay of rescues process may be fatal. Some patients required frequent monitoring of their heart rate reading, blood pressure reading and etc. Beside of monitoring, nurses need to compare the vital signs with the BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 1: Introduction thresholds set by doctor and have to decide whether there is a need to inform respective doctorin-charge about the current vital signs and condition of patient. If there is a need of informing doctor, nurses need to search for the contact number of doctor and make call to him or her. It may be a time consumed process as nurses need to search for the contact number of the doctor before they are able to make that call successfully. Besides, informing doctor about the vital signs through phone call may be unclear and confusing. 3. Delay in medication process when unable to determine information of patient In an emergency patient may not be able to speak and give vital information to alert others about your special health needs. Medical providers must sometimes treat emergency patients without having basic medical information about the individual or any way to contact someone who could provide vital information. Therefore there is a need for a solution that is able to obtain important medical information (blood type, types of medication that he/she is taking, insurance policies. etc.) in a quick and seamless manner. Hospital may face situation like running out of blood supply of certain blood type. The problem may bring serious consequences especially during emergency situation when patient need large supply of blood. Contacting other hospitals to request for blood supply one by one is time consuming and not efficient at all. Three of the challenges mentioned above such as inefficient workflow of hospital, inefficient monitoring of patient condition and delay in medication process when unable to determine information of patient bring significant effect on the operational effectiveness of the hospital management. In order to deal with all challenges mentioned above for the sake of medical personnel, a more effective yet systematic system for hospital management is needed.

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Chapter 1: Introduction 1.2.

Background and Motivation Near Field Communication (NFC) is one of the latest wireless connectivity technologies

that enable convenient short-range communication between electronic devices. One of those electronic communicating devices such as NFC tag may be passive, meaning that it has no energy source (no batteries, no solar cell). Based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), it uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between electric devices. Nowadays, NFC offers the ultimate in convenience for connecting all types of consumer devices and enables rapid and easy communications. Hence, there is a growing in number of NFC feature applications available for public uses.

Figure 2: Overview of NFC energy and data transfer NFC technology normally involved more than two electronic devices which is either active or passive device. The active device is called as a reader and has built-in power supply which enables them to propagate electric signal. On the other hand, the passive device is known as a tag or sometimes a card. Both reader and tag have coils but not antennas. When the reader coil is energized, it generates a magnetic field. When reader and tag get very close, the coils form a transformer and tag is now able to draw energy from the reader (epxx.co, 2013). Emerging of NFC technology has brought many impacts to various aspects regardless in a small vision or bigger industry. For example, in San Francisco, mobile payments for parking are handled by PayByPhone which is an application that integrated with feature of NFC (Agrawal, 2012). Besides, Japan Airline (JAL) has launched the first commercial service that enables passengers to use their NFC phones as boarding passes for its Japan Airlines (Lambert, 2012). Another new concept developed by Hyundai is actually inventing in new feature which allow users to access their car and interact with it using NFC-enabled smartphones (Kim, 2012). BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 1: Introduction Generally, the implementation of NFC technology in our daily life can categorize into few categories summarized as figure below.

Figure 3: Example of functions of NFC Technology There are some reasons of choosing NFC technology out of the tagging technology having now in the market. The comparison of three of the tagging technology is summarized in the following table. Differences between RFID, Barcode and NFC Parameters

RFID

Barcode

NFC

1D Barcode

2D Barcode

Line of sight Reading range

No line of sight required Passive UHF RFID: - Up to 12m (fixed

Line of sight required From several inches up to several feet

No line of sight required Up to 10cm

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Chapter 1: Introduction

ID capabilities Simultaneous identification Visibility of tag

Security, counterfeiting Privacy

Rewrite, reusability Tag lifetime

readers) - Up to 6m (handheld readers) Active RFID: - Up to 30m or more Uniquely identifies items Read multiples tags at a time Not important, still can scan tag inside boxes or bags High security, hard/almost impossible to clone If not destroyed or deactivated, tag may be read remotely Support read and write capability More than 10 years as can be reuse and rewrite

Harsh environment resistance Functionality if damaged Interference with magnetic fields Data Storage

Can be used in harsher environment

Size Attachment

Medium, small (25mm2), tiny (2mm2) Currently requires two steps: tag creation and tag attachment

Communication

Single way

Impossible

Identifies only item category Read only single item at a time Important, can only scan visible barcode

Uniquely identifies items Read only single item at a time Not important, still can scan tag inside boxes or bags within range Easy for Easy for copying/counterfeiting copying/counterfeiting No private data available for remote reading No write capability, static information Depends on carrier material as no reuse is allowed Weak, difficult to read in dark and dirty environment Possible

Secure, as only short range reading is available Support read and write capability More than 10 years as can be reuse and rewrite Can be read in dark, dirty and busy environment Impossible

Functionality is affected Not affected by magnetic fields

Functionality is affected by magnetic fields

More data storage capacity (128 Kilobytes for active tags)

Limited data storage capacity (7 Kilobytes of numeric data for QR code) Medium, small

Limited data storage capacity (maximum storage capacity up to 8 Kilobytes) Medium, small

Single step: can be easily printed on boxes during manufacturing Single way

Currently requires two steps: tag creation and tag attachment

Two way (e.g.: Android ‘beam’) Table 1: Difference between RFID, Barcode and NFC

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Chapter 1: Introduction For the barcode technology, the most significant limitations for it to be apply in the management of the current healthcare environment is the very limited of data storage and also because barcode technology required line of sight for data reading. For this project, barcode technology is less suitable for us to use as healthcare management need sufficient data storage to store basic patient data for fast retrieving. Besides, barcode technology allows identifying item category only which may make works complicated when hospital require to identify each patient and tool uniquely. At the same time, barcode technology has no rewrite capability. Each barcode need to be printed externally before dispense to patient and this cause an extra work. Each barcode printed need to be throws when it is no longer useful. This will cause additional cost to the operation cost. On the other hand, the strength of RFID technology is the large data storage and longer reading range which make location tracking possible. At the same time, due to the long reading range, information stored in RFID tag may be easily access or modified remotely and also other hacking mechanism such as eavesdropping is possible to be done. The cost of RFID tag and reader is relatively high compared to barcode technology and NFC technology as RFID tag which is not disposable is not encouraged to be reused. Although with no doubt that with the equipments nowadays, the tags can be clean and disinfect appropriately and the chance of patient being infected by the reused tag is rather small. There are still some parties worry about the litigation issue and would not put the patient even in any small risks that will cause any uncertainty. Lastly, NFC is a take as a subset of RFID. Both RFID and NFC are very similar in some ways except for few differences between them. Both technologies do not required line of sight and tag can be read even it is not visible as long as it is within the reading range. The biggest difference between the two technologies is the reading range. NFC has very limited reading range that needs the reader to read the tag by placing it closely to the tag. Although this may cause inconvenience to the patient if the patient is currently sleeping while the nurse or doctor need to read their tags, but in contrast privacy of patient can be more secure as only short range of reading range is available. This means that remote reading and eavesdropping of patient information is difficult. Besides, the limited data storage is also one of the weaknesses of the NFC technology compared to RFID. Basically, NFC tag or card is only able to store some BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 1: Introduction sufficient basic patient data for fast retrieving during emergency situation. However, this weakness able to overcome but integrating the application with a backend database through network connectivity to store and retrieve more information needed. In short, NFC technology is moderately sufficient to be used in healthcare management. Since NFC technology based system is relatively easier to be developed and implement compared to RFID technology. Besides, the reasonable operational cost of NFC based healthcare management system will be more acceptable for the healthcare management personnel. Since NFC tag can also be reused, it fulfill the green environment concept and able to reduce the operation cost of the management. Hence, this technology not just improves the workflow of the healthcare environment but also reduce the expenses of the operation cost. Since NFC technology offer only limited reading range, the biggest challenges of implementing this technology is only short distance of tag read write can be done. Another issue is the limited data storage of NFC tag which cause medical personnel to do further retrieving of information from database which needed to store more data. The motivation of this project is to develop a real-time automate patient management and notification system that can reduce the workload of hospital management. There is a need in doing this project because healthcare is certainly one of the most important industries in every country. Hence, there is a responsibility for us to explore the technologies to create a better future for the healthcare industry.

