CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND - UMY Repository

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A.

BACKGROUND

Indonesian women's current profile could be described as the human beings who lived in a situation of dilematis. On the one hand,Indonesian women played an important role in all sectors, but hopefully, the Indonesian women did not forget their nature as a female. It was the dilemma situation to face the natural women by the Indonesia women's career. The career women felt compelled to devote their talents and skills for the sake of the progress of the nation and the state.1 They were identified with the political world that wasfull of deception and duplicity into the area to be kept away and removed from the hands of the womenfolk, because it was considered only the cability of men who were able to survive the political world. There were currently very much differences between the authority of men and women in living of the life. It was unknown what exactly made the question of women. It gave so many problems faced by women. All of that had become a fact of life that we could not avoid. Poverty, injustice, violence, discrimination were often touted as a crucial problems faced by women from time to time. At that time , any women would always be at a level which was always not 1

Hadiz, Liza. and Eddyono Wiyanti Sri. Pengakuan Peran Gender dalam Kebijakan-kebijakan di Indonesia. Jakarta: LBH APIK. page. 23.

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benefiting because of the position of the male that would always be higher than the female.2 Throughout the history of the world, almost all the traditions of the nation halfway around the world that adhered to a patriarchal look, understood this strong shows of male dominance against women that was judged very reasonable by men in the position of superior. The patriarchal culture put on women's domestic roles, such as the role of parenting, education, and the role of custodian of morals. Meanwhile, the role of men was as heads of households, decision makers, and breadwinner. On the variety of roles, the women were placed by then political territory that was full with the role of making identical power that was closely related to the world of men. Then if the women went into the political scene, it was often considered something inappropriate because the politics in the world was perceived a hard filling with competitors that were so impressed by an ambition.3 Then gender disparity in public life and politics was a global challenges that continued to face the world community in the 21st century. Although there had been a variety of conventions, the International Covenant and commitment ; but, the average number of women in Parliament in this world was only 18.4 percent. From 190 countries, only seven countries where women became President or Prime Minister. The 2

Bustamin Basyir, “Kesetaraan Gender: Studi atas pemikiran Qasim Amin” dalam Kusmana, ed,.Islam dan Gender: Wacana dan Praktis (Buku Ajar Fakultas Ushulludin dan Filsafat UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta: 2007). Page 4. 3

Maulan Syahid, “Peran Politik Perempuan Dalam Pemikiran Siti Musdah Mulia” (Universitas Islam Negri Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta: 2014)

2

presence of women as part of a cabinet or mayor in this world was not the amount for reaching 7 and 8 percent.4 Indonesia was at number 80 of the 156 countries in the Gender development index or the Gender Development Index (GDI) in 2007. In 2009, this figure declined to 90, it meant that women in Indonesia still did not enjoy the same rights and standards with the men. The Gender Development Index measured of human development, but considered the gender differences.The components of Gender Development Index was similar to that was used in the human development index or the Human Development Index (HDI), but it adjusted to see the difference in terms of achievement between women and men. The three indicators used included (1) life expectancy as measured by life expectancy at birth, (2) educational achievement as measured by a combination of reading skills among adults and the average number of years spent in school, (3)as

well as the

standard of living as measured by per capita of output. Those women were still lagging behind in these areas. It indicated that there was still a way for women to exact equivalent in Indonesia society.5 In this study, researchers had the potential problems caused by one element of a culture. It was believed to be a society that was very fundamentally sensitive and a patriarchy where was the elements such as

4

Paxton, Pamela and Huges M. Melanie (2007), Women, Politics and Power: A Global

Perspective, Pine Forge Press, Los Angeles. 5

BPS Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS), 2008.

3

belief and religion. Many people said that religion was also giving its influence on patriarchal culture that was trusted and was run by the community making researchers trying to describe “TheAnalysis Of The Legislative CandidateElection Of The Women Representatives In Ogan Komering Iir Regency In 2014”. Later in the history of the elections, Indonesian society still made women as second choice to occupy a political position. This could be evidenced in the political history of Indonesia since the first election in 1955. At the first general election in 1955, there was only 3.8% of women in the Parliament of Indonesia and in 1960 there was 6.3%. The highest figures in 1987-1992 was 13%. But it downed again to 12.5% in 1992-1997, 10.8% ahead of Suharto's felt down and only 9% in the period 1999-2004. While in 2004-2009 there was only 11.4% or about 63 only female members of the Parliament (DPR) 20042009 period. Whereas the number of members of the legislature in indonesia reached 500 people. This figure obviously could not represent the power of women to be able to move more freely so that they could fight for the aspirations of women overall.6

6

Muhammad Yusuf Pambudi. 2009, Perempuan dan Politik. Studi Aksebilitas Perempuan Menjadi Anggota Legislatif di Kabupaten Sampang. University of Airlangga, Surabaya.

