CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter presents introduction. It consists of seven subchapters. They are (a) Background of the Research, (b) Research Problem, (c) Objectives of the Research, (d) Significance of the Research, (e) Scope and Limitation of the Research, (f) The Formulation of Hypothesis, (g) Definition of Key Terms. A.
Background of the Research English is the first foreign language taught to the students of
Elementary school. Teaching English in the Elementary school has been accepted in Indonesia in line with the government’s plan on the nine year basic education. In the elementary school, English is to be taught as one of the local content. Although English in Elementary School is not as main subject, it must learned earlier. The aim of teaching English in the elementary school is to motivate them to be ready and have self-confident in learning English at higher level of education. The students of elementary school just learn English in the simple pattern (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) since they learn it for the first time. Studying a language cannot be separated from studying vocabulary. It is very essential to improve the four language skills that are very useful in conducting communication and studying other language. By learning vocabulary first, learners will be able to communicate in English.
Besides languange skills, English has language components such as vocabulary, sentence structure, pronunciation, and spelling. Therefore, it is important for teachers to teach vocabulary in context. Related to vocabulary, students do not only need to know and understand the meaning of the word clearly, but also can use the vocabulary in sentences. It is known that vocabulary is the basic competence that must be mastered by student in order to be proficient in other competencies such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking. It is difficult to master the other competences without mastering and understanding the vocabulary. Vocabulary is one of the language components that needs to be mastered when students are learning English. Without having enough vocabulary, the students will have difficulties to know the meaning of what they listen and read as well as to express their aim in communication (Kusumaningrum and Cahyono, 2011: 127). Besides, vocabulary is one of the important aspects that must be obtained by students during learning English as a foreign language. Vocabulary plays an important role in learning a language. It is known that having limited vocabulary would limit the students in using the English skills covering listening, writing, speaking, and reading. Mastering vocabulary is not easy, yet other aspects of the language are considered as sound, and structure. Vocabulary is one of the most important elements in language. To speak the language well needs to master
it. No matter how well you learn grammar, how successfully the sound of the foreign language just cannot happen in any meaningful way. The world of elementary school students is still full of enjoyable activities. Teaching vocabulary to the elementary school students is not an easy task since it requires a lot of creativity. It is important to make students interest in learning vocabularies. There are several possible ways to introduce the vocabulary of a foreign language to students. To attract the students' motivation in learning vocabulary especially young learners, the teachers should use a variety of techniques or strategy and also media. Vocabulary presented in a familiar context and systemised manner with visual support seems important for memorization; using the senses, games, songs, stories and rhymes are effective ways of practicing language (Brewster et al in Dochart, 2010:101). It means that we must choose the strategy or media that appropriate to use in teaching vocabulary. One of medias that can be used in teaching vocabulary is Scrabble game. This media is designed to create students’ interest to learn with pleasant. In playing Scrabble game, it is played by two to four players. The players use their mastered vocabulary to arrange words. The previous studies about knowing the effectiveness of media or strategy in teaching vocabulary have been conducted by two researchers. From those previous studies, the researcher can take lessons and also their discrepancies on the basis of the found gabs, the recent study is done.
The first study was conducted by Duri (2013) from STAIN Tulungagung entitled “The use of bilingual crossword puzzle game to improve students’ vocabulary achievement of fifth grades in MI Salafiyah – Selopuro academic year 2012-2013”. It was found that the students’ achievement in vocabulary after being taught by using bilingual crossword puzzle wa better than before and the students got good achievement in vocabulary after being taught by using bilingual crossword puzzle. The second study was conducted by Saputra (2011) with the title “Reinforcing students’ vocabulary through scrabble game”. These research used CAR (Classroom Action Research), and had result that scrabble game can reinforce student’s vocabulary mastery. It has proven that there is a significant difference of the students’ achievement in mastering English vocabulary by using Scrabble game. Meanwhile the researcher wants to conduct a study with the same media that is scrabble game, but it is use experimental study. The subject of the study also different, it is the students of the fifth grade at SDN 1 Prigi. The researcher choose SDN 1 Prigi because students in it school had average proficiency. Based on the explanation above, the researcher intended to conduct an experimental research to know whether the scrabble game is effective or not as media used in teaching vocabulary under the title “THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SCRABBLE GAME TOWARD STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY OF THE FIFTH GRADE AT SDN 1 PRIGI, WATULIMO, TRENGGALEK.”
Research Problem Based on the background above the problem can be formulated as follow. 1. How is the students’ vocabulary mastery before being taught by using scrabble game? 2. How is the students’ vocabulary mastery after being taught by using scrabble game? 3. Is there any significant difference score between the students’ vocabulary mastery before and after being taught by using scrabble game?
Objective of the Research Based on the research problems above, the objectives of the research are: 1. To know the students’ vocabulary mastery before being taught by using scrabble game. 2. To know the students’ vocabulary mastery after being taught by using scrabble game. 3. To know whether there is any significant difference score between the students’ vocabulary mastery before and after being taught by using scrabble game.
Significance of the Research The researcher hopes that the results of this study are useful for: 1. The School This strategy can help English teaching learning, especially improving students’ vocabulary using scrabble game in English lesson for the fifth grade SDN 1 Prigi, Watulimo, Trenggalek. 2. The English Teacher The result of this study can be used by the English teacher as reference and feedback for the effectiveness in teaching vocabulary. 3. The other researchers This study can be used as a reference for developing learning model which effective, efficient, fun which involving students actively in English learning process to improve student’s vocabulary.
