CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A.
Background of the Study Books play an important and strategic role in improving the quality of education. Government ensures availability of textbooks quality at elementary, Junior and Senior High School level1. Based on the assessment of the National Education Standard Agency (Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan/BSNP) and the Ministry of National Education (Kementrian Pendidikan Nasional) recommend to buy the copyright of the publisher’s book as many as 1334 book titles for elementary, Junior and Senior High School level since 2007 so the students can access the book in the form of e-book or it can be downloaded for all students free. This way will make it easier for students to get the textbook2. The government claims that all the books whose copyright has been purchased from the publishers are related to the standard curriculum being launched in the Curriculum on the Level Education Unit called KTSP (Kurikullum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan). Therefore, the research will take on one of the book in Junior High School level whether it has been appropriate with KTSP and fulfill what the students’ need in English learning especially for reading materials contained in the BSE book. KTSP is a curriculum which has been developed by the Ministry of National Education in Indonesia since 2006 and used widely in early 2009. KTSP is operational
Republik Indonesia, “Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 Tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan” Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kementrian dan Kebudayaan. “Buku Sekolah Elektronik” (http://bse.kemdiknas.go.id , accesed on June 12, 2013)
curriculum developed and implemented by each educational unit in this case is by schools3. Therefore, every schools are given an obligation to develop and use KTSP based on their own ability to arrange a learning device. All the teaching materials given to the students must be related to the content-based standard (standar isi) and standard of graduate competence (Standar Kompetensi Lulusan). There are some English textbooks for Junior High School provided by the Ministry of National Education to be downloaded for free4, such as; 1) Scaffolding 2) English in Focus 3) Bahasa Inggris Sekolah Menengah Pertama. In this case the researcher will get research for BSE textbook which is being used at SMPN 33 Surabaya entitled Scaffolding. BSE-Scaffolding is a book that is based on a standard reference of English language teaching material in 2006 and was designed to use nationally. Therefore, the teachers in Indonesia can use it as practical teaching in the classroom with making necessary adaptation to adjust KTSP5. At school, teaching English cannot be separated from curriculum, since it is important part of education system. The system has to be understood and mastered by everyone who works in teaching field including the teachers. It becomes an orientation for
Republik Indonesia, “Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 Tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan Bab I Pasal 1 Ayat (15). 4 Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kementrian dan Kebudayaan. “Buku Sekolah Elektronik” (http://bse.kemdiknas.go.id , accesed on June 12, 2013) 5
Joko Priyana, Riandi, Anita P Mumpuni, “Scaffolding”(Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2008), p. iv.
all of the teachers in teaching learning process. It also helps them provide guidelines in reaching the goals of teaching learning process. According to Nasution, The curriculum is a plan designed to expedite the learning process under the guidance and responsibility of the school or educational institution and the teachers6. Larry Wincoff in his book entitled “Curriculum Development and Instructional Planning” also stated that curriculum is generally defined as a plan developed to facilitate the teaching or learning process under the direction and guidance of a school, college or university and its staff member7. Furthermore, Curriculum has a function as a guideline or reference8. For teachers, curriculum has a function as reference to implement the learning process. For the head master curriculum has a function as a reference to implement supervision or oversight and for parents it has a function as a reference to guide their children to study at home. There are six functions of curriculum for the students9, such as: 1) The adaptive function. Curriculum as an educational tool can lead students to have well adjusted. They can adapt themselves to the environment, both the physical environment and the social environment. 2) The integrating function.
S. Nasution, M.A.,”Kurikulum dan Pengajaran Tahun 2008”(Bumi Aksara, 2008), p. 5 H. larry Winecoff, “Curriculum Development and Instructional Planning (1988), p. 1 8 Tim Pengembang MKOP, “Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran”(PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2006) 9 Tim Pengembang MKOP, “Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran”(PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 2006) 7
Curriculum as an educational tool must able to produce individuals who have good manner. Therefore, students must have a personality that is needed to be able to live and integrate with the community. 3) The differentiation function. Curriculum as an educational tool provides services to individual student differences. Each student has the distinction, both from the physical and physiological aspects that should be cherished and well served. 4) The propaedeutic function. Curriculum as an educational tool must be able to prepare students to continue their studies to the next educational level. 5) The selective function. Curriculum as an educational tool can provide the opportunity for students to choose learning programs that according to their capabilities and intentions. The selective function is closely related to the differential function because the recognition of the existence of individual differences in students. It gives students opportunist to choose subjects according to their interests and abilities. To realize these two functions, the curriculum should be made more widely and flexible. 6) The Diagnostic function. Curriculum as an educational tool can help students to understand their potency and weakness. If the students can understand them, they can develop their own potency and improve the weakness.