4

Table 1.1 Percentage of Women in PARLIAMENT-RI

Gender

Female

Male

Period

Total

%

Total

%

1950-1955 ( Temporary DPR)

9

3.8

236

96.2

1955-1960

17

6.3

27.2

93.7

Konstituante: 1956-1959

25

5.1

488

94.9

36

7.8

460

92.2

1877-1982

29

6.3

460

93.7

1982-1987

39

8.5

460

91.5

1987-1992

65

13.0

500

87. 0

1992-1997

65

12.5

500

87.5

1997-1999

54

10.8

500

89.2

1999-2004

45

9.0

500

91.0

2004-2009

11

10.7

550

89.3

2009-2014

32

17.9

528

82.51

1971-1977

Source: KPU DKI Jakarta

5

Based on table 1.1, Institutions and traditions as well as unilateral obligations createdthe motion women in politics to be limited. Values in the family and society, traditions and institutions that put men as actors the public would make women not gain the support of symbolic role. The domestic obligations and cultural that were incriminating women would reduce the chances of specifically the delegated substance and support for the involvement of women themselves. Another challenge was the lack of opportunity that also appeared to increase the capacity of women in politics. According to George Ritzer, It discussed the role of women in politics that justice was desired by everyone including women. In the history, It noted that women had been getting a lot of discrimination of the right to life, the right of emancipation as well as other rights as human beings. Many factors that made it all happen were including : 1. Gender Differences In this position, the women as well as her experiences in a variety of situations were different with men. The differences such as these were often placed on three things namelly: biological, socioinstitutional unit to perform different roles, and the necessity of existence. 2. Gender Inequality ( Ketimpangan Gender ) The position of women in many situations was not only different but also lost or not equal to men. 3. Gender Oppression ( Penindasan Gender )

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In this position, the woman was not only suffered repression or violence but also controlled by men in subordination and in use. 4. Structural Suppression ( Penindasan Struktural ) The experience of women in the form of the difference, inequality, and oppression was different according to their social standing in capitalism, patriarchy, and racism. The four women on top position were the reality of the lives of women who were categorized in the position of being problematic and a priority to be addressed ;so that, women got equal rights with men.7 Women had a very important role in building the nation ;but, the women had yet to get a good place in the field of the life of nation and state including in the field of politics and government. In the law, there were important policies related to women candidates for election. One of them was in Act No. 10 of 2008 about elections. The electoral law was a core policy regarding the political representation of women. That was about the quota of women in the Parliament.After the break with the policies of the women, it gave a chance to play more in the world of politics. The representation of women in politics especially in the House of representatives DPR/DPRD was not the reason that was fundamental. They were the responsibility of and sensitivity to issues of public policy especially with the regard to women and children, the social environment, moral good, the ability of women to do the job, time management and multitasking. Therefore it needed to be recognized that the women had become accustomed to running his duty as a leader in social groups and civic activities 7

George Ritzer. 2004, Teori Sosiologi Modern. Prenada Media, Jakarta

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such as posyandu, groups of women empowerment, School Committee, and others. It showed that women were closed to public policy issues and relevant to have significant amounts of representativeness in the pursuit of public policy issues particularly in the representation of the people's Institute.8 The women in their life had a heavier burden of living compared with men. The double role of a woman was present in addition to having responsibility in this House as well as outside the home as a career woman.9 The roles of women in simple terms: a. As citizens in relation to the rights in the field of civil and political rights including the treatment of women in the labour force participation that could be referred to an external call function. b. As the mother in the family and the wife in the household relationship that could be called an internal function. The external and internal functions were the basic roles that women especially who owned a career ; so, women should really be set up. The second role was overlooked. If it was not, then the life would become unbalanced so it was not uncommon among those who were choosing one role. As a result, there wass one role that was sacrificed. If it continued to choose a career that was not

8

Muchammad Murdiono. 2009, Perempuan dalam Parlemen Studi Analisis Kebijakan Kuota

Perempuan Dalam Pemilu Legislatif 2009 di Kota Yogyakarta. Universitas Negri Yogyakarta. 9

Nani Suwondo. 1981. Kedudukan Wanita Indonesia dalam Hukum dan Masyarakat. Jakarta :