Scope and Limitation of the Research The study is intended to know the effectiveness of scrabble game in teaching vocabulary. The study is done at SDN 1 Prigi. Only one class for the sample, that is the Fifth B class at SDN 1 Prigi, Watulimo Trenggalek.
The Formulation of Hypothesis The study belongs to quantitative approach in which the data are in the forms of numbers or scores and they are analyzed statistically.
That is way, the researcher needed to formulate hypothesis. There are two hypotheses formulated in this study; Null Hypothesis (H0) and Alternative Hypothesis (H1). In this study the H0 is there is no significant difference score between students’ score before and after being taught by using scrabble game. Meanwhile, the H1 is there is significant difference between students’ score before and after being taught by using scrabble game.
Definition of Key Terms In order to avoid ambiguity and misunderstanding of the terms used, the writer gave the definition of the terms as follows: 1.
Media Media is something that is used to send a message from the
sender (teacher) to the receiver (students) to reach the teaching and learning objectives. 2.
Vocabulary Vocabulary is a total number of words that (with rules for
combining them) make up the language. 3.
Scrabble Game Scrabble is a game played on a board covered in squares in
which players win points by creating words from letters with different values and connecting these words with ones already on the board.
Vocabulary mastery Vocabulary mastery is an ability to use words in conducting
communication, and students understand the set of words.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter is presented to highlight some theories functioning as the basis of the research. It covers about vocabulary, media, and game. The explanation of each literature is explained briefly as follows: A.
VOCABULARY 1. The Definition of Vocabulary Vocabulary is one of the language components that needs to be
mastered when students are learning English. Nunan (1999:101) states that vocabulary is more than lists of target language words. As part of the language system, vocabulary is intimately interrelated with grammar. In fact, it is possible to divide the lexical system of most languages into “grammatical words,” such as prepositions, articles, adverbs, and so on. Vocabulary refers to as nouns, verbs, etc. words which carry meaning even out of context (Brewster and Ellis in Hughes and Taylor 2010:85). According to Hornby (1974:959), vocabulary is a total number of words that (with rules for combining them) make up the language. According to lexical field theory, the vocabulary of a language is essentially a dynamic and well-integrated system of lexemes structured by relationships of meaning (Howard Jackson, 2000: 14). Websters (1988:110 p.9) states that vocabulary is a list of words, usually arranges alphabetically and defined, explained, or translated.
Vocabulary can be defined as the words of a language, including single items and phrases or chunks of several words which covey a particular meaning, the way individual words do. Vocabulary addresses single lexical items—words with specific meaning(s)—but it also includes lexical phrases or chunks. Vocabulary is not syllabus, i.e., a list of words that teachers prepare for their learners to memorize and learn by heart. (www.qsm.ac.il/asdarat/.../7/abdalkareemfinal.pdf access on April, 11st 2013)
2. The Importance of Vocabulary Teaching English vocabulary is an important area worthy of effort and investigation. Recently methodologists and linguists emphasize and recommend teaching vocabulary because of its importance in language teaching. Vocabulary is needed for expressing meaning and in using the receptive (listening and reading) and the productive (speaking and writing) skills. (Harmer in Igbaria, 2013:49). Teaching vocabulary is an obviously very important element within a language as the overwhelming majority of meaning is carried lexically. An extensive vocabulary aids expression and communication. Vocabulary is central to English language teaching because without sufficient vocabulary students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Wilkins (1972) wrote that “. . . while without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed” (pp.
111–112). Lewis (1993) went further to argue, “Lexis is the core or heart of language” (p. 89). Particularly as students develop greater fluency and expression in English; it is significant for them to acquire more productive vocabulary knowledge and to develop their own personal vocabulary learning strategies. In here, some kinds of the significant in teaching vocabulary for the students, they are:
comprehension. 2. Linguistic vocabulary is synonymous with thinking vocabulary. 3. A person may be judged by others based on his or her vocabulary. 4. Wilkinson (1972) once said," Without grammar, very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed." (http://bk_eltd_vocabulary_974.pdf access on December, 7th 2014).
3. Types of Vocabulary According to Jackson (2002:28), there are two kinds of vocabulary, active vocabulary and passive vocabulary. a.
Active Vocabulary The active vocabulary means the words that you use in your own speech and writing.
Passive Vocabulary The passive vocabulary means the words that you recognize and can make sense of in the speech and writing to other people.
4. The Goals of Vocabulary Learning According to Nation (2001: 380), the goals of the vocabulary component of a course will be to increase learners’ usable vocabulary size and to help learners gain effective control of a range of vocabulary learning and coping strategies. ‘Usable’ vocabulary size implies that learners need to not only increase the vocabulary they know but also develop the fluency and skill with which they can use that vocabulary in the relevant language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Similarly, ‘effective control’ of strategies implies that learners need to only learn appropriate strategies but be confident and fluent in their use. The goals of vocabulary learning according to Nation (2001: 395) are: a. Principle 1: Learners should know what vocabulary to learn, what to learn about it, how to learn it, how to put it to use and how to see how well it has been learned and used. b. Principle 2: Learners should continue to increase their vocabulary size and enrich the words they already know.
c. Principle 3: Learners should use word frequency and personal need to determine what vocabulary should be learned. d. Principle 4: Learners should be aware of what it is involved in knowing a word and should be able to find that information about particular words. e. Principle 5: Learners should be familiar with the generalizable language systems that lie behind vocabulary use. f. Principle 6: Learners should know how to make the most effective use of direct, decontextualized learning procedures. g. Principle 7: vocabulary learning needs to operate across the four strands of meaning-focused input, language-focused learning, meaning-focused output and fluency development. h. Principle 8: Learners should be aware of, and excited by, their progress in vocabulary learning.