In this case, the curriculum has the important role in improving the quality in teaching at each institution and the quality of teaching materials that will be taught to the students. A teacher can convey a lot of teaching materials to their students that can come from any various sources, such as articles from internet or from the text book that assigned by each school. The students use various text books to study in the class every day. However, we have to be smart look in deep the content in the text book deals with the students need. Reading is the one of the most important subject that the students should master it, since in its learning process there are several fields of knowledge such as structure and vocabulary. One of the fundamental conditions of a successful extensive reading program is that students should read many passages which they can understand and if they are struggling to understand every word, they can hardly be reading for pleasure as the main idea of this activity10. Therefore, reading material should present an interesting discussion accompanied by adequate generic structure so the students will never feel bored. Based on KTSP, teacher has been given the form of reference for standard competence to develop reading materials that must be mastered by the students in a specific periods. The teachers determine everything they need in learning process. BSE-Scaffolding is one of the electronic books which are used widely by many schools in Indonesia. It is sold by the lowest price in the market or the students and teachers can download easily from internet.
Jeremy Harmer, “The Practice of English Language teaching”(3rd editions completely revised and updated;Pearson Education Limited, 2001) p. 210
However, we still have to evaluate whether the text book BSE-Scaffolding has been in line with what the students need and whether the reading materials in that book are relevant as teaching materials in learning process or not.
Statement of Problems 1.
How is the relevance of the reading materials in functional texts in BSE-Scaffolding to standard competence and basic competence on KTSP?
How is the appropriateness of reading materials in functional texts in BSEScaffolding to the students’ need?
Can the reading materials in BSE-Scaffolding improve students’ reading skill after learning them?
Objective of Study 1.
To describe whether BSE-Scaffolding has been relevance to standard competence and basic competence on KTSP.
To know whether reading materials in functional text in BSE-Scaffolding are appropriate to students’ need.
To know whether the BSE-Scaffolding improve the students’ reading skill or not.
Significance of the Study 1.
For English Teachers The English teachers can use kind of variety text to teach reading comprehension to their students and not focus on a text book but also to be more creative to search from available various media sources.
For SMPN 33 Surabaya In a new policy to conduct bilingual classes, the principle of SMPN 33 should examine more deeply the subjects that will be given to the bilingual students especially English. What the bilingual classes need is different with the regular classes. Bilingual classes consist of students with specific qualification, so they need more about teaching materials and methods and also the text books.
For the Students The students do not have to depend on one book though the price is reasonable. They should read other textbooks to compare the subjects which are learnt. This research will sensitize them to critical thinking about knowledge contained in the book.
Scope and Limitation of Study This research will focus on the relevance of reading materials in BSE-Scaffolding to be used as a textbook in schools and in this case is at SMPN 33 Surabaya grade 8th to the reading materials based on standard competence and basic competence on KTSP. This research will be examined on class VIII A as a regular class and VIII G as bilingual class. The researcher will try to prove that there is difference ability between students in a regular class with a bilingual class in understanding reading materials contained on BSEScaffolding. The researcher will compare the students’ reading score especially on Narrative, Descriptive and Recount text. The result will be very influential on school policy in developing bilingual classes.
Definition of Key Terms There are some terms used to give clear explanation related to this study. Those terms are defined to give the readers better understanding and avoid misunderstanding. 1.
Relevance It’s a noun. It has meaning as the degree to which something is related and useful to what is happening or being talked about11. From the definition, there are two indicators as the instruments that the researcher uses to measure the relevance of the BSE-Scaffolding. a.
The BSE-Scaffolding is relevant if the reading materials in that book are related to standard competence and basic competence on KTSP. The word “related” means all reading materials in the BSE-Scaffolding are representations of reading materials which are recommended in standard competence and basic.
The explanations in standard of competence and basic competence about reading materials that should be taught are used as a scale to measure appropriateness in reading materials in the BSE-Scaffolding. The measurement result will determine whether the reading materials are relevant to the standard competence and basic competence or not. Moreover, reading materials in the BSE-Scaffolding will be analyzed by the English teacher as a validator by using assessment of indicator. The analysis will indicate the appropriateness of the reading materials in that book to be taught to the students. The analysis also
Kate Woodford and Guy Jackson, Cambridge Advance Learner’s Digital Dictionary (version 1.0, Cambridge University Press), 2003
will be used to determine whether it can improve the students’ reading skill or not. Students reading value in the first and second semester will be used as the instrument to measure the improvement of students’ reading skill.