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Chapter 1: Introduction 1.3.

Project Scope In this project, a Mobile Personal Profile Tracker Using Tagging Technology is

designed to improve the current system of hospital in aspect of patients’ location tracking, automation of patient medical profile retrieving and updating and medical equipments control. The project scope of this project is to start the establishment of a Smart Hospital. Therefore NFC based healthcare management system is proposed. Since the implementation is in healthcare industry, extra care need to be take and the system should have better failure handling. Besides, the technology should be harmless to ensure patients and medical personnel healthy and safety. In order to achieve the goals of patient identification, the system should be able to write patient information into the NFC tag and the information should also be able to be read by a reader. An update of the information is a need for is process so that the patient information is always up to date. By enabling the read write process of the NFC tag, the patient identification process can be easily carried out. Besides, the notification module is to enable the system to notify doctor when the patient’s vital signs are going beyond the limit set by doctor. At first, checking of patient’s condition will be carry out then followed by the decision making process of medical staff whether there is a needs to notify the doctor. During emergency case, NFC holder who the system program and has been send to the hospital will be able to handle in a more efficient way as their vital information can be identified and medication can be provide as soon as information is obtained. Nevertheless, in order to reduce time delay during emergency case, the system provide new platform for holder of tags or volunteer to join and form a network of blood donor. Therefore, when hospital is running out of certain type of blood supply, request of blood can be make in a faster manner. In the final delivery system, the system brings improvement to the hospital management workflow yet provides faster and safer medical process. At the same time, it reduces some burdens of medical personnel as part of the job task is automated. This will directly ensure the human caused medical errors can be minimized and more accurate decision making of medical personnel which then lead to patient safety and healthy. BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 1: Introduction 1.4.

Project Objectives The system from this resulting project is to enable medical personnel to use NFC-

enable mobile as a reader to read and write patient information on NFC tag, allow checking of patient vital signs and notify doctor if needed, allow medical staff to be able to easily access to the medical information of patient in an emergency and provide a platform for holder of the tags and also volunteers to form a network (via social network or membership) of blood donors. The objectives of implementation of NFC based healthcare management system are the following. 1. To automate patient medical record retrieving and inserting Traditional way of patient medical record recording and retrieving is mainly human based and most work done on paper and will be keep in file for referring. This process should be improved to allow more efficient workflow and reduce human errors. By emerging NFC technology, medical personnel only need to read the tag on the wristband of patient to identify the patients and update the medical record of patients. This may minimize human writing or typing errors. In addition, it will increase the speed of workflow as record retrieving only need to read the tag without busy looking for file and papers. It can also directly avoid the inconveniences that may caused when patients are sleeping while nurse need to get information from them. 2. To allow checking of patient vital signs and notify doctor if needed In general, medical staff checks patient’s reading by monitoring machines and compare the vital signs with the values provided by doctor that may be written down on paper. Medical staff has to decide whether there is a need to inform the doctor-in-charge about the condition of patient. This process can be automated when medical staff only needs to input the vital signs to the application and checking and notification will be done automatically. Medical staff needs to provide the name of doctor that the notification should send to be. This might lighten up the burden of staff that needs to do the checking and notifying doctor manually. It can also help to avoid the time consuming process of searching for doctor’s contact number. 3. To allow medical staff to be able to easily access to the medical information of patient in an emergency

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Chapter 1: Introduction During the emergency situation, medical staff should be able to access to the basic medical information of patient before any medication is given. This is to avoid patient from drug allergic and provide only suitable way of medication. Besides, medical staff often found difficulties that contacting patient’s family or friends when patient unable to speak and give information to them. Therefore, public who are willing to join the program will carry a NFC tag that contains their basic information with them. In case of any emergency situation happened, NFC tag can help them to “speak”. 4. Provide a platform for holder of the tags and also volunteers to form a network (via social network or membership) of blood donors There is some situation where hospital is running out of specific type of blood supply. This situation goes worse when in a surgery or emergency rescue of patient. Normally medical staff would contact other nearby hospital for supply of blood, but contacting hospital one by one will be time consumed. Hence, this system will provide an interface then allow medical staff to broadcast the blood supply request to those people who joining the program as a blood donor or volunteer. Broadcasting request takes lesser time and able to send the request to more people or even to other hospital that joining in the program too.

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Chapter 1: Introduction 1.5.

Proposed Approach/Study

Figure 4: Block Diagram of NFC based Hospital System The proposed approach to overcome the inefficient workflow in the healthcare management is using the NFC technology. At first, each patient is dispensed with a NFC tag which patient’s information is stored into the database and some important information such as unique key patient id is stored into the tag. The purpose of storing the unique patient id into the tag is to enable medical staff to retrieve more information that belongs to that patient from database. The read/write process of patient’s information into the tag and database can be done by using a NFC-enable mobile device. By retrieving information of individual patient, checking and monitoring of patient’s vital signs can be done. Staff needs only to read the NFC tag to identify patient then retrieve a set of threshold vital signs that specifically belongs to the patient. After that, comparing of vital signs will be done in background and staff can make a choice whether he or she should notify the doctor about the condition of patient. The proposed method to implement the notification module of system is to integrate with the Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) service API. Besides, multicast of blood supply request can also be done by using the same API. Multicast of request is simply broadcast the notification to everyone that in the register list. BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 1: Introduction 1.6.

Impact, Significance, and Contribution Information of patients is always very vital especially when there is an emergency.

There is always a need by the healthcare sector that accurate and fast information on patient be available at shortest time frame. In addition, there is always a need of proper automation of the admission procedure, hospital operation procedures and treatment information recording. The automation enables a speedier coordination of processes. Every minute in an emergency is always an important count. With the final deliverables of this project, the system will be able to assists medical staff in the hospital to identify patients by using a mobile device that support NFC feature as a reader to read the information in the NFC tag embedded in the wristband of patients. In any healthcare field, errors should be minimized. Any delay in an immediate rescue of patient is not allowed as it may cause the patient’s life in danger or even cause the patient to death. The traditional way by file searching or input manually by human delays the critical medical process while this problem can be solved by using the NFC based system. Besides that, for the sake of reducing the number of time delaying during emergency situation, staff is now able to use the system to send notification to the doctor and informing doctor about the current vital sign of patient. Hospital can also broadcast blood supply request to the volunteer blood donors who are register to the program.

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Chapter 1: Introduction 1.7.