MEDIA 1. The Definition of Media Gerlach and Elly define the definition of media as cited in “Media Pembelajaran” (Arsyad, 2009: 3) as any person, material, or event that establishes conditions which enable students to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes. According to Asnawir & Usman (2002: 11) Media is something which have the nature to deliver the message and stimulate mind, emotion and audience’ willingness
(student) hence it can encourage the occur of learning process on them self. From the definition above, it can be concluded that media are tools or materials which are used to send message to the students and stimulate them to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
Kinds of Media
Susilana & Riyana (2008: 13-23) classified 7 groups of teaching media: 1. Group One: Media Graphics, And Image Print Materials a. Graphics Media Graphic Media is a visual medium that presents facts, ideas, or ideas through the presentation of words, phrases, numbers, and symbols / images. Graphics are usually used to attract attention, clarify the presentation of ideas, and illustrating facts so interesting and memorable people. Which includes graphic media include: charts, diagrams, charts, sketches, posters, flannel boards, bulletin board. b. Materials Print Media Materials print media are making visual media through the printing process / printing or offset. This materials print media presenting its message through letters and pictures that illustrated to further clarify the message or information presented. The print media type materials are: textbooks, modules and programmed instructional materials
c. Image Media Media still images is a visual medium that is an image that is generated through the process of photography. Media type noodles image is a photograph.
Group Two: Silent Projection Media Silent projection media is projected visual media or projecting mecfta message, where the results of the projection do not move nor has a few elements of movement. These media types including: OHP / OHT, Opaque Projector, Slide, and Film-strip. a. OHT and OHP Media OHT (Overhead Transparency) is a visual medium that is projected through a projection tool called OHP (overhead projector). OHT is made of a transparent material that typically measuring 8.5 x 11 inches. b. Opaque Projector Media Opaque projector media is used to project media materials and objects that are not transparent, such as books, photographs, and models either two-dimensional or three-dimensional. c. Slide Media Slide media or film frame is a visual medium that is projected through a device called a slide projector. Slides or film frame is made of a positive film which is then given a frame made of
cardboard or plastic. Positive film used for slide film is positive film with a size of 35 mm frame size 2x2 inches. A slide program typically consists of several frames which many depend on the material / material to be delivered. d. Filmstrip Media Filmstrip or movie or movies rope bracelet is silent visual media projection, which is basically similar to the media slide. Only filmstrip consists of several films that constitute a unity (a bracelet, in which the one end with the other end unified). 3. Group Three: Audio Media Audio media is media that communicates its message which can only be received by the sense of hearing. Messages or information to be presented poured into auditory symbols in the form of words, music, and sound effects. This audio media types including: radio media and magnetic tape media recording devices. 4. Fourth Group: Silence Audio Visual Media Silent audiovisual media is media that communicates its message can be received by the sense of hearing and sense of sight, but the resulting image is a still image or a bit has an element of motion. These media types include sound media slide (slide sound), silent film strips, and voiced pages.
5. Group Five: Film (Motion Pictures) The film is also called live images (motion pictures), which is a series of still images (still pictures) that glides quickly and projected so that the impression of living and moving. Film is a medium that presents the audiovisual message and motion. Therefore, the film gives the impression that impressive for the audience. There are several types of films, including silent film, silent movie, and the movie ends bracelets are contiguous and projections do not require darkening the room. 6. Group Six: Television Television is a medium that can show audiovisual messages and motion (the same as the movie). Television media types including: open television (open broadcast television), limited broadcast television / TVST (Cole Circuit Television / CCTV), and video-cassette recorder (VCR). 7. Group Seven: Multi Media Understanding the multimedia often confused with the notion of multi-image. Multimedia is a delivery system by using different types of learning materials that make up a unit or package. For example, a learning module consisting of printed materials, audio materials, and audiovisual materials, while multiimage is a combination of several types of visual projections are
combined again with a strong audio components, so it can be held great performances suitable for presentation in a large auditorium. 3.
The Function of Teaching Media Media have some contributions to the learning process.
According to Kemp and Dayton (1985:3-4), instructional media offer the various advantages, i.e., the delivery of instruction can be more interactive, the length of time required for instruction can be reduced, the quality of learning can be improved, the instruction can be provided when and where desired or necessary, the positive attitude of students toward what they are learning and to the learning process itself can be enhanced, and the role of the instructor can be appreciably changed in positive directions. From the explanations above, media can make help teachers to present their message and information to their students easily. It also can make teaching and learning process more interesting, so that students study enthusiastically.