Ghalia Indonesia

8

uncommon among those who caused the rift even the divorce households. The women themselves chose their career by ignoring the marriage, so the question lingered without being accompanied by husbands or single. Whereas, the women knew a man who chose the second role, it meant that sacrificing her career in question or out of work became a homemaker that lived quietly at home, so it was unfortunate because the potential women became an undercurrent. Thus women who just chose one role now were considered less good periods of life, because it was a superior woman and tough she could fight to face many challenges when selecting multiple roles as above. but it did not forget that there should be mutual understanding and mutual life to fill her household. Indonesian women chose the role in development in the field of politics both in the party of legislature and Government. Participation in the political sphere was not merely a complementary course but it should play an active role in political decision-making that concerned the interests of continuity of the state and the nation. Women's suffrage had parallels with men in terms of taking and prescribing decisions when the woman was involved in the elections to vote for a political party that became the choice as revealed by Nilakusuma:10 “We must be conscious and understand the necessity of the existence of parties in a country and what the donations are given by the party for the development of the nation and the State. In addition to this, we have to understand that these parties are groups of people who have the same ideology so that in the forward, sound is a good union. With this awareness, the women can stand alone with her intelligence, selecting the appropriate party with her ideals. It is truly disappointing, if these parties become the target of the search for herself and the woman in the Prod because it is not enough awareness in the party. If the woman sits in the 10

Nilakusuma. 1960 . Wanita di dalam dan di kuar rumah. Bukittinggi : NV Nusantara.

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party, she is not solely for the assignee to provide meals at meetings of her party or when it is the guest arrival party but also for the vote along with members of the male ”. At the Legislative elections of 2014, the number of women that was sitting in the Parliament of Ogan Komering Ilir Regency had not showed a high increase in amount by the number of 4 women in the Parliament of Ogan Komering Ilir Regency. From the note above, it could be stated that the quota of 30% of women in the House of representatives Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatera Province had not been fulfilled. The number of members of the Board of the women's quota of 43people who sat in the Parliament of Ogan Komering Ilir Regency amounted to 13 people. But judging from the number of women board members at legislative elections from 2009-2014 year number of women sitting in the legislature was increasing.11 Therefore, It was not surprising if the 2009-2014 period elections, the number of women members in the Parliament was only 3 people from 45 members of DPRD Ogan Komering ilir district, while in the period of 2014-2019 the number of female members in Parliament had increased from 43 members of Parliemant. There are 4 female members as illustrasted as the following table.12

11

From the journals written by Andri Pratama, and the data he obtained through interviews with m. Hammer, M.Si, Member of the legislative PARLIAMENT South Sumatra on September 23-sept2014 hours 09:30 a.m 12

Wahidan Zein Siregar, ”Representasi Perempuan di DPRD, PDP, MPR, dan DPRD 2009-2014: Komposisi, Peran dan Tantangan Perempuan Parlemen”Women,s Journal vol.18 no.4 (2013):29

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Table 1.2 DPRD Members of Regency Ogan Komering Ilir in Period 2009-2014 / 2014-2019

No

Party Male

Election period 2009-2014 % Female

Partay %

Male

Election Periode 2014-2019 % Female

%

1

PDI-Perjuangan

9

90%

1

10%

PDI-Perjuangan

7

78%

2

22%

2

Partai Golkar Partai Persatuan Pembangunan Partai Keadilan Sejahtera Partai Amanat Nasional

5

100%

-

-

Partai Golkar

5

100%

-

-

3

100%

-

-

Partai Hanura

4

100%

-

-

4

100%

1

-

3

100%

-

-

3

100%

-

-

3

60%

2

40%

6

Partai Bulan Bintang

3

75%

1

25%

1

100%

-

-

7

Partai Bulan Reformasi

2

100%

-

-

Partai Nasdem

3

100%

-

-

8

Partai Demokrat

6

100%

-

-

Partai Demokrat

6

100%

-

-

9

Partai Gerindra

4

100%

-

-

4

100%

-

-

10

Partai Hanura

3

100%

-

-

Partai Gerindra Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa

3

100%

-

-

39

91%

4

9%

3 4 5

Total

Partai Keadilan Sejahtera Partai Amanat Nasional Partai Bulan Bintang

42 93% 3 7% Source: Kemenag Of Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatera

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Based on table 1.2 above, It was clearly visible that the level of representation of women in the Legislative District Ogan Komering Ilir was very minimal. It was seen in the number of members of the representation of women in the legislature in 2009. The next period of elections needed to endeavor to improve the representation of women in Parliament. Women's groups had to build political power by the crafting strategies either through setting election laws as well as the approach to political parties, the election participants, and the general public.It was clearly visible that the level of representation of women in the Legislative District Ogan Komering Ilir was very minimal. It was seen in the number of members of the representation of women in the legislature by 2014. Being compared to previous elections in 2014, It had elevated 1 females in Parliament. They were in Parliament that amounted to 4 people. Women's groups had to build political power by a crafting strategies either through setting election laws as well as the approach to political parties , the election participants and the general public. From the elaboration of the background problems above, then writer of this s1 thesis took the research entitled : An Analysis Of The Legislative Candidate Election Of The WomenRepresentatives In Ogan Komering Iir Regency In 2014 (case study: the Regency of Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province) because the writerof the paper wanted to know the factors, strategy and capital anything that affected the election of legislative candidates of the women in the general election in 2014 in the Regency of Ogan Komering Ilir.