Report Organization

This paper is categorized into 7 sections. The first section is the introduction which includes the problem statements, background of project, project scope, project objectives, proposed approach/study, and achievements that have been achieved, and impart, significance and contribution of this project. The second section is the literature review about the technology and services that are being used in the project. The third section provides an overall of the system design and the hardware or software specification of the project. The forth section of this paper will describe the patient identification module with NFC technology and provide the implementation of NFC technology in mobile devices. The fifth section explains the implementation of Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) service in mobile devices. The sixth section is the implementation and testing of the application. The last section is the conclusion of the overall paper with novelties and contributions and also future work.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1.

Supporting Clinical Information Management by NFC

Technology The authors of this article are J. Bravo, Gasero, M. Vergara, C.Fuentus, R.Peña, R. Hervás amd V. Villarreal from Castilla-La Mancha University, Spain (Bravo, 2009). The article briefly introducing NFC technology and proposed the NFC technology based solutions to deal with three situations that aging people may face in their daily life. The proposed solution will work with mobile devices. In this article, authors mentioned that application that utilized technology able to increase the quality of service but at the same time, there is complain from the older staff members about the using of computer in their daily activities. The authors focusing on the Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) technology but they changed the natural interaction of the technology by emphasized on the concept of obtaining services only by wearing tags. Near Field Communication (NFC) is adapted as it is comparatively lower cost than RFID. NFC technology also available in cell phone with have the radiofrequency identification reader integrated. Due to the proposed solution is target for the aging people, authors emphasized the concept of simple interaction of the system. By this, the solution and application provided should be as easy as possible. Besides, physicians who will also interact with the system, need the system as convenience as possible so that more time can be use to focus on their work. Therefore, in order to create an application which able to maintain daily operation in an assisted environment, a Bluetooth enable NFC mobile devices will be used. NFC technology consists of two elements, Initiator and Target which commonly known as reader and tag respectively. Besides, there are two modes of operations that are active and passive. For active mode, both devices will produce their own field of radiofrequency to send data while in another hand passive mode means that only one device will produce radiofrequency field and the other device will be used only for data loading. There are three types of NFC devices which are mobile phone, tag and reader. In addition, four modes of operation are available. BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Figure 5: NFC devices and operation modes The authors propose NFC technology based solution to be applied in three situations which commonly faced by aging people. First and foremost, the NFC house monitoring is proposed. Nowadays, monitoring of vital signs can be done by some Bluetooth enabled devices which is then can integrate with NFC mobile device to provide monitoring task. The primary interaction is actually just putting the mobile near to the monitoring device and waits for device to send data over. After the measure is sent to mobile, checking will be carried out. The NFC enable mobile will then carry out different response according to the result of checking. If there is a need, the mobile will use voice message to give advice to the user. If the measures are risky, mobile can send a message together with a unique identifier to notify the family doctor for further decision making process.

Figure 6: Patient Monitoring Process BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 2: Literature Review Furthermore, NFC technology working with mobile can be implemented to be used as a mobile prescription application where public does not need to go to the hospital to refill their medicines. Finally, NFC technology can be used to share patient’s medical records or history with different hospital departments or even different physicians. After the first physician’s consultation, patient will receive some relevant documents after touching the correspondent NFC device which will then allows their own mobile to start appropriate application. With a Bluetooth address found in the tag, the application can send a document to another physician’s computer through a Bluetooth connection. Therefore, patient could send the relevant document after touching a NFC reader or tag to begin new consultation.

Figure 7: NFC patient record system concept overview All three solutions proposed are using the same NFC technology and with simple interaction only. The three solutions bring negative impact too as using mobile prescription may caused inaccurate prescription have been given since the physician does not examine the patient again before deliver the prescription. At the same time, the privacy issue has to be taken care as storing important information such as medical record or links of medical record may cause lead of privacy information.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.2.

An NFC Approach for Nursing Care Training

The article’s title is An NFC Approach for Nursing Care Training by Jesús Fontecha, Ramón Hervás, José Bravo from University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain (Fontecha, 2011). The article proposed an application for nursing care to help nursing student to do their patient care tasks. This paper is arranged in five sections. Section 2 is the analysis of technology integration in healthcare environment, section 3 depicting the proposed application, section 4 discussing the details of application module while section 5 explaining the evaluation of the modules by carrying out some research followed by the last section that includes the conclusion and contribution of this paper. This paper proposes an approach which integrates NFC-enable mobile devices and touching display. Authors believe that the advantages of applying this available NFC based technology to users will help in the aspect of reducing time and the volumes of paperwork and minimizing human error. The objective of developing this system is to assists in the training of nurses. Besides, with the help of NFC technology, problems of enter information can be reduced and the limitations of data presentation combining the mobile device with dedicated displays able to be solved. Nurses will be able to do different daily tasks associated to patient care through simple interaction with the NFC-enable mobile devices. For instance, nurse can read a medicine tag by using NFC mobile device when he or she has to dispense medicine to patient. Besides, the intend of this proposed system is to lessen the needs to manage information and therefore will nurses can spare more time taken care of their patients. Due to the intention, nurses will be assigned with a NFC phone so that they can use to read the tag during their working time. In this paper, NFC tag detected will launch different services which divide into touchbased service approach and specific NFC-based service approach. Firstly, the touch-based service approach is mainly used to serve the services that used to update the patient medical history or record. Information inside the tag will be read and interpreted by the NFC mobile device application before redirecting to respective service. The tag is basically used for services categorization purpose or for objects in the environment. Tag used in services categorization will then further divide into different services according its purpose. For example, tag on a patient BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 2: Literature Review may able nurse to decide whether want to update the patient information, taking vital signs, dispense medication or etc. On the other hand, NFC services may be called by tagging object which can be stick to the equipments or tools in the hospital.

Table 2: Table of services description For a specific NFC service like medication administration, the service will be call when a nurse needs to distribute medicine to respective patient. The overall process is start when nurse read the patient tag to get information and pending tasks of this patient. Then, nurse will have to read the associated medicine tag before it dispense to patient. Nurse may need to confirm his or he action before doing medication dispersion. Then the record of medical dispersion will be updated as well as the patient history. BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Figure 8: Medication Administration Service The proposed system including NFC technology in the healthcare environment has contributed to improve current health care process. With integration of NFC technology and touch based mechanism, most of the nursing tasks will be automated and at the same time nurse can get a service in a usual way. However, integration of this technology and computing system is not simple as there are a lot of challenges to overcome as human nature of fear to change need time to accept and trust the new technology.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.3.

