CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION The Aligarh Movement - Shodhganga

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CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION The Aligarh Movement. markes of modern

India.

leadership .of

It was

Sir

changes

in

social,

Muslims

in

India

have

left

polity

Syed

movement

that

brought

Indiao

impact

A

that

the Aligarh Movement is thus the to

identify

and

socio-political and

evaluate

find

of

out

its

impact

conditions

of

India

its

relevance

to

be

the

the to

society

and

evaluation

the

as

of

thought

day

on the

the

~nder

lives

overall

need

history

about .significant

objective

and

the

which

may

the

on

close

in

political

and

particular

tremendous

of

this

economic

in

watershed

a

of

in. order

contemporary

also

present

to

measure

day

society

and politics.

The

fall

of

Mughal

Empire

the failure of Duccan Policy· of cular after there was

the a

short time.

death

of

succession The

defeat

actua-lly

the Mughals

Aurangazeb

of weak of

started

in

rulers·

and

1707. who

Siraj-ud-Daula

in

parti-

After ruled

at

with

that, for

the

a

battle

of Plassey in 17 57 completely weakened the Muslim political · power and rule the

war

in

paved

the way

India.

People

of

The India

last to

for

the

establishment of

concerted oust

the

of Independence which took ,Place

however, Empire

in

resulted India

in and

the the

effort British in

ruling power in this country.

of

in

1857.

complete downfall emergence

was

the

made the

Its of

British by

First

failure,

the Mughal

British as

the

- 2 After

the

First War·

of

Independence

in

1857,

the

whole structure of the Indian relating to society-political, social, economic, educational and culture-changed.

With the establishment of western which

culture were

viewed

any

distinction

the

worst

they were

and

British rule

civilization as

of

harmful

caste

sufferers not

the

and

because

willing

for

to

all

creed; they

1

position.

in

general

Moreover,

western

culture

thought

that by

and did

Muslims

and

the

rulers

supremacy Urdu 1

considered

and

with

introducing western

of

andthe

in particular

effect\ their

civilization

without

The' Muslims · were

the

west whcih could damage their language and cultural

Indians

were

accept

India

introduced

also

were

in

Privileged viewed

suspicion.

language and

the They

culture

they might be trying_ to convert the Muslims to Christianity. The presence . of not . only

from

preaching

the

a

large

England

in

between different

but

Christianity

suspicion particularly held

number of · Christian Missionaries

in

from in

the

other

of

Europe

India also increased event of debates

Christian

Missionaries

parts

India

of

parts

and

specially-the

their

that . were

Muslim

Olema

north.

The

main controvertial· points were on the following :

A new system missionaries in which

and

of the

the principles

preaching missionary

was

introduced

schools

and disciplines

were

by

the

started

of the Christian

- 3 -

faith

were

taught

there

in

schools were asked various

the

boys

who

questions · as

God, who was their Redeemer

attended

to who were

And the boys

?

the their

had to answer

as to the Christian faith. In addition to these the village schools were established to preach the doctrines

of

Jesus

Christ 1 •

In addition to a

new system of

these,

education

the

emphasising

.Western Philosophy and Natural language as

the

secular. _ and·

reason,

the

but

satisfied First,

with

the

produce

way,

they

and

secondly, and

many .Muslims and

schools entered

education

they

based

religious.

reasons-.

include

religious

the

not

not

modern

morals send

and

manners.

their

uneducated.world

as

not

tended

schools

EngliE?h

-corrupt

were

on

some

remained

into the

Thou_gh

(Ulema)

of

did

History,

scholars

schools- did

disbelief

That is why, ' to these

because

English

instructions to

it

introduced

European

instruction.

scientific

traditional

had

Sciences using -the English

only medium of

introduced a

British

a

children In

this

stagnant

and backward community 2 •

After the First War of became

the main

target

qf

Independence

in 1857,

the British who felt

Muslims were their real enemies

and most dangerous

For this reason, the British followed the policy harm_ to the Muslims and ·bringing an

end to

Muslims that

the

rivals.

of causing

their political

-

power.