Scaffolding English Textbook The definitions of text books are wide and varied. One common definition is that a textbook is a printer and bound artifact for each year or course of study. They contain facts and ideas around a certain subject12. BSE-Scaffolding is a book that is based on a standard reference of English language teaching material in 2006 and was designed to use nationally, therefore the teachers in Indonesia can use it as practical teaching in the classroom with making necessary adaptation to adjust KTSP13. This book is one of the government programs to provide cheap books that can be obtained by the students start from elementary, Junior and Senior High School at very affordable price or they can download them for free at http://bse.kemdiknas.go.id/. a.
Reading material Reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or drive meaning14. Reading material is a written material intended to
Glenn Goslin, “The History of the Textbook” (http://educ.ubc.ca/courses/etec540/May08/goslina/researchtopic/Definition%20of%20textbooks.html, accessed on June 20, 2013) 13 Joko Priyana, Riandi, Anita P Mumpuni,“Scafolding”(Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2008), p. iv. 14 Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia “Reading (Process)”(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_(process), accessed on June, 20 2013)
be read15. There some reading materials in the BSE-Scaffolding for grade 8th will be scrutinized, such as: a.
The First Semester a)
Unit 1 Functional text: Descriptive Text
Unit 2 Functional text: Descriptive Text
Unit 3 Functional text: Descriptive Text
Unit 4 Functional text: Recount Text
Unit 5 Functional text: Recount Text
The Second Semester a)
Unit 6 Functional Text: Recount Text
Unit 7 Functional Text: Narrative Text
Unit 8 Functional Text: Narrative Text
Unit 9 Functional Text: Narrative Text
KTSP KTSP is composed of operational curriculum and implemented in each educational unit consisting of educational objectives, level of education unit, the structure and content of the curriculum, educational calendar and syllabus16. Standard of competence is minimum qualification ability for the students that describe the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are expected to be achieved at each grade and semester in a subject of study17.
Farlex “The Free Dictionary”(http://www.thefreedictionary.com/reading+material, accessed on June, 20 2013) Jumadi, Pengertian KTSP Dan Pengembangan Silabus Dalam KTSP, Makalah, p. 1, 2012 17 Scribd, “Pengertian SK dan KD”(http://www.scribd.com/doc/48737642/Pengertian-SK-Dan-KD, accessed on June,21 2013) 16
Basic Competence is a number of skills that must be mastered by the students in a particular subject as a reference for competence indicator arrangement in a subject of study. For this research, the researcher uses standard of competence and basic competence in reading materials as the data. The reading materials for Junior High School grade 8th discussed in basic competence, such as a.
The First Semester i.
To read aloud with meaningful words, phrases and sentences in the form of descriptive and recount text with acceptable spelling and intonation related to nearby neighborhood.
To respond the meaning which contained in the simple functional text accurately, fluently and acceptable related to nearby neighborhood.
The Second Semester i.
To read aloud the functional text and simple short essays in the form of recount and narrative text with speech, stress and intonation regard to the surrounding environment.
To respond the meaning of functional text accurately and fluently related to surrounding environment.
Improving Students’ Reading Skill “Improving Students’ Reading Skill” is increasing students’ skill in the English language subject for reading competency.
In this case the students’ ability to
understand the text will increase from basic to advance by observing the indicators of
teachers’ assessment of students in the classroom. It is a process for students to understand and read a text fluently and appropriate intonation and they have ability to respond the text. There are twelve easy steps how to improve students’ reading skill18, such as: 1) Find something to read. 2) Sound out each letter as best you can and you will notice they form some sort of word. 3) Find a place to read where you can concentrate. 4) Begin your reading by looking at the picture, or listening to the music to get a feel for what you are going to be reading about. 5) Start with the titles, names, or other larger print items that you may know or ever thought about. 6) Read as much as you are able. 7) Reread the material. 8) Go to the library and pick up lots of books. 9) Read the page carefully. 10) Use context clues to find out a word’s meaning. 11) Reread if you do not understand. 12) Keep reading as much as you can. Students have to make sure that they enjoy their position in a class because sometimes if they are sitting in one position for a long time, it can make them sleepy. In this situation the teacher should prepare interested reading books.
Jack Herrick, Scott Hanson, Ben Rubenstein, Zack, “How to Improve Your Reading Skills” ( http://www.wikihow.com/Improve-Your-Reading-Skills, accessed on June, 20 2013)