NFC Based Hospital Real-time Patient Management System

The title of article I reviewed on is NFC-based Hospital Real-time Patient Management System by Atluri Venkata Gopi Krishna and Cheerla Sreevardhan from KLUniversity, Andhra Pradesh and also S.Karun and S.Pranava Kumar from B.E, Mechatronics, MIT, Manipal (Krishna, 2013). All of them are from India. The article proposed an architecture design for NFC-based Real-time Hospital Patient Management System (HPMS). Basically the idea is the emerging of NFC technology into current patient management system to automate and provide an accurate tracking of patient identification. Each NFC technology consists mainly of a low power smart tag and a reader. The reader transmits radio wave that is received by the antenna in the smart tag which allows the reader to read the information by converting the radio waves to readable information. Besides, more information able to be retrieved by using the output of NFC tag as an input for data retrieval from database through the internet. The NFC tag is embedded in a wristband and gives to patient during the period of their hospitalization to store patient’s data. In another hand, the article suggests six layer architecture for the NFC based hospital management system. The layers are physical layer, middleware layer, process layer, data access later, application later and user interface layer respectively. The physical layer consists of the hardware of the system. The middleware layer is an important layer that contains the interface between the smart tags and readers and also the communication between the software of NFC system to the hospital database system. After that, the process layer and data access layer are both layers related to the database system of the hospital and the application used for the creation of the events. Both layers used large volume of NFC data through SQL. After that, is followed by the application layer and user interface layer. The application layer is nothing much but the interface that allow multiple users and the user interface layer provide an user friendly and uniform environment that allow the application to be used in any OS environment easily. Besides, this article also outlines few advantages of using the NFC based system in healthcare. The first advantage mentioned is the improvement of the patient’s identification by eliminating the paper based documentation work. Most of the identification tasks able to be automate by using the NFC technology. This will increase the efficiency and reduce the manual BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 2: Literature Review power directly. Besides, the second advantage is to reduce the workload and burden or medical personnel. Nurses or doctors will need not to bring heavy files around but only a smart tag reader when doing a checkup for their patients. Data retrieving and updating can be done by using the NFC technology instead of writing it down in a paper and file it manually. Another advantage is the NFC standards cover the data exchange formats and as well as the communication protocols, and are based on the existing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). After reviewed the article, NFC based patient management system has few advantages but nevertheless also bring few limitations. Due to the short reading range of NFC technology, the reader can only read the tag within certain short range. It will cause some inconveniences when the medical personnel want to read the tag of patient especially during the rest time of them. Besides, in order to do patients or tools tracking, NFC technology is not possible because of it short reading range. Therefore, NFC based hospital management system is not suitable for a hospital to do real-time patients or tools monitoring.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.4.

Personal Schedule Distribution Using Google Cloud

Messaging The title of article that had been reviewed is Personal Schedule Distribution Using Google Cloud Messaging by author named Victor Utomo (Utomo, 2014). The article purposed a method of distributing the scheduling of personnel in an organization which is using Google Cloud Messaging (GCM). The conventional method of distributing scheduling by bulletin board, memo or directly inform the personnel is inadequate especially where the schedule is very unstable such as frequent changes of customers’ appointments. As the use of mobile devices is increase in popularity, the author proposes to a personnel scheduler application which has the capability to receive the schedule notification push by the organization. The article is basically consists of the overall system concept, the introduction and lifecycle of GCM, the purposed system design, discussion and the conclusion. GCM is a service provided by Google that will manage all aspect of queuing of notification and delivery of notification to respective application running on Android devices. GCM components include mobile devices, application server (third party server) and Google Cloud Service Server. Besides, the article list down five primary characteristic of GCM service: 1. GCM allow third party application server to send message to Android Application. 2. Android application does not need to be running to receive notification as system that had been set up properly will wake up the application when notification arrives. 3. GCM just passing raw data message and Android application has full control of how to manage the notification. 4. Only Android 2.2 or higher that installed Google Play Store able to use GCM service. 5. GCM uses an existing connection for Google services.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

Figure 9: Components of GCM Google has a set of standard keys at different stages of GCM includes Sender ID, Application ID, Registration ID, Google User Account and Sender Auth Token. Each of the keys has different usage to ensure that all parties can be authenticated. The GCM lifecycle is a process where three primary processes involved. The three processes are enabling GCM, sending message and message receiving. Prior to these processes, the standards keys must not be null.

Figure 10: Block diagram of Personnel Schedule Distribution The system architecture proposed is the same as the fundamental GCM components. As GCM is handled by Google, no extra function can be added. For android application, it acts as a user interface to receive notification push from the GCM server. The application server can be any other server that is needed to do data processing before push notification. The article further discuss about the server-side database design of the proposed system. Database used to store extra data that need to be processed before the GCM message being push to devices. Application server acts as a sender in this system must have a sender ID and sender auth token in order to make request to GCM service. As GCM server is providing service, application server can send data or make request to GCM service through HTTP command. For the client-side functionality, Android application needs to register itself to both GCM and application server. Registration to GCM server by requesting a register ID that enable GCM BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 2: Literature Review server to uniquely identify the device and know which device the notification should be send. Android application also needs to handle the message push by the GCM server by calling the onMessage event. After reviewing this article, GCM push notification service brings advantages such as time and cost saving of organization management and reduce needs of paper work of personnel At the same time, it brings limitation too which is the system proposed allow only one way communication which are from server to client device. Problem arises when personnel need to rearrange the schedule as there is no way for an opposite way of communication.

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Chapter 3: System Design CHAPTER 3: SYSTEM DESIGN 3.1.

System Design Specification

Figure 11: System Design Specification 3.1.1. Hardware Tools Toshiba L745 Satellite

Processor RAM Operating System Graphic card Display USB port

Windows 7 Home Premium 4.00GB Intel® Core™ i5-2410M CPU @ 2.30GHz NVIDIA GeForce GT 525M 14.0 inch 1366 x 786 pixels (Max) Yes

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Chapter 3: System Design Samsung Note III

Operating System CPU Chipset Display Support

Android OS, v4.3 (Jelly Bean), upgradable to v4.4.2 (KitKat) Quad-core 2.3 GHz Krait 400 (N9005, N9002) Qualcomm Snapdragon 800 (N9005, N9002) Super AMOLED capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors, 1080 x 1920 pixels, 5.7 inches GPRS, EDGE, WLAN, Bluetooth, NFC, Infrared port

Mifare Ultralight NFC Tag

3.1.2. Software Tools The system built is running at android mobile operating system and designed by using Eclipse with Android Java programming language. It is an integrated development environment (IDE) that contains a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment. Written mostly in Java, Eclipse can be used to develop applications. Android software development kit (SDK) is used to create new application for Android operating system that includes a comprehensive set of development tools. These include a debugger, libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The officially supported IDE is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 3: System Design Plug-in, though IntelliJ IDEA IDE (all editions) fully supports Android development out of the box. The proposed Android application client-side functionality will be developed in Eclipse integrated with Android SDK. The NetBeans IDE is written in Java and runs everywhere where a JVM is installed, including Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and Solaris. A JDK is necessary for Java development functionality, but is not required for development in other programming languages. The application server-side functionality will be built by in NetBeans IDE environment. Database system used in this project is MYSQL. MySQL is a database system used on the web and runs on a server. It is a fast, easy-to-use RDBMS being used for many small and big businesses. This database system able to work on many operating systems and work with many languages including PHP, PERL, C, C++, JAVA, etc. MySQL uses a standard form of the wellknown SQL data language to that helps users store, organize, and retrieve data.

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Chapter 3: System Design 3.2.

System Architecture

Figure 12: System Architecture The proposed system will be build based on three their architecture. The mobile application will be at the presentation layer which acts as user interface that user to input data. Medical staff can key in patient information to store to database or check patient’ vital signs before comparing to the values retrieved from database. Then, data entered by patient will be processed before it further sends to server or database to retrieve more information. Middleware is used to allow communication between the application and the database. For example, patient id from the NFC tag will be send to server and uniquely identify the patient and retrieve all relevant information. The result of retrieving will be send back to the presentation layer after processed to a user understandable format. When notification sending is needed, the application will received message needed to be send from user, then passed the message to the server. The user need to specify who they want to send the message and passed it to server Server will then make a service request from Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) Service. GCM will send the notification with the message to the destination device. BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 3: System Design 3.3.