They

deliberately

4_ -

plicies

adopted

which

could

bring about the _ruin of Muslim community and their intellectual

stagnation.

All

avenues

to

government services

closed to them. The educational policy was

also responsible 3

for the increase of unemployment among Muslims

In short, they lost their jobs

because of

in the administration and its policy, of

thier

the

language,

introduction

in India 4.

literature

of.

western

The Alleopathic

and

culture

and Jarrah and others

connected with

affecting

of the Muslims

In

the

and alienating

response

to reorient

to

Islamic

this

figures who shared his

an

Syed

started

institution

the

and

civilization

the the

of

introduced

Tabib,

Hakim

Arab

medicine.

pri vi_ledged

position

them to the modern values.

Sir

challenge,

values

of the Holy Quran . and he

Sir

to

economically

change

because

system of medicine

great damage

Thus.

the

they lost advantage cult-ure

by the British cuased

were

by

a

attracted

views.

With

Aligarh

at Aligarh for

liberal

Syed

attempted

interpretation

some of the prominent their vigorous

Movement.

He

imparting modern

support

established education

to his countrymen in general and Muslims in particular.

2. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY Under the circumstances, the Muslim community was constantly being relegated to the second

fiddle

loosing their

over the society, economy and polity of

the

command

state hitherto

- 5 almost monopolized by them. Besides. of

both

the

Muslims

and

tne

the

British

was· found to be widening day by day in policies

percieved

interest

but detrimentat~. to

on

the

one

~and,

Muslims in of

the

to

and

be

the Mutiny

on

this

distrust

the. colonial

Sir Syed

interests

of

distrust

on

the

of

the nineteenth· century.

and

f-ind

and

any

headway. in

the

solving

a

The

study

also

Muslims by

the

to provide

of

seeks

respite

in

back

general,

ground,

attempt

Movement of

to

the

explore

could

make

the Muslims

the Warto

the

in the later half

this

modest

comulative

lives· of

Indians

problems

cropped up. in the . aftermath of 1857.

the

Aligarh

the

the

day . to day

Given

to make

out whether

colonial

played

role

the Aligarh Movement

present study seeks

British

the

of

other

the _o.:t.her. _!n____or.der_. .to get. rid

sufferings

launched

the

their

to

Muslim community iri. particular and also to

perception each

view of

percieved

situation of mutual

effect of

the

in

about

subservient

the

gap

of

explore

that

Independence and

diagnose

as to whether the Aligarh Movement is still relevant to present day politics and society of India or not. In the

study makes

the philosophy the

an of

context of

attempt to make a Sir

the

fresh

Syed

and

his

Aligarh

present

day

society

and

the

fine,

evaluation

of

Movement

in

politics

of

India.

3. SURVEY OF THE EXISTING LITERATURES Sir Syed has in

India.

writing

on

As

been one such, Sir

of

the

most

there

has

been

Syed

and

his

controversial a

Aligarh

glaxy

of

Movement

thinkers scholars . taking

- (6 -

different him

approaches,

and

books 1

his

himself.

been

more

reports 1

published by

factual

achievements

and conferences new insights.

the

on

through

the

Many of

thus

a

and

number

making

number

letters 1

scholars

contains

failures

many other discussions

lenses

controversial •. A

information and

and

periodicals 1

These writings

_providing as

movement

articles 1

etc. have

perspectives

of

magazines

the of

founder

documents

on

the

Movement

as

of

the

Movement.

well _-.

Besides

the different organisations

Alig_arh

Movement

the writings

came

out

with

indicate -the positive

aspects of the Movement while others the negative.

A. A CRITICAL SURVEY OF 'THE WRITINGS OF Sir Syed. -Sir Syed of the

5 - --in his Asar-us-Sanadid discusses

forts 1

and round

to~s

1

mosques 1

minars

etc.

the of

details

the

Delhi

Delhi and the people of this place. In _· 6 a true 'Rah-e-Sunnat Wa Radd-e-Biddat• , he gives

his

about

spirit of

Islam.