C. GAME 1.
The Definition of Game
A game is an activity in which participants follow prescribed rules that differ from those of reality as they strive to attain a challenging goal (Heinich et al., 1990: 330). According to Hadfield in Cahyono & Mukminatien (2011: 40) a game is an activity with rules, a goal and an
element of fun. As the classroom activities, the element of fun from a game functions to interest the learning process. Language games are not activities mainly aimed to break the ice between students or kill time. The game is to be used as practice exercises to help students get used to and remember grammatical rules and pattern. Therefore, game can be described as fun activity, individually or in team, which has rules, goals, and involves forms of skill. Game involves many factors such as rules, competition, relaxation, and learning in particular. All of these have their certain important focus when the game is applied in the classroom. The rules should be explained clearly by the teacher and they should be well understood by the students. To help the students understand the rules, the rules can be followed by demonstration. Besides that, competition as a part of the game is very important in the classroom, because it can stimulate students to be more active and encourage them to participate in the activity since naturally the want to beat the other teams. Students can learn and play at the same time; they can learn in a fun and relax way. On the other hand,game provides an opportunity for real communication for the students. From the statement above, it can be concluded that game should not be considered only as amusing activity in the process of language learning. But on the other hand, it should be regarded as the part of
language syllabus, since it can be applied as an effective strategy of language practice.
The Kinds of Game
Motivation has to come from another source and from the enjoyment and also from pleasure experienced in learning situation. Based on the reason above, the teacher should classify the types of games which are suited to the learning process. Tyler has classification, the games or game like activities students engage themselves to help the main developing different abilities each, with obvious overlaps in some cases
of-play-for-education-and-language-development/ ) accessed at January 26th 2015, as follows: a. Conceptual Games These are games which develop one or more cognitive abilities in the child. These include the ability to categorize, identify similarities or differences of use, property, weight (singly or in combination), understand and express the notion of time. b. Visual Perceptual Tasks These games which help the child develop abilities similar to the above (perceiving similarities or differences) but mainly through the visual channel. They also help the child understand space,
size, relative location and color. Pictures and jigsaw puzzles are typical examples in this category. c. Auditory Perceptual Tasks These are games or game like activities which concentrate on developing abilities similar to the above. But, mainly through acoustic channel and help the child develop auditory perception skills. d. Fine Motor Tasks These are any type of activity which involves children in developing motor skills, coordinating movement, such as tracing a route through a maze, or chasing around a design, filling it in with color are typical examples. e. Artistic Activities An activity which aims to develop the child’s awareness of the world of arts. Drawing, painting, making collages are good examples. f. Material Play Any play which involves children in manipulating materials, such as clay, sand, water, plastic, in which the children mood or change the shape of it. Making plasticine animals or making sand castles on the beach or in the sand belong to this category.
g. Physical Play This activity includes running, wrestling, rolling around the floor, playing hide-and-seek and helps children become aware of their body, its potential and its limitation. h. Representational Object Play This type of play involves the use of small objects symbolizing the real world, such as toy cars, zoo animals, dolls. Trough these, the child can interact and learn more about the world and the working. i. Fantasy Play Any kind of play in which the child steps out of this world and enters the world of make believe, e.g. playing house or playing teacher. These games help the child consolidate knowledge and awareness of patterns of behavior of the adult world, and the interactive skills that go with them, rehearsing as it were for a time when s/he will have to perform similar roles as an adult.
The Advantages of Using Games in Teaching Learning
According to Kim (1995: 35) there are many advantages of using games in the classroom: 1. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class. 2. They are motivating and challenging.
3. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning. 4. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading. 5. They encourage students to interact and communicate. 6. They create a meaningful context for language use. There are some reasons why teachers use games in classroom: a. The first reason behind the use of games is that they can be a good activity from the usual routine in the classroom. b. Next, they motivate and challenge students. What is more, students make a big effort in learning a language. c. Furthermore, games help students to sustain this effort of learning and develop language skills such as writing, listening, speaking and reading. d. The last reason to use games is that students are encouraged by games to communicate and interact, and games are a good way of creating a meaningful context for language use (Kim, 1995: 35). There are many advantages of the using game in the classroom, game can creates relax atmosphere in the classroom so the students will more enjoy in comprehending the material. But it must be remembered, that game like any other activity can be bored when we use it too much. Terefore, the teacher should choose the game by considering about the student's needs and interests. Well chosen games are available as they
give students a break, and allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating providing they are amusing and at the same time challenging.