System Overview

Figure 13: System Overview

Figure 14: System Flow Chart The proposed system is an Android application that works on a NFC enable mobile device. The system divided into three modules which is the patient information management module, patient vital signs checking module and emergency patient management module. For the patient information management module, the application will allow medical staff to do read and write of patient information, store to the backend database and store some basic BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 3: System Design information into the NFC tag. Whenever medical staff wants to read patient information, the staff needs to launch the application and attach the mobile device to patient tag. Patient tag will store some basic information with a unique patient identification number. By using the identification number, staff can retrieve more information from the backend database. Secondly, nurse can check patient vital signs by comparing with the values from database. After checking, if the input vital signs are beyond the value set by the doctor, nurses will be prompt and ask whether there is a need to send notification to notify the doctor about the situation. If yes, then nurse will send the readings of vital signs to the respectively doctor as a notification alert. Lastly, public who register their information with hospital will be given a NFC tag that contains their information. The information can be easily retrieved in case any emergency situation happened to ease the process of rescuing the patient or contacting the patient’s family. Nevertheless, the emergency patient management module will allow medical staff to broadcast blood supply request to whoever that register with the hospital as a volunteer blood donors. Medical staff only needs to specify which type of blood they need and click to broadcast the request. Tag holder that successfully registers as a volunteer blood donor will then receive the notification sent by hospital side.

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module CHAPTER 4: Patient Identification Module 4.1.

Mobile NFC Read/Write Technology

Figure 15: Flow Chart of Patient Identification BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module This module is mainly for patient identification which allows staff to identify the patient and read patient’s basic information by reading the tag. Staff can retrieve more data by connecting to the hospital database through internet connection. Then, staff can decide whether want to delete or update the patient profile. After that, if the patient is new admitted, staff may write the patient information into the database through this application and get the generated ID from the database, then write to NFC tag that to be dispense to patient. In this module, NFC technology is used to work with a NFC-enable mobile device to do the read/write function of the NFC tag. Nowadays, NFC technology enables the sending of messages (NDEF) between mobile to tag or even mobile to mobile. First and foremost, to ensure the system working well, mobile that is used must have the feature to support NFC. At the same time, user of the system must ensure the NFC has been enabled before using the system. Besides, in order to able to retrieve more data from the database, internet connection must be available to connect the android application to the database server. // Check for NFC feature in phone mNfcAdapter = NfcAdapter.getDefaultAdapter(this); if (mNfcAdapter == null) { // Do something when the NFC is NOT SUPPORTED } // Check whether NFC feature is enable or disable if (!mNfcAdapter.isEnabled()) { // Do something when the NFC is DISABLED } // Check whether Internet Connectivity is enable or disable ConnectivityManager cm = (ConnectivityManager) getSystemService(Context.CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE); if ((cm.getActiveNetworkInfo()!= null && cm.getActiveNetworkInfo().isConnectedOrConnecting())) { // Do something when the internet is CONNECTED }

In order to have the permission to access the NFC hardware and Internet connection, permission must be set in the AndroidManifest.xml in the application. Permission of the feature is important to ensure proper handle of NFC triggered intents.

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module

Generally, Android uses its Intent system to deliver tags to the apps. Therefore, if several applications can handle the Intent, the activity chooser will be displayed and the user can choose any application to be opened. There are three different filters to handle tags which are ACTION_NDEF_DISCOVERED,

ACTION_TECH_DISCOVERED,

and

ACTION_TAG_DISCOVERED.

Figure 16: Process when NFC tag detected (Wondratschek, 2013) When the NFC tag is discovered, the tag object will be pass in Intent as EXTRA_TAG. As shown in the above diagram, if a tag with NFC Date Exchange Format (NDEF) support is detected, if there is activity that registered for ACTION_NDEF_DISCOVERED with matching URI and MIME type, the intent will be passed to the activity. If a tag without NDEF support or no activity from any application is registered for the ACTION_NDEF_DISCOVERED Intent, ACTION_TECH_DISCOVERED intent will be triggered and the intent will be pass to the activity that register for ACTION_TECH_DISCOVERED. Else, the activity that registers as ACTION_TAG_DISCOVERED

will

be

started

if

no

activity

is

handling

the

ACTION_NDEF_DISCOVERED and ACTION_TECH_DISCOVERED intents.

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module For the write function to work in this module user has to enter the information to write to tag and a tag must be attached. The data that need to be written into the tag is converted into NDEFMessage. NDEF (NFC Data Exchange Format) is a light-weight binary format, used to encapsulate typed data which is specified by the NFC Forum, for transmission and storage with NFC. (Android). NDEFMessage contain an array of NDEFRecord objects. NDEFRecord object always contains a 3-bit TNF (Type Name Field). The bits of TNF contain information regarding how to interpret the information inside the NDEF message as language, coding and etc. // Encapsulate message into NDEF format NdefRecord[] records = { createRecord(text) }; //Convert text to a NDEF record NdefMessage message = new NdefMessage(records); // Create record type NdefRecord recordNFC = new NdefRecord(NdefRecord.TNF_WELL_KNOWN, NdefRecord.RTD_TEXT, new byte[0], payload);

For the read function, firstly the data of NDEF message received are wrapped in an array of Parcelable objects. The entire NDEF message is parse through and the NDEFRecord is extract from the NDEFMessage but only the text type message is store to a String to be display. The bit of record in the NFC tag is check to get only text type data. // Parcelable object to get NDEF message Parcelable[] data = intent.getParcelableArrayExtra(NfcAdapter.EXTRA_NDEF_MESSAGES); // After get NDEF message, extract NDER records, convert it to String for (int i = 0; i < data.length; i++) { NdefRecord [] recs = ((NdefMessage)data[i]).getRecords(); for (int j = 0; j < recs.length; j++){ if (recs[j].getTnf() == NdefRecord.TNF_WELL_KNOWN && Arrays.equals(recs[j].getType(), NdefRecord.RTD_TEXT)) { byte[] payload = recs[j].getPayload(); String textEncoding = ((payload[0] & 0200) == 0) ? "UTF8" : "UTF-16"; int langCodeLen = payload[0] & 0077; s += new String(payload, langCodeLen + 1, payload.length - langCodeLen - 1, textEncoding); } } }

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module Lastly, when the application is already opened and the tag is attach again, the application is opened a second time instead of delivering the tag directly. This is not an intended behavior but it can bypass the problem by enabling or disabling the Foreground Dispatch. Enable foreground dispatch give priority to the foreground activity when dispatching a discovered tag to an application. After the enable foreground dispatch is called, an activity must call disable foreground dispatch before its onPause() callback completes. public void onResume() { super.onResume(); if (mNfcAdapter != null) mNfcAdapter.enableForegroundDispatch(this, mPendingIntent, mIntentFilters, mNFCTechLists); } public void onPause() { super.onPause(); if (mNfcAdapter != null) mNfcAdapter.disableForegroundDispatch(this); }

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module 4.2.

Screenshots of Module

Main Menu of Application

Sub Menu of Patient Management

Fields of patient information to store in database

Get Patient ID after storing to database. Ready to write to NFC tag.

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module

Confirmation to write to NFC Tag

Read NFC tag Information

Read full information of patient - 1

Read full information of patient - 2

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module

View information of patient before update

Update button to enable updating of information

Confirm button to submit update of information

Confirmation to update patient information

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module

Attach NFC tag to update information in tag

Read NFC tag before deletion

Confirm delete patient profile

Read all information before confirm deletion of profile

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Chapter 4: Patient Identification Module

Fill in patient’s vital sign boundaries

Store boundaries values into the database for later usage

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Chapter 5: Notification Module CHAPTER 5: NOTIFICATION MODULE 5.1.

Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) Service (Google Cloud Messaging for

Android)

Figure 17: Flow Chart of Patient Checking BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 5: Notification Module

Figure 18: Flow Chart of Blood Supply Request Module Both diagrams above are the flow chart of patient checking module and blood supply request module that both will integrate to use Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) service to work. Firstly, the patient checking module mainly use for staff to enter patient’s readings of vital signs and compare with the values retrieve from database. The values from database are the boundaries of the vital signs set by doctor. If the current value is exceed the boundaries, staff will be prompt to ask whether need to notify the doctor. If there is a need, a notification will be send to the doctor-in-charge. On the other hand, some patient sent to hospital for emergency rescue may need blood transfusion. Blood in the blood bank may not sufficient and staff can broadcast request to everyone who join the program as a volunteer blood donor. Broadcast of notification is using Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) service.

Figure 19: Overview of GCM Service (Tamada, 2015) BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 5: Notification Module Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) is a service that provided by Google which allow developers to send upstream messages (from client apps to servers) and downstream messages (from server to client app). The message sent or received can containing up to 4kb of payload data. The GCM service will be responsible of handling all aspects of messages queuing, delivery of message to target device. The client apps must be GCM-enable which is registered for GCM service. There are few keys needed before client apps register for GCM service. i.

Sender ID: Project number is a number which able to acquire from the API console. It is used to identify a 3rd-party app server that is authorized to send message to the client app.

ii.

Application ID: It is used to identify client app that is registered to receive message. This is to ensure that the messages are targeted to the correct application.

iii.

Registration ID: An ID issued to the client app by GCM server. Uniquely identify the device that registers for GCM service. The GCM server will send message based on the registration ID. To register the client apps for GCM service, the Android device must sends sender id and

application id to GCM server for registration. After that, GCM server will issue a registration id to the Android device to be able to identify the device. When the device receives the registration id, device needs to send the id to the 3rd party server. Then the server will need to store the registration id in the database for later usage. (Step 1 to Step 4 in Figure 20) After done the registration, the application now is ready to send and receive message. Therefore, when staff needs to notify the doctor, message will be send to server along with device registration id. The registration id is already stored in the database. Then, the message will be deliver to respected mobile device by GCM server according to the registration id. A client implementation and server implementation needed to complete the implementation of Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) service. In this project, the client implementation will be done in Eclipse Kepler with Android SDK while the server implementation will be developer using Java in JSP. To enable an Android client able to run GCM service, a few permissions needed to add in the application’s manifest. Permissions are required to make the android application support GCM service and allowing sending and receiving notification to and from the GCM server. BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 5: Notification Module //To allow the application to use Internet connection //To able to access network state and use to detect internet status //To allow application to access Google account as GCM need Google account //To keep the device from sleeping when notification receive //To prevent other applications from registering and receiving the application's messages. //This app has permission to register and receive data message

After for the first time user of GCM server, the Android application has to register with GCM servers before it can receive it first message. The application will get a registration id after registration and it will be store so that it can be use when sending or receiving the notification. Firstly, the application should check whether the current application is already registered with GCM service and the server. Before that, the application version needs to be up to date in order to ensure that the registration id able to function well. //Check for Registration ID, RETURN the ID if exists in shared preferences; //else, check the app version to see whether it is app to date //if so, it must clear the registration ID, since the existing registration ID is not guaranteed to work with the new app version. private String getRegistrationId(Context context) { final SharedPreferences prefs = getSharedPreferences( RegisterActivity.class.getSimpleName(), Context.MODE_PRIVATE); String registrationId = prefs.getString(REG_ID, ""); if (registrationId.isEmpty()) { Log.i(TAG, "Registration not found."); return ""; } int registeredVersion = prefs.getInt(APP_VERSION, Integer.MIN_VALUE); int currentVersion = getAppVersion(context); if (registeredVersion != currentVersion) { Log.i(TAG, "App version changed."); return ""; } return registrationId; }

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Chapter 5: Notification Module //Check for the version of current application private static int getAppVersion(Context context) { try { PackageInfo packageInfo = context.getPackageManager() .getPackageInfo(context.getPackageName(), 0); return packageInfo.versionCode; } catch (NameNotFoundException e) { Log.d("RegisterActivity", "I never expected this! Going down, going down!" + e); throw new RuntimeException(e); } }

If the application has already registered with GCM service, application is ready to send and receive notification. Else, application has to register to GCM service first. At first, get an instance of GCM first and then call the register function of GCM and passing the Google Project ID as parameter. The method will then return the Registration ID which uniquely identifies client application. The ID will then be stored in the shared preferences of device so that the device does not need to register again. if (gcm == null) { gcm = GoogleCloudMessaging.getInstance(context); } //Register for GCM, return Registration ID regId = gcm.register(Config.GOOGLE_PROJECT_ID); storeRegistrationId(context, regId); //Store to shared preferences private void storeRegistrationId(Context context, String regId) { final SharedPreferences prefs = getSharedPreferences( RegisterActivity.class.getSimpleName(), Context.MODE_PRIVATE); int appVersion = getAppVersion(context); SharedPreferences.Editor editor = prefs.edit(); editor.putString(REG_ID, regId); editor.putInt(APP_VERSION, appVersion); editor.commit(); }

After registration, the device needs to share its Registration ID and username to the 3rd party server for future use such as sending the information of sender to GCM server to know which device is the notification or message sent from. In this project, the 3rd party server

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Chapter 5: Notification Module (localhost server) will store the registration ID of devices in file based. The username register for each Registration ID must be unique too so that retrieving of ID by username is possible. After that, the send or receiving of notification message is ready. The sending message has to be send to the 3rd party server through the HTTP Connection. Besides, parameters such as the username of sender, the username of receiver and the message to be sent will pass to server. The server will request GCM server by using these parameter. For multicast of notification, client does not need to specify receiver as the server will pass every username in the registration file to request for GCM service and GCM server will send notification to every registered device. For the receiving of notification, firstly the client application needs to set up a class to receive the message send from the GCM server. public class GcmBroadcastReceiver extends WakefulBroadcastReceiver { @Override public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) { ComponentName comp = new ComponentName(context.getPackageName(), GCMNotificationIntentService.class.getName()); startWakefulService(context, (intent.setComponent(comp))); setResultCode(Activity.RESULT_OK); } }

A WakefulBroadcastReceiver is a special type of broadcast receiver that handles the creating and managing a partial wake lock for the app. The partial wake up lock ensures that the processor of device is running, but the screen and keyboard backlight will be allowed to go off. It passes off the work of processing the GCM message to a service (typically an IntentService), while ensuring that the device does not go back to sleep in the transition. In short the client application will be able to receive the notification in background and push the notification in the status bar even user do not start the application. At the same time, the message received from GCM server will be convert into a notification message by using the NotificationCompat class. This class will take care of the creation of notification and issue the notification. In order to define the notification action, setContentIntent() method can be call to define the action when user click on the notification shown in the notification bar.