Un-Islamic

It rejects

practices

the

prevailed

traditional in

the

customs

Muslim

and

society.

'Sharkashi~e-Zila Bijnour• 7 edited by Dr. Syed Moinul Haque deals with the. life and work of and

social

with a

the

reforms.

history

valuable

of

In the

information

the

Sir Syed Original

Bijnour about

the

and text

whcih

Rebellion. revolt

It of

Syed in his 'Asbab-e-Bagawat-e-Hind'S discusses the

causes

of

the

responsible for it. with

those

Muslims

revolt

of

1857

and

made

educational deals

contains 1857.

Sir

elaborately the

English

'The Loyal Moha.mniadan of India• 9 deals who- were

in

favour

of

the

British

- 7 and

loyal

to

them.

The

main

purpose

of

the

to reconcile and minimise the hostility between

.

he tries to dispel it in the light of

was

used

against

of

the

English

them in

was

the Muslims

Taheqeeq~e-Lafz-e-Nassara•

and the English. In his 'Risala

the misconception

paper

the

that

terms

of

Quran

the

and

word

10

Hadith

"Nasara"

hartrednesss

or

bad

intention.

The Scientific Societyn 11 contains the

0

In his dealing with

politics .and

of it was to unite the topics

deal

with

education.

Egnlish

and

educational

The

the

main

Indians.

problems

and

topics

objective The

other

solutions

of

the Muslims.

In his •Risala Ahkam Tuaam Ahle-Kitab• that . the Muslims no

rel~gious

can

bar

in

of Muhammad (PBH) n13 the book of to of 0

refute the

eat with 0

it Syed

allegations

Prophet

Muhammad

Tazib-ul-Akhlaqnl4

Sir

0

he

English and

discusses there was

Series of Essays of the Life

Ahmed

Sir William Muir the

the

12

wrote

in

response

Life of Mohammed".

He

labelled against

the

by

Muiro

Syed's

Sir

William

main

objective

social and moral reforms in the light of

western

to

tried

character In has

his been

scientific

knowledge. B.

AN OVERVIEW OF THE WORKS ON SIR SYED AND OTHER SOCIORELIGIOU AND POLITICAL WRITINGS.

Shan Mohammad in his 'The Aligarh Movement•: Basic Documents 16 Vol. I 15 and 'Writings and Speeches of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan provide

the

comprehensive

documents

-

of

the

Scientific

-

8. -

Society,

the Foundation

Coll~ge,

the Mohammedan Educational

lectures

etc -

refutues

the

that

of the

Muhammedan

Anglo-Oriental

Conference,

speeches,

shaped the Aligarh Movement.

notion

Dr. Shan

that Aligarh Movement had been anti-

national and unpatriotic and believes that it was a constructive

movement,

a

positive-

outlook and . secular in

nationalistic

venture,

In his

approach

book

in

'Sir Syed

Tarikhee Wa Siyasi Ayene Mein ,17 -he- dea-J:s--with th-e Aligarh Movement

with

and

tries

to

Sir

Syed.

In

its

refute his

the

a·1ograp·hy ·• 18

A P o l 1·t·1ca1

allegations

another

against

labelled

'Sir Syed Ahmad Khan :

work examines

he

systematically

background

historical

the

two

important

questions - what kind of education the Muslims in particular and others in general should take and why Sir Syed prevented them to join the Congress.

Aziz

Ahmad

in

his

. Env1ronment . ,19 the I n d 1an

'Studies in Islamic Culture in

provides

an

essential

insight

into an understanding of Pakistan or of the Muslim Minority in

India.

In his

another work

and Pakistan 1857-1964• growth

of

modernist

20

discusses

he

and

• Islamic Modernism in India

conservative

and

traces

religio-political

thought in Indo-Pakistan Is.lam and compares it with developments his

work

Aziz Ahmad

in

modern

Islamic

the

thinking

similar

elsewhere.