D. SCRABBLE GAME 1.
The Definition of Scrabble game Scrabble is a board game played with two to four players with
the players using their vocabulary to create words. They can make a word from 7 letters given to each player to put on an available scrabble board in the game. One of the players must get the highest score to win the game. (www.gamehouse.com). In Cambridge Advanced Learner’s dictionary Third edition, scrabble is a game played on a board covered in squares in which players win points by creating words from letters with different values and connecting these words with ones already on the board. In Oxford Advanced dictionary (1985), scrabble is a board game in which players try to make words from letters printed on small plastic blocks and connect them to words that have been already placed on the board. Scrabble is a word game in which two to four players score points by placing tiles, each bearing a single letter, onto a game board which is divided into a 15×15 grid of squares. The tiles must form words which, in crossword fashion, flow left to right in rows or
downwards in columns. The words must be defined in a standard dictionary. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrabble access on March, 7th 2015)
The Rules of Playing Scrabble Game
To play scrabble game needs rules to play it. The rules of playing the scrabble game as follows. a. Determine the discussion subject that will be used in the game. b. Place every stones, face to down and stir it. Then, determine who is the first player, every player takes a stone and who gets the letter “A” or the nearest of it, so he is the first player. And then, return the stone and stir it. Now every player takes 8 stones. c. By using that stones in the particular time, the first player creates a word on the board. The word can be placed from left to the right or from above downward and the first word must past the * (center of the board). d. The player finishes his return by accounting the number that he achieves in his return. Then, he takes the new stone as many it has already used. So, he still has 8 stones on his hand. e. The player uses the time in the game is one minute to create the word. f. The new words can be formed by:
1. Adding one or more of the letter in one word of the letter has already put on the board. 2. Putting the letters crossly in a word or letter that has already on the board. 3. Placing a word in an equal line that has already on the board, with the result that create a complete word. g. The player can use empty stones to change the letter that he wants. And he must say it. h. Every player can use his turn to change the stones and take the new stones in an equal number. Then, he waits his turn to play the game. i. All words which exists in dictionary can be used except the special name which started by capital letter and abbreviations. Check the word with dictionary whether it corrects or not. j. The game is going on until all of the stones finished and one of the players has used all his stones. k. The scores of each player can be assisted the letter’s score that has already been on the board. (http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/bitstream/123456789/282/1/1 01620-ANDI%20SAPUTRA%20TANJUNG-FITK.pdf December 18th 2013)
E. PREVIOUS STUDY The previous studies about knowing the effectiveness of media or strategy in teaching vocabulary have been conducted by two researchers. From those previous studies, the researcher can take lessons and also their discrepancies on the basis of the found gabs, the recent study is done. The first study was conducted by Duri (2013) from STAIN Tulungagung entitled “The use of bilingual crossword puzzle game to improve students’ vocabulary achievement of fifth grades in MI Salafiyah – Selopuro academic year 2012-2013”. It was found that the students’ achievement in vocabulary after being taught by using bilingual crossword puzzle wa better than before and the students got good achievement in vocabulary after being taught by using bilingual crossword puzzle. The second study was conducted by Saputra (2011) with the title “Reinforcing students’ vocabulary through scrabble game”. These research used CAR (Classroom Action Research), and had result that scrabble game can reinforce student’s vocabulary mastery at Junior High school. It has proven that there is a significant difference of the students’ achievement in mastering English vocabulary by using Scrabble game. Meanwhile the researcher wants to conduct a study with the same media that is scrabble game, but it is use experimental study. The subject of the study also different, it is the students of the fifth grade at SDN 1 Prigi.
This chapter presents the research method. It focuses the method used in conducting this study which covers (a) research design, (b) population and sample, (c) variable data, (d) data source, (e) validity and reliability testing, (f) data collecting method and instruments, and (g) technique of data analysis, (h) hypothesis testing.
A. Research Design Research is defined as the application of the scientific approach to the study of a problem. It is a way to acquire dependable and useful information. This study belonged to experimental study. According to Cohen et al., (2007: 272) the essential feature of experimental research is that investigators deliberately control and manipulate the conditions which determine the events, in which they are interested, introduce an intervention and measure the difference that it makes. An experiment involves making a change in the value of one variable – called the independent variable – and observing the effect of that change on another variable – called the dependent variable. An experimental usually involves two groups of subject, an experimental group and a comparison group, although it is possible to conduct an experiment with one group. Practically, this study used preexperimental design with one group which was given pre-test and post-
test. In the pre-test and post-test group the observation was done two times, before giving treatment called pre-test and after giving treatment called post-test.
A diagram of One Group Pre test – Post test design: Y1 Pretest
The procedure of experimental research that use One group pretest – posttest design were: 1. Administering a pretest with a purpose measuring vocabulary mastery of Fifth grade students at SDN 1 Prigi. 2. Applying the experimental teaching vocabulary by using scrabble game as a strategy to the subjects (Fifth Grade students at SDN 1 Prigi). 3. Administering a posttest with a purpose of measuring vocabulary mastery of Fifth Grade Students at SDN 1 Prigi. Difference attributed to the application of the experimental treatment was determined by comparing the pretest-and posttest scores. The effectiveness of the strategy is known after knowing the significant differences between the students who were taught before and after applying scrabble game activity.
B. Population and Sampling A population consists of an entire set of object, observation, or scores that have something in common. Arikunto (2013:173) in Encyclopedia of educational Evaluation population is a set (collection) of all elements processing one or more attributes of interest. A population consists of entire set of objects, observation, or scores that have something in common. It is the entire group the researcher is interested, which he or she wants to describe or draw conclusion about. The populations of this study were all the fifth grade at SDN 1 Prigi, there was two classes, class A and B. Then, the term sampling as used in research refers to the process of selecting the individuals who will participate (e.g . , be observed or questioned) in a research study (Fraenkel and Wallen 2005:111). Sampling is also way the researcher select the number of individuals as a sample which represents the population. In this research, the researcher used purposive sampling technique. The researcher took one class of two classes from the Fifth Grade Students of SDN 1 Prigi, exactly Fifth B class, because they had average proficiency in studying English. There were 33 students consist of 13 boys and 20 girls.
C. Variable of the Study Variable is the object of the research of the problem which emphasized in research. According to Arikunto (2013:161), variable is
research subject or as to focuses some research. Based on the title, the research had two kinds of variables, they were: a.
Independent variable (X) Independent variable is a variable in which is observer the side
effect. Independent variable can appear and exist by itself without any other supported. It influences and gives special effects. In this study, the independent variable was scrabble game (X) to teach vocabulary. b.
Dependent variable (Y) Dependent variable is a variable that emerge in function
relationship influenced by independent variable. Dependent variable in this study was students’ score in vocabulary.