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Chapter 5: Notification Module NotificationCompat.Builder mBuilder = new NotificationCompat.Builder(this) .setSmallIcon(R.drawable.gcm_cloud) .setContentTitle("Notification") .setStyle(new NotificationCompat.BigTextStyle().bigText(msg)) .setContentText(msg) .setVibrate(new long[] { 1000, 1000 }) .setSound(RingtoneManager.getDefaultUri(RingtoneManager.TYPE_NOTIFICATION));

In the server part GCM implementation, the server needs to get the message from client application, the username of sender and receiver. The Sender class is a helper class to send messages to the GCM service using an API Key as parameter while Message class used to create GCM message. Then the receiver destination id will be retrieve from the location where the registration is stored when device share their registration id. In this project, the registration id will be read from file. The difference between device-to-device notification and multicast notification is the amount of registration id sent to GCM server. If there is only one receiver, the id can be read from the file by using the unique username, else, if is multicast service, all registration from the file will be sent to GCM server. After that, Sender type object will send the message and registration id to the GCM server. Sender sender = new Sender(GOOGLE_SERVER_KEY); Message message = new Message.Builder().timeToLive(30) .delayWhileIdle(true).addData(MESSAGE_KEY, userMessage) .addData(REGISTER_NAME, fromName).build(); //SINGLE receiver  Get destination registration id from file Map regIdMap = readFromFile(); String regId = regIdMap.get(toName); //Broadcast  Get destination registration id from file List regIdList = new ArrayList(); for (Entry entry : regIdMap.entrySet()) { egIdList.add(entry.getValue()); } //Send message to GCM server Result result = sender.send(message, regId, 1);

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Chapter 5: Notification Module 5.2.

Screenshots of Module

Sub Menu of Patient Measurement

Register for Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) service

Store Registration ID and name to shared preferences

Enter patient’s vital sign reading to check

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Chapter 5: Notification Module

If value exceed boundaries values, prompt for confirmation to notify doctor

Send notification to doctor by specifying doctor’s name

Notification received will shown in status bar

Click on notification to view details of notification

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Chapter 5: Notification Module

Specify which type of blood type before broadcasting requests

Broadcast notification in details

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Chapter 6: Implementation and Testing CHAPTER 6: IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING The Android application has be test to ensure that the objectives have been achieved. The application requirement validation test has been done by black box testing. Black box testing, also known as the functional testing and behavioral testing is mainly focus on determining whether software fulfills its functional requirements. Black box testing will be carry out by tester to provide input to the system and monitor for the output without taking care of the internal code structure. Test Traceability Matrix Function ID F001

F002

F003

Function

Function Description

Module

Write Patient

Writing patient information to

Patient Identification

Information

database and NFC tag

Module

Read Patient

Read patient ID from NFC tag

Patient Identification

Information

then retrieve data from database

Module

Update Patient

Read patient ID from NFC tag

Patient Identification

Information

then retrieve data from database,

Module

update information in database and NFC tag F004

F005

Delete Patient

Delete patient profile from

Patient Identification

Information

database and reset NFC tag

Module

Insert Measurement

Insert patient’s vital sign

Notification Module

boundaries values F006

Register GCM

Register device to GCM server

Notification Module

F007

Check Patient

Key in patient’s vital sign reading

Notification Module

Condition

and compare with values from database, notify doctor if needed

F008

Broadcast Blood

Broadcast requests to everyone in

Supply Request

the file list

Notification Module

Table 3: Features to be tested BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 6: Implementation and Testing Function 1: F001 Write Patient Information Feature

Input

Enter patient information

Complete all fields

Enter patient information

All empty field

Enter patient information

Some empty field

Write basic information to NFC tag

Data from database (Patient ID, name, contact, etc.) Large amount of data from database

Write basic information to NFC tag

Output

Expected Output Information Information stored to stored to database database Toast display Toast display empty field empty field need to fill in need to fill in Toast display Toast display empty field empty field need to fill in need to fill in All All information information from database from database stored to NFC stored to NFC tag tag Some All information information missing from database stored to NFC tag

Anomaly? (Yes or No) No

Traceability

No

No

No

Yes

F001

Table 4: Testing Table of Function F001 Function 2: F002 Read Patient Information Feature

Input

Output

Read NFC tag

Attach tag to mobile device

Show All button

Click on the show all button

Expected Output Show Show information information stored in NFC stored in NFC tag tag Show all Show all information information retrieve from retrieve from database database

Anomaly? (Yes or No) No

Traceability

No

Table 5: Testing Table of Function F002 BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 6: Implementation and Testing Function 3: F003 Update Patient Information Feature

Input

Read NFC tag

Attach tag to mobile device

Show All button

Click on the show all button

Update button Update information

Click on the update button Key in updated field, no empty Key in updated field, empty fields Key in updated field, all empty fields Attach NFC tag to update

Update information Update information

Update NFC tag

Output

Expected Output Show Show information information stored in NFC stored in NFC tag tag Show all Show all information information retrieve from retrieve from database, database, editing editing is is unable unable Input field Input field able able to be edit to be edit Information Information in in database database update update Toast display Toast display empty field empty field need need to fill in to fill in Toast display Toast display empty field empty field need need to fill in to fill in

Anomaly? (Yes or No) No

Information in NFC tag updated

No

Information in NFC tag updated

Traceability

No

No No

No

No

Table 6: Testing Table of Function F003

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Chapter 6: Implementation and Testing Function 4: F004 Delete Patient Information Feature

Input

Output

Read NFC tag

Attach tag to mobile device

Show All button

Click on the show all button

Delete button Click on the delete button

Expected Output Show Show information information stored in NFC stored in NFC tag tag Show all Show all information information retrieve from retrieve from database database Patient’s Patient’s profile in profile in database is database is deleted deleted

Anomaly? (Yes or No) No

Traceability

No

No

Table 7: Testing Table of Function F004 Function 5: F005 Insert Measurement Feature

Input

Output

Read NFC tag

Attach tag to mobile device

Enter measurement values (new patient) Enter measurement values (exists patient)

Only integer or float is allowed (Input type is set) Only integer or float is allowed (Input type is set)

Expected Output Show Show information information stored in NFC stored in NFC tag tag New New measurement measurement stored into stored into database database New New measurement measurement stored into stored into database, old database, old measurement measurement is deleted is deleted

Anomaly? (Yes or No) No

Traceability

No

No

Table 8: Testing Table of Function F005

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Chapter 6: Implementation and Testing Function 6: F006 Register GCM Feature

Input

Output

Enter name for registration

Input value : Utar (Not exists in registration file) Input value : Utar (exists in registration file) Input value : Utar (register again using own same name)

Enter name for registration Enter name for registration

Toast display successful of registration

Expected Output Toast display successful of registration

Anomaly? (Yes or No) No

Toast display repeat of register name

Toast display repeat of register name

No

Toast display repeat of register name

Toast display successful of registration

Yes

Traceability

F006

Table 9: Testing Table of Function F006 Function 7: F007 Check Patient Condition Feature

Input

Output

Enter patient’s vital sign reading

Only integer or float is allowed (Input type is set) – Values in bound Only integer or float is allowed (Input type is set) – Values out of bound Empty

Enter patient’s vital sign reading Enter patient’s vital sign reading

Nothing

Expected Output Nothing

Anomaly? (Yes or No) No

Show alert dialog box to confirm notifying doctor Toast display to ask user fill in the fields

Show alert dialog box to confirm notifying doctor Toast display to ask user fill in the fields

No

Traceability

No

Table 10: Testing Table of Function F007 BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Chapter 6: Implementation and Testing Function 8: F008 Broadcast Blood Supply Request Feature

Input

Output

Enter type of blood supply needed

Choose blood type needed among radio button

Broadcast notification to everyone in the registration file list

Expected Output Broadcast notification to everyone in the registration file list

Anomaly? (Yes or No) No

Traceability

Table 11: Testing Table of Function F008

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Chapter 7: Conclusion CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION 7.1.