In

•An Intellectual History of Islam in India• examines

the

effect

on

Indian

Islam

of

21

its

interaction with Hinduism. Peter

Hardy

in

his

1

The Muslim of British India'

22

-

shows how the" interplay macy,

Islamic

social

and

of

alien

the

economic

m~mories

of

religious

9 -

aspirations- and

anxities

ruling

of past Muslim supre-

power

with

m'odern

Muslim

the· political

gradually

fostered

a

needs

seperate.

Muslim politics.

Ram

Go pal

• -H-J..story • 23

in J ayan t.1

an d

in Bengal 1855-f906•

'Indian Muslims - A Political

his

24

Ma1. t ra

. 1n

·h er

'Muslim Politics

and Francis Robinson in

tism Among Indian- Muslims •

25

his

Amlendu De in .' 26 of Separatism in Nineteenth Century Bengal' r Hamid

in

,

1858-1947 • 2 7 examine among the minority

the

Separatist

Pradip

as

Kumar he

political well

'Roots

and

as 'of

tendency

comrimni ty . throughout

of the nineteenth century.

the

his

Abdul

'Muslim Separatism in India : A brief Survey

his

1818-1947 • 28

• Separa-

in

into

intellectuals the

the

trends

second

half

/

Lahiri

takes

and

'Bengali Muslims Thought

consideration of

the

the

two major

British Government

in

role

of

communi ties

the

development

of Muslim political thought of Bengal.

K.M. gives of

a

Panikkar picture

of

in

'Common Sense About India•

new

India,

the national· movement

and

the

against

the

general

revival

29

he

background of

her

political and social life.

Bipan

dence'30 final

Chandra

deals

victory

with in

in the 1947.

his

• India • s Struggle for Indepen-

abortive It

revolt

dsicusses

of

1857

to

the

the

role

of

the

- 10 important leaders and analyses the role.of other significant strands

such as

the Revolutionary

Terrorists,

Socialists

and Communists and so on.

1 work Rebellion 1857 : Joshi in his edited 31 . A Symposium• . and Surendranath Sen in his ~1857• 32 and

P.C.

Nomani 3 4,

Metcalf 3 3,

Rizvi35,

Majumdar36

and

deal

with

the causes; character, and consequences of the 18 57

revel t;

its

of

impact on

the

culture

of

India

an

analysis

the

reaction abroad, both of the press and the public.

Marx-Engels in the_book 1857-1859• 37

present

a

1

The First War of Independence

prtifourid

scientific

analysis

the conquest and enslavement of India and notes

of

the variety

of forms and methods· of British colonial rule and exploitation.

Tara

Chand

in

his

in India • Vol.' I and Ir 38

'History of Freedom Movement

deals

and

economic

structure

of

the

impact of

the British Rule

with

the

18th on

the_ spc.i.o-political· Century

it and

India

the

and

trends

of '

Muslim political thought (1857-1905) has also been discussed·

Seikh Mohammed Ikram in 'Mauje Kausar'

39

,

he examines

the important religious, educational and national

movements

from 1800 AD to the last quarter of the 20th centuryo

G. India • 40

Aloysius he

evaluates

in

•Nationalism Without a Nation in

anti-caste,

non-Brahmin

and

other

- 11 -

socio-religious movements

in

a

new ' light

and

seeks

to

place them within mainstream history.

~.

Abid

Hussain

in

his

'Hindustani Musalman Ayene

Aiyyam Mein • 41 _examines the past history of

Indian Muslims

and tries to show as to how they can be useful. and

benefi-

cial to the Indian society.

Ranmohan

Gandhi

Mindi42. provides picture of through

the

the

a

in

his

deeply

Muslim

insightful

Community

biographical

'Understanding the Muslim and

comprehensive

in -India

and

of - eight

sketches

Pakistan prominent

Muslimso I.·'

s.

Abul Hasan Ali

Nadivi

deals with the - achievements

in his of

the

'Muslims in India• Muslim

scholars

43 in

our country and their contributions to the freedom struggle.

Al taf · Hussain K.H.

Qadiri

study of Khan.