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B.

RESEARCH QUESTION The research question wasn an important research that was done by a researcherso

the formulation of the problem would make it easier for researcher to conduct discussions with the goal setting. The formulation of the problem in the research as follows: What factors affect the elected of women legislative candidate in the DPRD of Ogan Komering Ilir Regency in 2014?

C.

OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH 1. To find out what were the barriers that were experienced by the women in the legislature 2. To find out what factors that were influencing the election of the legislative candidates of women 3. To find out how far the role of women in the legislature 4. To find out that the women also had a chance of entering into political parties 5. To find out why the women were always regarded number two after the men 6. To describe that the women were able to stand on the political stage 7. To find out about the gender differences, the gender inequality, the gender oppression and thestructural suppression.

D.

THE BENEFITS OF RESEARCH 1. For the writer of the research, it was hoped this research could help the next researchers to obtain and understand the gender equality and gave insight in

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the field of women's politics and then to find out how women coped with the political constraints experienced in the legislative institutions. 2. For the community, the results of this study were expected to provide benefits and help for the readers or the further research with the same theme and it was hoped this research ccould be used as a reference by most people. 3. For institutions, the research results were expected to be a catalyst for the Government so that the Government of South Sumatra Ogan Komering Ilir District in particular could well respond to the problems that existed in this research.

E.

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK The framework of the theory of an overview of theories were closely connected

with the problems that were examined so that the activities became clear, systematic and scientific. A theory was a set of the assumptions, the concepts, the abstract definitions and the prepositions to describe a social phenomenon and a natural phenomenon that became the center of attention.13 Therefore, in the research, there were the theories that would be displayed as follows: 1. Political Participation According to Miriam Budiarjo, it was stated that the political participation could generally be defined as the activity of a person or group of people to participate actively in political life. That was the way of the country to elect a leader and directly or indirectly that affectedthe public policy (public policy). These activities 13

Handari Nawawi. 2007. “Metode Penelitian Bidang Sosial”. Yogyakarta:Gadjah Mada University Press .Hal 42

14

includedthe actions such as voting in elections, attended the rally, being a member of a party or group interests, hold a relationship (contacting) with government officials or members of Parliament, and so on. While McClosky called political participation was the voluntary activities of citizens through they were taking part in the election process authority and directly or indirectly in the process of the formation of public policy. In this case, the voluntary activities of citizens were more the role of the community in the selection of rulers as a form of intervention from the process of policy making and from the sovereign to the people.14 Huntington and Nelson in his book of political participation in developing countries interpret the following political participation By political participation we mean activity by private citizens is designed to influence government decisionmaking. Participation may be individual or collective, organized or spontaneous, hurricane or sporadic, peaceful or violent, legal or illegal, effective or ineffective. (political participation is activities of citizens who act as pribadipribadi, which is meant to influence the making of decisions by the Government. Participation can be individual or collective, organized or spontaneous, steady or sporadic, peacefully or with violence, legal or illegal, are effective or not effective ".15 Then Ramlan Surbakti also gives a sense of the sense of political participation in line with the above, i.e. political participation as ordinary citizens in activities affecting the manufacturing process and the implementation of general policy and in 14

http://www.materibelajar.id/2016/02/partisipasi-politik-masyarakat-di.html accessed date 18.11.2016

15

Samuel P Huntington dan Joan Nelson, Partisipasi Politik di Negara Berkembang, Jakarta : Rineka Cipta, 1994, Page 4.

15

determining the direction of the Government participated "was defined as the political participation of citizen participation in the creation and implementation of public policies undertaken by ordinary citizens.16 Based on some of the political participation definitions above, it could be seen that any political participation made by the society was a voluntary activity performed, or no real emphasis on attitudes. We knew that the role of political activities were citizens who had a position in the Government. The system of Government which was authorized to make and carry out decisions and politics was the Administration but the community had the right to influence the process of making and implementing decisions made by the Government.17 Political participation according to Kevin r. Hardwick quoted in North Sumatra University student thesis stated that the partispasi political attention on ways citizens interact with Government, citizens attempting to convey their interests against public officials in order to be able to realize the interests.18 Milbarth and Drive distinguished the political participation into several such behaviors:19 1. Apathy, people who withdrew from the political process 2. Spectator, it was in the form of people who at least had ever participated in the election.