D. Data and Data source Data is the kinds of information researchers obtain on the subjects of their research (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2005:112). In this study the data were the students’ scores taken from the pretest and posttest. For the data were in the form of numbers, the data belonged to quantitative data. Meanwhile the data source is subject where the data can be taken (Arikunto, 2013: 161). In this study, the data source was students’ works in administering pretest and posttest.
E. Validity and Reliability Testing Researcher is always dependent upon measurement. There are two important characteristics that every measuring instrument should go through a process of validity and reliability check. 1.
Validity Fraenkel and Wallen (2005:113) states that a valid instrument is
that it measures what it is supposed to measure. Validity is the most important idea to consider when preparing or selecting an instrument for use. These are four types of validity; 1) Content validity, 2) Criterion related validity, 3). Construct validity, 4). Face validity. In this research, to measure whether the test has a good validity, the researcher analyzed the test from content validity and construct validity. a. Content validity is about what actually goes into the test. To have content validity, test content must be seen as representative of the subject area being covered. In achievement test, for example, the course content must clearly be represented in test itself (Johnson, 2001: 301). A test is said to have content validity if its contents constitutes a representative sample of the language skills, structures, etc. being tested. It is obvious that vocabulary test must be made up of items testing knowledge of vocabulary. So, content validity is the correspondence between curriculum objectives and objectives being assessed. The instrument of this research
had a content validity since the test was designed based on the SK-KD in KTSP 2006. b. Construct validity. A test, part of a test, or a testing technique is said to have construct validity if it can be demonstrated that it measures just the ability which it is supposed to measure because the word “construct” In this study the researcher administered a vocabulary test in two kinds of test formats. In the form of C-Test and matching test. The CTest is really a variety of cloze which is considered superior to the general cloze procedure. The test was given to ask students to complete vocabulary of the deleted letters. Meanwhile the matching test, students asked to match the word of source language to target language. Both of them are appropriate for testing vocabulary.
Reliability A test, like any other type of instrument used to measure, should
give the same results every time it measures (if it is used under the same conditions), and should be practical to use (Brown, 1996:185). In order to measure the reliability of the test items, the researcher used the KR-20 formula because this formula requires test administration only once and the scoring is one correct answer is given point 1., while incorrect answer is given 0, thus this formula is appropriate for calculating the reliability of multiple choice test form. In addition,
Fraenkel and Wallen (2005:156) stated that KR-20 doesn’t require the assumption that all items are of equal difficulty. KR-20 formula
r 11 =
where, r11 = reliability coefficient n = number of test items = standard deviation
p1 = the right response q1 = the wrong response
After calculating the reliability ofthe test items, the reseracher classified the reliability coefficient which taken from Sudjiono (1996: 209230), as the follows:
Table 3.1. Classification of Reliability Test Reliability Test Coefficient 0.99-1.00
Classification More highly
F. Method of Collecting Data Data collecting method is the method to obtain data. Data of this study is collected by administering test. Test is tool or procedures used to know or measured something in a condition, ways and the rules are determined (Arikunto, 2013 : 266). In getting the data, class 5B became both experimental and control group. The researcher as teacher in this study teaches the students. In order to get high quality of data, the instruments used must meet requirements as good instruments. Instrument is used to collect data in research and it is one of the significant steps in conducting the research. Therefore, the researcher must choose some instruments in data collecting process. In this study the researcher used test as instrument they were pretest and posttest. Pretest was given before doing an experimental research study or before teaching by using scrabble game. Posttest was given after doing an experimental research study or after teaching by using scrabble game. And the test was in the form of C-Test and matching test. Both pretest and posttest consist of 15 numbers of C-test and 10 numbers of matching test. Since the main data of this study were students’s score, the researcher conducted tryout of the test. The purpose of tryout itself were to know the clear instruction of the test and to achieve the reliable scores.
Tryout sample was the students in different class namely fifth A class. They were chosen because they have almost same level as the experimental group. In tryout, the researcher asks the students to answer the questions in the posttest. And the result as follow:
Table 3.2. The preparatory to compute the standard deviation
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
Name APV ARPP ARG BAP BPP CPW DL EN FTT NND GLG GRD IWKE IPS JRS LFVT LK MFS MARA PM RHIS RFS RES RLP RM RA RFB TIID VZFS
Xt 23 24 25 19 17 17 18 19 23 17 18 22 20 21 19 25 15 21 24 20 24 18 24 25 20 17 16 20 22
529 576 625 361 289 289 324 361 529 289 324 484 400 441 361 625 225 441 576 400 576 324 576 625 400 289 256 400 484
30 31 32
YG ZFY AWP
21 21 24
441 441 576 = 659
= To know
the formula below was used:
= 13837 -
= 13837 - 424.1 =13412.9
Therefore, the standard deviation is
After finding the result of standard deviation, the reliability can be computed by using Kuder Richardson formula (KR-20).