Project Review, Discussion, Conclusion

This paper has given a number of reasons on improvising the current workflow system in the healthcare management system. The application developed in this project is used to improve the process of patient identification and sending notification to doctor or broadcasting blood supply request in a faster manner. Therefore, the application will be able to reduce human error when identifying patient and increase staff efficiency especially when handling emergency situation. In order to achieve the objectives of this project, an Android application integrated with NFC technology and Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) service is developed. NFC technology is used to do patient identification by read and write the NFC tag and retrieving patient information from database to mobile devices. Besides, GCM service is used so that sending or broadcasting of notification from device to device is possible. The integration of the two technology provide a faster patient’s vital sign checking and notifying doctor process can be done together. The strength of the developed system is the application able to automate part of the patient information management. It is able to read and write patient information to the database in a faster manner. Besides, staff can easier notify doctor once the patient’s vital sign is out of bound. Blood supply request can also be done by broadcasting notification which is faster in manner. At the same time, the system has few limitations too as if there is poor Internet Connection in the environment, sending of notification may be slow or even fails. Information of patient might be unable to retrieve from database due to the same problem. Therefore, Internet Connectivity is the bottleneck of the performance. In the final delivery system, the application brings enhancement to the hospital management workflow yet provides faster and safer medical process. At the same time, it reduces some burdens of medical staff as part of the job task is automated. This will directly ensure the human caused medical errors can be minimized and more accurate decision making of medical staff which then lead to patient safety and healthy.

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Chapter 7: Conclusion 7.2.

Novelties and Contributions

The proposed system can add more functionality to fully use NFC technology. Functionalities such as NFC based medical administration can be implemented to ease the process of medicine dispersion. All medicine check out from store should be track down by scanning NFC tag of staff. Then, staff need read patient information to know what medication the patient should take before dispersion. Doctor can update the prescription of patient just by updating the database. Besides, patient tracking can also be done by putting mobile reading at several points in the hospital. Patient need to scan their NFC tag before in and out of some locations and the records read by reader should be save to database for tracking. If a patient did not check out a location after certain period, database may send a alert message to hospital security department so that further action can be taken. Besides tracking of patient, equipments and tools in the hospital can also be track by using the same manner. The final deliverable system should be able to lower the burden of medical staff by automate some of their job tasks, reduce volume of paper works they need to do and save hospital operation cost. The system will save time of medical staff that usually busy on their work and allow to them to spare more time to take care of patient. Patient should be the main concern of medical staff and therefore concentration of staff should be stay on patient instead of their paper works and work beyond their work scope such as searching contact number of a doctor.

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Chapter 7: Conclusion 7.3.

Future Work

This project can be further improved to achieve higher security and functionality. As the security of the application can be very complex tasks, this project apply only simple log in mechanism. Roles of user that claimed to be can be identified and defining the task of each role able to carry out. More research needs to be carried out to focus on the security of healthcare management and roles of each user need to be specified. Patient’s information in the NFC tag can be encrypted to avoid other people who have NFC reader to read without permission. The encrypted and decrypted function should remain only medical staff in the hospital. This means that only user of this Android application can decrypt the encrypted patient information in NFC tag. Therefore, the privacy of the patient can be ensure. Besides, in order to have a clearer and more details version of medical history, research or interview need to be done to have a more accurate format of medical history or surgical history of patient. Hence, the application can handle the displaying of those histories in a clearer manner. Medical staff can click to view medical records in details with provided date, time and explanation which no longer only a short description. Functionalities of Android such as achartengine can be implement to show the vital sign readings of patient by using charts so that doctor able to monitor patient’s condition in an more efficient way. Therefore, by monitoring the pattern of charts, doctor or medical staff can have a more accurate decision making process.

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Bibliography

Bibliography Agrawal, R. (2012). VentureBeat. Retrieved April 3, 2015, from http://venturebeat.com/2012/09/06/mobile-payments-that-matter-parking-meters/ Android. (n.d.). Retrieved from Android Developer: http://developer.android.com/reference/android/nfc/NdefRecord.html Bravo, J. C. (2009). Supporting Clinical Information Management by NFC Technology. In 4th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering, 1734-1737. Chowdhury, B., & Khosla, R. (2007). RFID-based Hospital Real-time Patient Management System. (pp. 363-368). Melbourne, Qld. : IEEE. epxx.co. (2013). Retrieved April 3, 2015, from http://epxx.co/artigos/nfc_en.php Fontecha, J. H. (2011, February). An NFC approach for nursing care training. In Near Field Communication (NFC), 38-43. Google Cloud Messaging for Android. (n.d.). Retrieved from Android Developer: http://developer.android.com/google/gcm/index.html Goverment, U. (2007). Smart Border Alliance,“Attachment D: RFID Technology Overview”, RFID Feasibility Study Final Report. Janz, B. D., Pitts, M. G., & Otondo, R. F. (2005). Information systems and health care II: Back to the future with RFID: Lessons learned—some old, some new. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 15, 132-148. Kim, R. (2012). Gigaom. Retrieved April 3, 2015, from http://gigaom.com/2012/12/28/hyundaiwants-your-nfc-enabled-smartphone-to-be-your-car-keys/ Krishna, A. V. (2013). NFC-based Hopspital Real-Time Patient Management System. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 626-629. Lambert, S. (2012). Mobile Commercel News. Retrieved April 3, 2015, from http://www.qrcodepress.com/japan-airlines-adopts-nfc-enabled-boarding-passes-tobetter-serve-consumers/856159/ Marcus, A., Davidzon, G., Law, D., Verna, N., Fletcher, R., Khan, A., & Sarmenta, L. (2009). Using NFC-enabled Mobile Phones for Public Health in Developing Countries. 2009 First International Workshop on Near Field Communication, 30-35. BCS (HONS) Computer Science Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (Perak Campus), UTAR

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Bibliography NFC Forum Technical Specifications. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2014, from NFC Forum: http://members.nfc-forum.org/specs/spec_list/ Ngai, E., Poon, J., Suk, F., & Ng, C. (2009). Design of an RFID-based Healthcare Management System using an Information System Design Theory. International Journal of Healthcare, 11(4), 405-417. Tamada, R. (2015, March 20). Android Push Notifications using Google Cloud Messaging (GCM), PHP and MySQL. Retrieved from AndroidHive: http://www.androidhive.info/2012/10/android-push-notifications-using-google-cloudmessaging-gcm-php-and-mysql/ Thuemmler, C., Buchanan, W., Fekri, A. H., & Lawson, A. (2009). Radio frequency identification (RFID) in pervasive healthcare. International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management, 10(1), 119-131. Utomo, V. (2014). PERSONNEL SCHEDULE DISTRIBUTION USING GOOGLE CLOUD MESSAGING. Jurnal Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi,, 1-8. Violino, B. (2003). Wal-Mart Draws Line in the Sand. Retrieved August 13, 2014, from http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?462 Wondratschek, R. (2013, May 16). Reading NFC Tags with Android. Retrieved November 12, 2014, from tuts+: http://code.tutsplus.com/tutorials/reading-nfc-tags-with-android-mobile-17278 Yao, W., Chu, C.-H., & Li, Z. (2010). The use of RFID in healthcare: Benefits and barriers. Guangzhou: IEEE.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Mobile Personal Profile Tracker Using Tagging Technology By Than Sook Wei A PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman in partial fulfillmen...

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