16

Ramlan Surbakti, Memahami Ilmu Politik, PT. Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia, Jakarta 1992. Page 118

17

Sudijano, Sastroatmojo. “Perilaku Politik. Semarang”, IKIP Press, 1995, page 5-6

18

Muhammad, Fatih. “Partisipasi dan Pemilu Legislatif”, Universitas Sumatera Utara, 2011 Jurnal.dikti.go.id

19

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3. Gladiator, they were the ones who had always been actively involved in the political process. 2. Political Participation Of Women The political participation of women had been revealed by Aris Toteles, a source form that was practiced so far. But in unconscious, there was a tradition or an order that was not written about the study of the political system and government. The traditions naturally made the study of political science and government system into the area of the study of man. As it could be seen that the thinkers of the world's great thinkers were almost entirely the men. This occured due to the existence of limitations to access free education for women. The existence of such restrictions arose due to the existence of an understanding that women had limited capabilities and naturally should be protected so that they were only given the domestic responsibilities that were preparing the family needs such as cooking, washing clothes, cleaning the home furnishings and all the other responsibilities related to family.20 In addition, Siti Musdah argued in her book that in fact was the Political power (power) and decision making. The scope started from the institution of the family up to the highest formal political institutions. Therefore, it was a political understanding in the principle covers of the principal issues in everyday life which in fact always involvedthe women. The involvement of women in politics was not meant to drop in seizing power from men, but it was intended to become a partner of parallel male.21

20

http://dyahnugraheni-fisip12.web.unair.ac.id/artikel_detail-135340-agensi PERBANDINGAN%20PARTISIPASI%20POLITIK%20PEREMPUAN%20DI%20INDONESIA%20DAN%20SE LANDIA%20BARU.html 21

Siti Musdah Mulia. Muslimah Perempuan Pembaru Keagamaan Reformis,hal. 275

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Therefore, the position of women in politics is its own agenda of fiqh and is very important to be seen. The issue is not merely whether may and again questioned the women to the priesthood (leader), but how the conception of fiqh in respect of the political role of women in General. Broadly speaking, in discussing the existence of the rights of women from politics in his book Syafiq Hasyim have three opinions that developed as described below.22 1. Conservative Opinion The conservative fringe opinion argued that in practice politics Islam did not recognise the political equation between men and women. Scholars that supported the opinion like this, for example, Imam al-Ghozali. He stated that a woman could not be seated as the imam (head of State). According to him, how a female could run government while she herself did not have the right to decide on large matters and was not able to give testimony in the various issues of the legal decision.23 2. Progressive Liberal Opinion Liberal-progressive opinion were stating that since the inception Islam had introduced the concept of women's involvement in political roles. This group explicitly said that women had the voting rights in politics. They wer also permitted to assume political tasks done by men. The House of clergy of the Khawarij and Musyabbihah groups from using the postulates of the Qur'an on the concept ' was the (Justice) and musawah (equation) which were always the high esteem in Islam.

22

Syafiq Hasyim “Hal-Hal Yang Tak Terpikirkan Tentang Isu-Isu Keperempuanan Dalam Islam”. Page 191 23

Syafiq Hasyim “Hal-Hal Yang Tak Terpikirkan Tentang Isu-Isu Keperempuanan Dalam Islam”.hal. 191.

18

3. Opinion Of The Apologists The opinion of the apologists wasthat there were parts of the certain political territory that could enter certain areas and there werethe women who absolutely had not to be touched by the women. According to this group, people who became a political region of women had to be mothers. In addition, these groups still considered that a larger portion of women's emotional was compared with the rational portion. 3.The Election System Ali Murtopo stated that understanding elections as follows: "in fact, the elections are the means available for the people to exercise their sovereignty in accordance with the principle in the UUD of 1945. The election itself is essentially an institution of democracy that elects members of the House of representatives in the MPR, DPR, DPRD that in turn serve to get together with the Government, set the political and governmental operations of the State ".24 The organization of public elections (elections) were the elements that had to exist in the rule of democracy. The general elections in the country of democracy could be seen as the beginning of a paradigm of democracy. In addition to the elements of the general election, in the country of democracy there had to be an element of responsibility of power. At the end, every country that shaped his presidency of the Republic where the President was obligated to give the responsibility of power. The relationship between the President with people at the time of the inauguration of President by the MPR could be