Davi.d J.

&

life,

Abdul

Hali

work

Haq

in

in

hi-s

Matthews

and

• Hayat-e-Javed • 45 give a

activities

of

44

and

comprehensive

Sir

Syed

Ahmad 46 'Syed Ahmad Khan : Balat Wa Afkar'

and Nizami 47 , Ali 48 , Ansari 49 , Haq 50 , Hussain 51 , Muhammad(ed) 52 ,

Naqwee 53 ,

and Graham 57 discuss achievement of

Sir

Ziaurrahman 54 ,

about

Syed

and

the

life,

throws

Nizami 55 , work

light

on

Malik 56

thought the

and

impact

to the society. Nasim Qureshi in his edited work 58 Agaz Ta Imroj • , Mazhar Hussain in his

'Aligarh Tahreek: 'Aligarh Tehreek:

-~----

Samaj .Aur Siyasi Mutala

59

and

Ishrat

Ali

'The Aligarh Movement• 60 deal

with all

political,

economic

educational

and

Qureshi

in

her •

the aspects-social, the

of

Aligarh

·Movement. M.So

Jain

in

his

'Aligarh Movement : Its Origin

and Development 1858-1906 • 61 dicusses ·the aims

and

ideals ·

of the movement and presents its negative aspect mentioning .the movement as anti-national and anti-secular.

Gail Minail t in her 'The Khilafat Movement • the· cultural the of

and educational movements

Northern the

Indian · Muslim

nineteenth

elite

in

century and then

that the

62 . . ,exam1nes

arose last

analyses

among quarter

the Khilafat

Movement in detail.

Bashir Ahmad Dar in Ahmad Khan • 63 discusses thought

of

Sir

his

the

Syed · Ahmad

'Religious Thought of Sayyid

reinterpretation of

religious

Khan

to

and

attempts

offer

a positive contribution of him in this field.

Narhari

Kaviraj

of Bengal' 64 tried outburst

in

his

'Wahabi and Farazi Rebels

to prove that these were not

but they were

in

the

nature of peasant

communal risings

under a religious flag.

B.K.

Narayan

and Prospects • 65 and

critically '

gives

in a

examines

his

'Pan-Islamism : Background

few glimpses theological

interpretation of history of Islam.

in or

to

the

future

materialistic

- 13 -

w.

Kenneth

in

Jones

•socio-Religious Reform

his

Movements in British India • 66 examines

and

division between

arose without

those

movements

that

influenced by the new colonial world and those within

this

world ·and were

led by

the

discusses

that

individuals

being

emerged

influenced

by western culture.

Asghar Islam • 67

Ali

Engineer

examines

the

_in_

'Retbjnking Issues in

hi.s.

misconceptions

regarding Islam in the Muslim Community world and wants . rethinking

or

stereotypes

and and

the non-Muslim

reevaluating

of

Islam

on

the part of both the Muslim and the non-Muslims.

Atique

in

Siddiquee

Siyasi Mutala• 68 throws its light and activities

of

• Sir Syed Ahmad Khan: Ek

his

on

Sir Ahmad Khan

the political

and the

concept

thought of

the

word 'nation' has clearly been explained.

s .. Abul

Hasan Ali Nadvi in his 'Islam and the World•

examines the impact left by Islam on In

his

another

69

the world. of mankind.

'Muslim Mumalik Mein Islamiyat Aur

book

Magribiyat Ki Kashm Kash• 7 0

he

compares

examines

and

critically the Islamic Values and Western values. Shahid

Hussain

Razzaqui

in

his

.

'Afghanistan Ke

Pahle Mard-e-Majahid : Syed Jamaluddin Afghani'

71

.

d~scussess

the life, thought and activities of Syed Jamaluddin Afghani.

Anwar Moazzam

in

Afghani Ki_Naza~ Mein • 12

his

article

published

• Sir' Syed .: Jamaluddin in

Aligarh

Magazine,

- 14 gives

a

clear

idea

Jamaluddin Afghani

of

differences

and

also

between

clarifies

why

Sir

Syed

and

Sir

Syed

did

not support pan-Islamism.