The table to compote the reliability by using kuder richardson formula (KR-20)
Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Np 31 31 32 28 31 23 30 26 23 29 26 14 16 29 29 30 10 26 30 32 27 31 30 30 31
P1 0.96875 0.96875 1 0.875 0.96875 0.71875 0.9375 0.8125 0.71875 0.90625 0.8125 0.4375 0.5 0.90625 0.90625 0.9375 0.3125 1.8125 0.9375 1 0.84375 0.96875 0.9375 0.9375 0.96875
Nq 1 1 0 4 1 9 2 6 9 3 6 18 16 3 3 12 22 6 2 0 5 1 2 2 1
Therefore, the reliability is:
r 11 =
Q1 0.03125 0.03125 0 0.125 0.3125 0.28125 0.0625 0.1875 0.28125 0.09375 0.1875 0.5625 0.5 0.09375 0.09375 0.375 0.6875 0.1875 0.0625 0 0.15625 0.3125 0.0625 0.0625 0.3125
P1Q1 0.0302734375 0.0302734375 0.0 0.109375 0.302734375 0.2021484375 0.05859375 0.15234375 0.2021484375 0.0849609375 0.15234375 0.24609375 0.25 0.0849609375 0.0849609375 0.3515625 0.21484375 0.33984375 0.05859375 0.0 0.1318359375 0.302734375 0.05859375 0.05859375 0.302734375 ∑p1q1= 3.810546875
r 11 =
r 11 =
r 11 = r 11 = 0.8480413173 The result shows that the test was reliable with the reliability coefficient of 0.85 or 85%, it means that the reliability of test is high.
Technique of Data Analysis The two variables investigated in this research were scrabble
game and students score. To know whether there is any significant difference scores in the students score before and after being taught by using scrabble game, the writer analyzed the collected data quantitatively. In this research, the writer used a quantitative data analysis technique. The quantitative data of this research was analyzed by using statistical method. This technique was used to find the significant difference on the students’ scores after taught by using scrabble game. The researcher used T-test according to Ary et al (2002 : 195) with the following formulation:
: average difference
: Different scores squared, the summed
: Different scores summed then squared
: number of samples.
H. Hypothesis Testing In this study the research design used by the researcher was experimental research design which was intended to investigate the effectiveness of a certain treatment. As such, a statistical test was intended for comparing two means, that is the means of before and after treatment. According to Balnaves & Calputi (2001 : 40) the way to test whether the null hypothesis can be rejected is by comparing T-value of the obtained statistics is less than 0.05.
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter focuses on presenting the result of data analysis. Three main topics will be discussed in this part covering description of data, hypothesis testing, and discussion. A. The Description of Data In this section, the writer presents the students’ vocabulary mastery before and after being taught by using scrabble game. As mentioned before, the researcher uses test as the instrument in collecting data. The test was given to the Fifth B class as a single group. The test was in the form of C-test and matching. The researcher presented and analyzesed the data through two kinds of tests, they were pre-test and post-test. The pretest was given before teaching the class by using scrabble game and posttest was given after implementing the scrabble game. The collected data were described in the form of table that includes the pretest and posttest score in the single group.
1. Description of Proficiency of Students Before being Taught by Using Scrabble Game. In this section, the researcher presents the students’ vocabulary mastery before being taught by using scrabble game. In this presentation, the researcher presented and analyzed the collected data 41
through pretest which are administered to 33 students. The descriptions were presented in the following table: Table 4.1. The Students’ Score before being Taught by Using Scrabble Game. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
Name AGC AYP AEU DRO DMZP DAN DBS EHI EHA FA FRRH FAA HMI JMDS JMHW JKS LFP MPW MADP MF NDS RPA RYT RMN RF SPJ SRA SIS SRL TSR WAD YM YAT
Pre-test 84 84 68 60 60 64 28 64 64 48 64 76 88 72 68 24 84 60 92 44 60 44 68 52 88 88 92 60 100 56 80 72 28 = 2184
Pretest was administered on April, 11st 2015 at 08.00-09.00 a.m. The table 4.1 shows that from 33 students there are 20 students got score under 70 (passing score) and 13 students got score more than 70. It can be concluded that 20 students were not pass the pretest. 2. Description of Proficiency of Students After being Taught by Using Scrabble Game. In this section, the researcher presented the students’ vocabulary mastery after being taught by using scrabble game. The descriptions were presented in the following table: Table 4.2. The Students’ Score after being Taught by Using Scrabble Game. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Name AGC AYP AEU DRO DMZP DAN DBS EHI EHA FA FRRH FAA HMI JMDS JMHW JKS LFP MPW MADP MF NDS
Post-test 88 88 72 92 72 68 60 92 72 92 72 80 92 92 88 40 96 92 96 52 84 43
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
RPA RYT RMN RF SPJ SRA SIS SRL TSR WAD YM YAT
72 96 68 92 96 96 72 100 84 92 88 48 = 2684
Posttest was administered on May, 2st 2015 at 10.00-11.00 a.m. The table 4.2 showed that most of the students passed the posttest and only 6 students were not pass for their scores were under 70.