24

http://www.edukasinesia.com/2016/06/pemilu-apa-itu-pemilu-penjelasan-terlengkap-mengenai-pemilu.html accessed date 13.12.2016

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seen as acceptance of the agreement by the President to administer of the Government in the interest of the people.25 Ali Murtopoli argued the elections (the election) was an activity that was inseparable from the institutions and representatives of political parties. Election as one way of implementing democracy though entirely the opinion of democracy would materialize in a country that carried out the process of the elections. As a democracy that was used was a representative democracy where the people's rights to be able to participate in determining the country's bow that was done by a small fraction of the people occupying the agency representatives called the parliament and was elected through the electoral process.26 The three definitions above about the election system, there werethe some basic concepts of the system of the elections:27 1. The comparison of seats with the number of votes 2. Its accountability to Constituents (Voters) 3. Allowing the Government that could survive 4. Producing a majority winner 5. Creating a coalition between the ethnic and religion 6. The minority that could sit in public office

25

Soewoto. Kekuasaan dan Tanggung Jawab Presiden Indonesia. Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya. 1990. Working Paper. 148. 26

Ali Murtopo, “Strategi Pembangunan Nasional”, CSIS, 1981, hal. 179-190, dalam Bintan R. Saragih, Lembaga Perwakilan dan Pemilihan Umum di Indonesia, Jakarta: Gaya Media Pratama, 1987, Working Paper. 167. 27

http://sospol.pendidikanriau.com/2009/12/definisi-pemilihan-umum-secara.html. Accessed date 15.12.2016

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Simply, the electoral system meant the instrument to translate gained the votes in election into seats that were won by a party or a candidate. As for the basic variables, they were commonly used including the electoral formula (the electoral formula), the structure of voice (ballot structure), and the magnitude of the district (district magnitude).28

4. Political Representation In the writings on the theory of political representation, Alfred de Grazio posited that the representative was defined as the relationship between the two parties namely a representative with the authorities holding the Vice which represented to perform the various actions with regard to the deal he made with representation.29 In the system of political representation, a citizen represented himself as sovereign to a candidate or the political party representatives that believed through the general election. A decision in a democracy was how to organise the election. The academic studies on democracy knew the definition of the two great categorizations of minimalist and maximalist conception.30Pitkin claimed that "process representation regards two things namely the representation of the interests and representation of the opinion".

28

Ibid. Hal 91

29

Arbi Samit, op.,cit, Jakarta: CV. Rajawali, 1985, hal 1

30

Muladi, dkk., “pemilu dan Demokrasi”, dalam Jurnal DEMOKRASI DAN HAM, Pemilu 2004: Semakin Terkonsolidasikah Demokrasi Kita, Vol. 4, No. 1, Surabaya: THC, 2004, hal. Editor.

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"The representation of interests meant representatives of the people tied to the interest groups that supported the Deputy representative opinion while tying his Deputy to public opinion and it represented the symbolic in nature in the form of feelings, emotions and psychological aspects of the whole community. It represented thatthe interest representatives were individuals and groups as well as the interest that existed in the society so that it always happened or a continuous relationship between representatives and it represented a symbolic representation or an opinion while not waking up the contact relations between staunchly ".31 A country that democracy required a democratic representation of all, i.e. representation without differentiating race, religion, gender, and especially was a tribe according to gender. According to Anthony Giddens, The sociologist from the United Kingdom stated that democracy was already underway in various countries until now hadn't turned out to be a democracy. It could still be found in the existence of groups and walks of life that were not yet represented in the representative institutions such as children, the poor, the minorities and also of women.32 The representation of women in politics wasalong since it became the discourse. The issue of the representation of women even became issues which were phenomenal at the 2004 election when a constitutional UU No. 12 year 2003 on general elections gave an appeal ;so that, the nomination of leg the islative political party filededa notice at least 30% representation of women. Quota of 30% was expected to be the constructive efforts

31

Pitkin. Keterwakilan Politik. Jurnal, Jakarta. 2007

32

www.altavista.com/ Perempuan Dalam Politik, by Budi Rajab, Juli 2007

22

that contained engineer to break the patriarchal traditions that gave the opportunity to more men than women including in providing opportunities obtaining the political appointments. The tradition and patriarchal system had long been valued as systems that impeded women in entering the realm of politics. This condition that caused it was not easy for women to earn a place in the world of politics. It was also expressed by Trafton that stated that "The effort to take our place in the political system will not be an easy one".33