Nafis · Bano

in

was Tanguidee Mutala • 73 topics of·

social,

the

she

critically

political,

periodical

Syed and

'Tah~bul-Akhlaq

her

examines

religious

Tahzib-ul-Akhlaque

also

includes

the

: Tahquiquee

the

and

different

educational-_

pub-1-i~hed

criticism

-by

made

Sir

by

its

opponents.

Charles Kurzman in

his

provides a valuable introduction Muslim

thinkers

for

.

to

thirty

understanding

74

• Liberal Islam • ·

edited work

two

significant

contemporary

Muslim

thought.

Shan

Muhammad

Politics ,75 the

deals

Aligarh

in

his

recent

with

the

socio-political

School

from

its

work

inception

day. At the out set, education was the but the

later

it

national

imbibed

the

movement

ideals

along

the

to

be

Nationalism Mahatma

and

history

to

goal

of

with

'Education

of

present achieved and

led

Ghandhi

and

other nationalists.

Asghar All.· with

the

· Eng1.neer

background

of

· 1.n

• Ind"1.an Mus 1·1ms •.76

revolt

1857

the Muslims and their problems. In ;tnd Muslims • 77 he

discusses

the

his

and

its

he

impact

another work

various

aspects

deals on

• Islam

of

Islam

and the Problems of Muslims. Jawaharlala

Nehru

in

his

'Discovery of India'78

~nd 'An Autobiography• 79 deals Indian history and about

his

- 15 life

respectively

but

he

critically

examined

in

·some

of the pages in both books about Sir Syed's Aligarh Movement and he supported and ,appreciated his movement.

Mohammad

Ziauddin

Syed Aur Aligarh Tahreek•

Ansari 80

in

he deals

study between Azad and Sir Syed and

'Maulana Azad, Sir

with the shows

the

comparative shortcomings

or Sir

Syed. Rafiudddin Ahmad in 'The ~engal Muslims 1871-1806 : A Quest for Identity• 81 he shows in the th±rt:King

,the

evolution ·of

Bengal. ·-rftekhar

mass

awareness Khan

-A~am

in

among

the

Muslims

of

'Sir Syed Aur Scientific

Society• 82 he discusses the origin, development and achievement of it in details.

P.N. Chopra.in 'Role of Indian Muslims• 83 and 1kram84 and Muhammad 85 ,they deal

with

the·

role

of

the

Muslims

in the freedom struggle of India.

Safia discusses

Amir

in

her

the concept of

'Muslim Nationhood in India•

nationahood

of

seven

86

thinkers,

Sir Syed is one of them who has been described ~s layalist.

Ram Gopal in 'How India Struggled for Freedom: A . 87 and Mehrotra 88 , Wedderburn 89 ,Andrews P o l ~•t•~ca 1 H~story• et e1 90 ,

and Azad91,

they

origin and development of

systematically the

congress

deal and

the

with

the

freedom

movement of India.

M:>hammad

Noman

in

his

'Modern India• 9 ?

168051

1 6 AUG 2004

discusses

- 16 -

,,

about how the Muslims passed through a 1857 to 1906. Zia-ul-Hassan Faruque in

S_choo~ and the Demand -for_. -Pakistari • 9 3 discusses . and explains the genesis to the demand of Indian Muslims for

great crisis from his 'The Deoband systematically· opposition and shows

of its Pakistan

a consistency in its anti-British attitude. S•K··~-..

and

Bhatnagar

Morison

94

in

'History of the M A 0 College' 95 'The History of theM A 0 College'. ,they.

in

deal with the history _and David

Lelyveld

and Muhammad97 and. Abdul~-~-'

Zakaria99

and

system~tically

Shan

they . deal

in

with

their

conciousness

the

College.

the

role

in the Aligarh Movement.

MuhammadlOO

about

the

. 96 'Aligarh's First Generat1on'

in

of prominent personalities

of

acbj ev.emen.ts

Rafiq

works

examine

the

Muslims

of

and their role in the freedom movment in India.