B. Data Analysis The researcher provides the table about the list of pretest and posttest total score to make easy in identifying mean and T-test. The table is as follow :
Table 4.3. The List of Student’s Improvement Before and After being Taught by Using Scrabble Game No. 1 2 3 4
Name AGC AYP AEU DRO
Pretest (x) 84 84 68 60
Posttest (y) 88 88 72 92 44
D (y-x) 4 4 4 32
D (y-x)2 16 16 16 1024
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
DMZP DAN DBS EHI EHA FA FRRH FAA HMI JMDS JMHW JKS LFP MPW MADP MF NDS RPA RYT RMN RF SPJ SRA SIS SRL TSR WAD YM YAT
60 64 28 64 64 48 64 76 88 72 68 24 84 60 92 44 60 44 68 52 88 88 92 60 100 56 80 72 28
72 68 60 92 72 92 72 80 92 92 88 40 96 92 96 52 84 72 96 68 92 96 96 72 100 84 92 88 48 = 2184
12 4 32 28 8 44 8 4 4 20 20 16 12 32 4 8 24 28 28 16 4 8 4 12 0 28 12 16 20 = 2684 ∑D = 500
144 16 1024 784 64 1936 64 16 16 400 400 256 144 1024 16 64 576 784 784 256 16 64 16 144 0 784 144 256 400 ∑D2 = 11664
a. Identify Mean From the table above, the mean of students’ score can be found by applying the following formula: MD =
Mean from X and Y: 45
MD X =
MD Y =
b. Identifying T-score Meanwhile, to find the T-score, based on the presented data, the computation is done by using the following formula:
= 7.7005 c. Degree of freedom F=N–1 = 33 – 1
C. Hypothesis Testing From the result of computation above, the degree of freedom is 32 and the result in 5% significant level is 2.042. The computation above shows that the result of T-test is 7.7005. To compare whether it is significance or not, the researcher uses T-table. It can be seen that “t” with significance level 5% and degree of freedom 32 is 2.042, meanwhile the Tscore is 7.7005. In conclusion, T-score is greater than T-table. So, the alternative hypothesis (H1), saying that there is significant difference between students’ score before and after being taught by using scrabble game is accepted and the null hypothesis (H0) saying that there is no significant difference between students’ score before and after being taught by using scrabble game is rejected. Thus, the scrabble game is effective for teaching vocabulary.
D. Discussion The objective of this study is to know the effectiveness of scrabble game toward students’ vocabulary mastery of the fifth grade at SDN 1 Prigi in the academic year 2014/2015. In order to gain the objectives of the study, the writer conducts an experiment study with a pre-test and post-test design. The research procedures done during teaching and learning process are divided into
three steps. First step is preliminary study, in which the researcher conducts the preliminary study to know the students’ vocabulary mastery by administering pretest. The second step is giving treatment to the same students. The treatment in this study is asking the students to create words by using scrabble game. The researcher divided students into four groups. Each group consist of 8-9 students. Students wait their turn to create words. During getting the treatment, the students are enthusiastic to study vocabulary. All of the students are interested to produce words by using scrabble game. The researcher doing the treatment twice. The last step is administering posttest. In the posttest, the students are given a test to know their vocabulary mastery after they are treated by using scrabble game. Based on the results of the statistical computation using T-test, the results show that there is significant improvement of students’ score between pre-test and post-test. The result of T-test is 7.7005. When the Ttest is compared to T-table with the degree of freedom 32, as stated in hypothesis testing, the T-test 7.7005 is higher than the T-table 2.042. Therefore based on the hypothesis testing, the H1 is accepted and the H0 is rejected. It means that scrabble game is effective for teaching vocabulary. The result of the study was in line with the theory of the effectiveness of using game in teaching vocabulary. According to Nurhajati and Wicaksono in Cahyono and Mukmintien (2011: 41), using games in language class gives many advantages. First, games make the class fun. As stated above, young learners learn a foreign language
because of external motivation. By giving fun experience it will attract and motivated them to know more about the new language they learn. Second, playing a game has a purpose to it, an outcome. By playing a game children have a reason to communicate rather than just repeat things back mindlessly. Therefore, they want to know and learn more. Furthermore, young learners get to use the language all the time during the games. They involve a lot of repetition. In fact, repetition is the basic skill, but it can be boring. However, using games will give the opportunity for children to do repetitive activity in a fun way. So that ways, the implementation of scrabble game in teaching and learning process gives a positive effect on the students’ achievement, because they can study vocabulary easily and relax without hard feeling. The situation that conducive and comfort for their sense, it will make them enjoy to learn and getting good result. It can be done because by fun learning, information can be understood and maintained in memory well.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
This chapter is devoted to draw some conclusions and suggestions based on the research findings and discussion presented in the previous chapter. A. Conclusions Based on the result of data analysis, both theoretical and practical conclusions are drawn as follow: 1.
Theoretical conclusions The use of scrabble game is effective to teach vocabulary. This statement is supported by the theory of Kim (1995: 35) that the use of game can create a meaningful context for language use.
Practical Conclusions a. The students’ vocabulary mastery before being taught by using scrabble game is generally low. It can be seen from the score obtained by the students before being taught by using scrabble game that from 33 students there are 20 students obtain score under 70 (passing score) and 13 students obtain score more than 70. It means that 20 students are not pass. b. The students’ vocabulary mastery after being taught by using scrabble game is better than before. It is shown from the score
obtained by the students after being taught by using scrabble game where 27 students pass the test and only 6 students do not pass. c. There are significant differences score of the students’ vocabulary mastery before and after being taught by using scrabble game. The total score after being taught by using scrabble game is higher than before. It is showed by the result of T-score 7.7005 that is greater than T-table 2.042. Hence, it can be stated that scrabble game is effective used in teaching vocabulary for the fifth grade students.
B. Suggestions Based on the results of the research, some suggestions are addressed to the school, English teacher, and other researchers. For the school, considering that teaching vocabulary by using scrabble game is effective, therefore, it is suggested that the school should facilitate the teacher to conduct scrabble game in teaching vocabulary. For the English teacher, it is suggested that the English teacher, especially in Elementary school to teach using scrabble game. In addition, teacher must make teaching and learning process become more interesting, fun, and enjoyable, so the students will not get bored and they feel easier to memorize their vocabulary. Finally, for the other researcher, this research is not perfect yet. It is suggested to conduct further research on similar area by improving the
methodology or to use it as a reference to conduct a further research related with scrabble game in difference area of teaching.
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