5. Political Capital Political expert J.A Booth and P.B Richard definedthe political activities as citizens to achieve power and democracy. A. Hick and J. Misra (1993) said the political capital was the focus of the various administering Powers/resources to realize things that could manifest a power grab. In essence, the political capital was owned by someone that could then operate or contribute to the success of the contest in the political process as the general election.34 Robert d. Putnam (1993), an American Political Science expert defined the social capital asfeatures of social organization such as trust, norms, and networks, that could improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions (something in the characteristics of social organization such as trust, norms, and networks that could improve the efficiency of the community through facilitating the coordinated actions). The first definition was delivered at the time of Putnam Putnam that did some research 33

Traffon. M. Barbara, 1984, Jurnal Woman Winning: How to Run For Office, Harvard Mass: The Harvard Conmmon Press, Edisi 1 Tahun (1984). Page. 7. 34

Wiji Thukul. Konversi Modal Sosial menuju Modal Politik. Tentang Sebuah Gerakan, 2007

23

about the political tradition in Italy. That was a political party that would be the the big, strong party and continue to succeed. It could build the three things: (1) Trust (2) The prevailing norms and kept together (3) Powerful networking. And in 1996, Putnam did a little revising of definitions as follow by ' social capital. ' I meantthe features of social life-networks, norms and trust-that enable participants to act together more effectively to pursue the shared objectives (with-social capital, I meant that was the features of social life such as networks, norms, and trust, all could be used by participants to do together more effectively for the sake of common goals).35 Piere Bourdieu (1986) says: the social capital is an attribute of an individual in a social context. One can acquire the social capital through the purposeful actions and can transform that a capital into the conventional economic gains. The ability to do so, however, depends on the nature of the social obligations, connections, and networks available to you. (the social capital was the attributes of the individual in a social context. A person could get social capital through actions that were useful and could transform into conventional economic segment. This ability, however, depended on the nature of social obligations, relationships, and networks that you could do).36 The sense of the political capital in the social sciences was still kept and sharpened for publications about political capital that was much less than the publications regarding modal symbolic (symbolic capital), social capital (social capital), capital of culture (cultural capital) as well as economic capital (economic capital). A sociologist France, Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002), was a figure of a pioneer in examining the various forms of 35

John Field, Social Capital , Roudledge, Canada, USA, 2008, Working Paper. 35.

36

Rhonda Phillip and Robert H. Pittman, an Introduction to Community Development , Roudledge, Canada, USA, 2009, Page. 50

24

capital (multiple forms of capital). However Bourdieu was often criticized because it tended to be deterministic and less based on the empirical things in building his theory. The tendency of less wisdom of Bourdieu on the fact of the empirical probability made it not get his sharp political capital ;but, the dynamics of accumulation and use of political capital had a circumference of the huge influence for everyday life.37

F.

CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION The conceptual definition was an understanding of everything that was a staple of

attention. The conceptual definition was an abstraction of the basic framework of the theory. As for the conceptual definition of those problems that were: 1. A political participation was as the activity of a person or group of people to participate actively in political activities. Such activities included actions likea vote in the general election, attending a rally, being a member of a party, and having a relationship with government officials or members of Parliament. 2. A political participation of women was the involvement of women in politics, but there was a tradition or an order that was not written about the study of the political system and Government. The tradition that most people assumed was that women didn't deserve to occupy the legislative institutions. The traditions naturally made the study of political science and Government system into the area of the study of man.

37

Sudirman Nasir, SBY antara modal politik dan modal simbolik, dalamhttp://pemilu.liputan6.com/kolom,on

March 1, 2017, at 15.00

25

3. The electoral system was an element that had to exist in the rule of democracy. And in a democracy, there had to also be an element of responsibility of power. Any country shaped its government of the Republic that the President was obligated to give the responsibility of power. 4. A political representation was defined as the relationship between the two parties namely a representative with the authorities holding the vice that represented to perform the various actions with regard to the deal he made with represented. 5. The

political

capital

is

the

focus

of

the

various

administering

Powers/resources to realize things can manifest a power grab. In essence, political capital is owned by someone, who could then operate or contribute to the success of the kontestasinya in the political process as the general election.

G.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION The operational definition was a research element that told how to measure a variable. The representation of women in politics for reality was not just based on its participation in decision-making, but also his contributions to fight for the rights of women. Later in the election year of 2009, it was set to the new policy, UU No. 10 year 2008 general election of members of Parliament, DPD, DPRD,and DPR as well as UU No. 2 year 2008 about a political party that contained the credentials to the political parties to meet the 30 percent quota for

26

women in politics especially in the people's representative institutions.38 Among other things, they were : 1

The way used for eligible legislative candidates of women were elected as members of the DPRD Regency Ogan Komering Ilir

2

a

Convincing the community

b

Addressing the concerns of the community

Factors endowments and Restricting the election of legislative members of the women in DPRD 1) Factor of Endowments a. Political awareness b. Family Support 2) Factor of Restricting a. Tradition b. Patriarchal System

3

The political capital that was preperad as legislative candidates a

Family Support

b

Social Capital

c

Economic Capital

38

Reza Try Ayu. Keterwakilan Perempuan dalam Pencalonan Sebagai Anggota Legislatif Oleh Partai Politik di Kabupaten Beriau. Universitas Mulawarna, 2016.