Allama

Sbaqueel

Arshalan

systematically discusses

in

the

. 101 'Asbab-e-Jawal-e-Ummat'

causes

for

the

decline

of

(

the Muslim community.

w.w.

Hunter

in

'Indian Musalmans• 102

examines

the

role of the Muslims in Wahabi Movement and their affitudes 103 towards the British Government. Wilfered c. Smith 104 also analyses the Muslim society in detailsG Metcalf Nadvi 105 , they

Baljon106

discuss

and

about

the

Badayauni~ 07 different

in

their

religious

works,

movements

and Sir Syed 's Aligarh Movement comprehensively. Badayauni, in

particular,

Syed.

K.A.

criticises

Nizami

University• 108

in

shows

the

religious

ideas

of

Sir

'Secular Tradition at Aligarh Muslim the

secular

approach

of

and secular practics within the campus elaborately.

Sir

Syed

- 17 Kaye 109 ,

Kaye

and

Metcalf,lll

Malleson,llO

Geavesll2 and Gahlibll3 in their works,

they

systematically

present the facts about the Revolt of 1857 and also

clarify

whether 1857 event is a Mutiny or a War of Independence. Prasad.ll4

Sharma, 115

writings,

they

in

Politics

Indian

discuss

and

about

though

Manglori 116

the

role

Manglori' s

in

of

the

writing

their Muslims

gives

the

picture of Muslim Politics before Indian Independence,l947.

Nafish

Ahmad

in

his

article

'Some Aspects of Sir

Syed Ahmad Khan's Political thought',117h.e the political role

of

Sir

Syed

and

d"1scusses.

he presents

a b out

the

logic

why he opposed the Indian National Congress.

Spearll8 and Sherwanill9 in their works, they systematically Mughals hidl20

discuss and he

about

the

Thaneshwari

discusses

cuases in

about

his

the

for

the

decline

of

the

'Islamic Tahrik Ka Muja-

role

of

the

Mujahids

in

the Wahabi Movement.

Desai

in

his

lism, 121 he shows

'Social Background of Indian Nationa-

· :: ..: scientifically the rise

of

conscious-

ness of the Indian people about nationalism" Metcalf he

does

not

in

his

give

a

work

'the After math of Revolt•,

comprehensive

1857 to 1870. It is rather an of

the Mutiny

India in the

for

years

the that

Indian

history

analysis Empire

followed.

Land

of and

of

India

the

122

from

significance

the

people

of

settlement policy,

social reform, education, the money lender and

the

of tenant, the structure of the Government, relation

position with

- 18 the

Indian

are all

states

examined

and

in

the

turn; . ·-

growth

and

of

the

racial

impact

sentiment

and

influence

.

of the Mutiny on the people are assessed in detail.

4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY However,

the

review

on the Aligarh Movement are c·onfined to the

of

shows

the

literature

available

that most of the

literature

historical

description

and

development

uf-the:---cMovement. Hardly, there has been any serious research work focussing and its

exclusively on the

relevance

Tn fact,

to

most of

the

the

and

hence,

studies

present day

schol·ars

Aligarh Movement appear

to

ideologically

are

found

to

of the Movement as

impact of the Movement society and polity.

studying Sir Syed and the

contribute with a prejudiced.

be

devoid

of

biased

Thus

most

objective

also an · assessment

of

lense

of

the

evaluation

the

relevance

of the Movement and the ideas of its founder to the present day politics an attempt to

and

society.

identify

o:n the Movement and gap

M~vement.

a

hence,

by. contributing

knowledge

fresh

on

the

In

fact,

insight

the

and

through

the

present

gap in the seeks

to

enriching

impact the

Thus,

study

chair of knowledge

fulfill the

that research

existing

and

relevance

of

present

study

seeks

an

objective

makes

body

of

the

Aligarh

to

provide

assessment

of · the

Aligarh Movement in general and Sir Syed in particular.

5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK As been a

the

review

of

literature

large number

of

scholarly

e

suggests, works

on

there the

have

Aligarh

19' :_

Movement and

the

and

rationality.

the

extreme poles

Either most

they

contribution of

works,

in

terms

of

the

theoretical

Sir Syed

and

his

while

timely others

and

of

denounce

the

main,

immense the

of

the

from

the

society and

finds

any

vintage point of

the

As

the

Sir

subsercircums-

to provide

the Movement study viewing

the

along

the class character of the movement.

and

that was

be adequate

its· character

as

movement

any objective and comprehensive explanation of and its impacte Again scarc~ly one

framework.

contemporary

vient to the interests of British India. Under tances both these framework seem to

occupy

movement

Syed as un-Islamic, anti-national and one

the movement

liberation

these

e·.rilogise

in

to

But

outstanding,

relevance

Sir Syed

configration

with

such,

dissecting

the proposed

·S'tudy seeks to undertake the aforesaid theoretical framework ,t0 :nake .an ind•:pt.h and

cot

objective assessment of

the ;movement a:1d its impact .3!1.<±\.i ;r~l_eva:p_Cfu to

the the

nature con tem-

porary society as well as to the present day society.

6. RESEARCH QUESTIONS. Given the broad obje•::tive outlined

above

the present

study seeks to address to the following research questions. 1~

What were

the

long

term and

im11edia·te resons

that

led to t-he launching of the Aligarh Move:n•:nt ? 2~

\Wha't wa:s

the

the Aligarh Movement

relationship o:t

the

pan-Islamism, Indian National

one

b•;tw•=::m ha:1d

Congress

Sir

and and

Syed

and

Wahab.:l..sm

and

the

non-Muslims

- -2-0 -

on the other ? 3.

What was

the

impa.ct of

tae

Aligarh

Movemen-t

on

the contemporary society and polity of India ? What

4.

the

ideas

is of

the Sir

relevance of Syed

on

the Aligarh Movement

the . present·

day

society

and and

politics in India ?

7. METHODOLOGY .•

Given specific

the

broad

research

objective

questions,

of · the

the

study

present

and

the

is

an

study

exploratory type research and as such, the specific methodological

design

appropriate

been followed. As

per

research

the

exclusive

design,

survey of

of writings

and

the

stay

fro

a

into

of

long

time

contact

of

some

Sir Syed

of

these

in

provided

well

informal

on

present

with

Sir Syed as

a as

but and

a his

personalities t~e

answering

more objective lated fresh

requirements

of

research

the

Sir Syed

collected

rare

number

of

Aligarh Sir

form

Besides,

in· Aligarh opportunity

of ·leading

itself to

Movement

and The

a

Syed were

come

authorities

personalities

knowledge

valuable

on

the

and. secondly written

researcher

number a

through

the Aligarh Movement,

the

has

exploratory

literature both primary in

speches

the

exploratory

informations were

by scholars on Sir Syed and the

for

of

on

having

experience experiences help

immense

research questions and making the research

and

exhaustive

insights

on

both

as

these

the

experiences

Aligarh

stimu-

Movement

and

- 21 ':__

Sir Syed • However, . within the of

exploratory

research,

was mostly relied upon was

broad methodological

the the

specific

design

·technique

content analysis.

As

that such,

apart from utilising the experiences of a number·of porsonali ties

oh

the Aligarh Movment and

identifying _some

significant insight

Sir

on the analysis

and

as

well

as

stimulating instances

during the researcher's stay at Aligarh, was

Syed

interpretation

exclusive reliance of

writings

and

documents available in various libraries, centres, academics and from personal collections, while analysing and interpreting the

contents· utmost· care

objective •.

was

taken

to

make

them ·

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7. Khan, Sir Syed Ahmad

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1958 {-Reprinted). 9. Khan, Sir Syed Ahmad

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Nawal

Kishore

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Sir

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pub-

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CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION The Aligarh Movement - Shodhganga

CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION The Aligarh Movement. markes of modern India. leadership .of It was Sir changes in social, Muslims in India have ...

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