27

H.

RESEARCH METHOD The research method was the way in doing the research that had the extent of the scientific knowledge concluding the facts or the principles to achieve the certainty regarding an issue. 1. Type Of Research This wasthe type of the qualitative, descriptive research which sole purpose was to acquire about a certain topic and clearly gave an overview of a phenomenon or a social fact that was

pleased with the examined

problems39;especially,it was about the constraints of the political participation of women in Legislative Institutions by 2014 Ogan Komering Ilir district, South Sumatra Province. Sugiono said that the qualitative research aimed to disclose qualitative information in order to get the more emphasis on meaning and process problems with describing something problem. The descriptive nature of the research that was done was to know or describe the reality of the investigated events or the research conducted against an independent or single variable or, i.e. it was not making comparisons or linking the data objectively in order to know and understand the content of the research.40 2. Location Of Research

39

http://www.pengertianmenurutparaahli.net/pengertian-kualitatif-dan-kuantitatif/

40

Sugiono. 2010. “Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Pendekatan Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif dan R & D”. Bandung: Alfabeta. Hal. 289

28

This research was conducted at the offices of the Election Commision and DPRD Ogan Komering Ilir site selection that was based on consideration of the constraints of the political participation of women in the Regency of Ogan Komering Ilir. 3. Research Analysis Unit In accordance with the subject matter and the subject matter of this discussion then in some of the unit's activities will be doing analysis on the parties concerned, by means of conducting interviews with some of the parties among others, Hj. Melly Mustika he served as Chairman of the PDI-P faction in the PARLIAMENT Office of the Regency Ogan Komering Ilir, before entering the political party she worked as a Civil Servant in one of the first high schools in the District of Ogan Komering Ilir , Then the second is Ni Wayan Siti Sunaryase, she cracked the PDI-P Faction and has served as a member of PARLIAMENT in the Regency of Ogan Komering Ilir during two periods, before entering the political party she is just a housewife who is active in community organizations. The third is Asmawati he is at a fraction of the PAN, and before entering politics she worked as a staff at one of the State-owned enterprises (BUMN).In addition to the members of the legislature also have 3 respondents from communities who have the author interviewed, among others, Mr. Romadi community who served as the village head Jaya Bhakti, lbu Dian Isnaini the community of the village Jaya Bhakti which is active in the Organization of the PKK, the mother of Sri Wahyuni jaya bhakti community daily life as a housewife. 4. Technique Of Data Collection 29

Some of the steps that had to be performed to obtain data in this study were: a. Interview The interview was the data collection technique to obtain information through the facts directly with the interviewers or respondents.41 The women who became the members of the DPRD Ogan Komering Ilir Regency would be researched to complement the required data and answered the resource of the noted or recorded person with the recorder. b. Documentation The technique of the documentation was done to obtain data on secondary, i.e. By way of taking notes and picking up the sources,there was in the form of the written reports, the regulations and other documents that contained the opinions of the experts on policy with respect to research.42 c. Data Analysis Techniques Data analysis was the activities to organize, sort, classify coding or mark and categorize the data so it could be discovered and formulated into the working hypotheses based on the data. Data analysis was useful for reducing data collection becoming the embodiment that could be understood through the work

41

Lexy J.Moleong, Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif Edisi Revisi,(Bandung : Remaja Rosdakarya, 2009), hal. 186.

42

Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendeketan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D), (Bandung : Alfabeta, 2009), cet. IX, hlm. 329.

30

in a logical and systematic way ;so that, the focus of the study could be examined, tested and answered carefully and thoroughly.43 While in this study, the writer of this research usedthe descriptive qualitative research methods. The descriptive research (research report descriptif) was a method of research that aimed to describe the phenomena that progressed at the moment or the past.44

43

Semma, Mansyur, 2008, Negara dan Korupsi; Pemerintahan Mochtar Lubis atas Negara, Manusia Indonesia dan Perilaku Politik, Yogyakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, hal. 249 44

Hamdi, Asep Saepul & Bahruddin, E., 2014, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Dalam Aplikasi Pendidikan, Yogyakarta: deepublish, Hlm. 5

31

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