CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides the background of problem, statement of problem, purpose and significance of research, prosedure of research, and organization of writing.
Background of Problem The existence of human beeing cannot be separated from communication and
interaction with other people. Because they are social creatures that cannot life alone in this world to face their life. So, communication and interaction is part of life from human. Language is tool to make communication with another. According to (Finocchiaro in Alwasilah) said, "Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols which permits all people in a given culture, or other people who have learned the system of that culture to communicate or to interact"1. There are two forms of language those are spoken and written. Spoken language involved sounds that produced by our oral system and while written language is language in the form of text. Both, spoken and written language are used for communication and exchange information between speakers and listeners. Wardhaugh (1972: 3-8) stated, “The function of language is human’s tool for communication whether in the form of spoken or written”. In daily life, people use almost any language activities, using spoken language, written language. According to finocchiaro, 1974 several function of language, they are: 1. Fungsi personal: digunakan untuk mengepressikan emosi, kebutuhan, pikiran, dan sikap seseorang. 2. Fungsi interpersonal: digunakan untuk memlihara relasi – relasi nasional
A. Chaedar Alwasilah, Linguistik Suatu Pengantar, (Bandung: Angkasa, 1993), p. 3.
3. Fungsi directif: bias digunakan untuk mengontrol prilaku orang lain dalam bentuk nasihat, perintah, ajakan, diskusi, dll. 4. Fungsi referensial: digunakan untuk membicarakan objek atau kejadian dalam lingkungan atau budaya tertentu. 5. Fungsi imaginative: digunakan untuk melahirkan karya sastra yang berbasis pada kekuatan imaginasi, contoh seperti novel, puisi, cerpen dll. According to Pateda that “In outline form of language can be divided into two parts namely the spoken language and written language”2. So based on the opinion, people can communicate and interact through two forms of the language that is spoken and written language that can be shaped text. Motto is one of the written forms of language, because the concepts are contained in there, a complete thought or idea that comes from the subject(user or writer). Motto is a text that reflects an organization, institution or individual as the principle of life, motto is short sentence that expresses the aims and beliefs of a person, a group, etc and used as a rule of behavior (Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary)3. Some people said motto of course is no stranger. Motto usually people get on working form, join the form of an organization, curriculum vitae (CV), summary, or someone can get it in the paper at every university graduating paper. Even corporate institutions that is not uncommon to have one each motto. Motto is not just the text that contains a series of words into a sentence or phrase, but reversed the text talks indirectly about the meaning contained in the text. The text even as the transmitter of the message, Kaelan said that "Human life in his communication with other make up in a community to convey the message, expression, feeling, and emotion”4. It means, the human is able to express their will and desire. Even, they can to work, to play together, and to do anything they want.
Mansoer Pateda, Linguistik Sebuah Pengantar, (bandung: Angkasa, 1994), p. 13. Oxford Learner’s pocket Dictionary(Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, 2008 ), p. 286.
Kaelan, Filsafat Bahasa ( Yogyakarta: Paradigma, 1998), p. 289.
Human communication is productive and creative. According to Chaer it is a symbol of the language, such as sound, are arbitrary, language has meaning, convensional, unique, language is universal, productive, variation, dinamic, social interaction, and identity5. It means that the human communication system can be changed, expanded, disappeared, replaced, added, exchanged or matched with the purpose and situation of communication behold. They are able to create or even dismiss a word based on their mood or their necessity to inform their ideas, as long as the word has meaning that could represent their minds. Motto also is contained words strung into sentences are meaningful, both for the readers, especially for users, copiers and even people who created the words that exist in the motto, so it has a special meaning. This is what makes researcher interested in studying the meaning it contains for the user based on their understanding. Motto can be told as part of human life because most people have their each motto. There are many variation in personal emotion. Human needs strength in living their life in the world, and that power can come from anywhere and it which one from the words that can give inspire, encourage, motivation and new fresh ideas. As the quote of mottoes found in the graduating paper used by alumni in English Department. Some for the example that quoted in graduating paper
which one of by
Yushathiya is “ When we love God honessty,God will love us by His way,Then, we’ll be in the happiness of life. And Arry Purnama “Make some magic and keep our dream alive!” and then Dian “ Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn’t do that by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines .sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover ( Mark Twain)”.
Abdul Chaer, Linguistik Umum ( Jakarta : Rineka Cipta, 2007), p. 33.
They did not arbitrarily choose, write, and create quotes on the sentences. There must be a message to be conveyed to the readers. As well as the text of mottoes have various meanings. Djajasudarma that “Makna adalah pertautan yang ada diantara unsur – unsur bahasa itu sendiri"6. In other hand meaning is the thing or idea that a sound, word, sign, etc. represents ( Oxford Dictionary, 2000: 784) So, in every words, fhrase, although sentences in there has meaning want to be conveyed. According to another opinion Lyons “Meaning are ideas or concepts which can be transferred from the mind of the hearer by embodying them as they were, in the form of one language and another”7. It can be seen mean that can be seen as one idea or ideas that will be presented. Finally, based on the background that the researcher explained, this graduating paper entitled; “Motto in English Department Graduating Paper: Category and Meaning”.
Statement of Problem Based on the background of problem above, the researcher has to decide the problems
that will be investigated. To enable the research to be conducted appropriately, a researcher should formulate the problems as clearly as possible, Arikunto8. In relation to the explanation above, the researcher has some problems that can be formulated as follows: a. What are the categories sources of motto used in the students graduating paper? b. What are the meaning of motto used in the students graduating paper based on their understanding?
T. Fatimah Djayasudarma, SEMANTIK 1, Pengantar kearah Ilmu Makna, ( Bandung: PT. REFIKA ADITAMA, 1999), P. 5. 7 John Lyons, Language and Linguistics, ( London: Cambridge University Press, 1981), p. 136. 8 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian suatu Pendekatan Praktek, ( Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta), p. 19.
Purpose and Significance of Research
1.3.1 Purpose of Research Refers to the statement of the research above, the purpose that are going to be reached as follows: a. To find out the categories source of motto used in the students graduating paper. b. To find out the meaning of motto used in the students graduating paper based on user understanding.
1.3.2 Significance of research The significance of research comprises such point as below: a. The researcher expected that this research will be useful for the researcher and the reader especially to get more knowledge about categories and meaning that used in the students gaduating paper. b. This research can be a source of language study and can give a little understanding about the meaning in semantic field.
Definition of Key Terms In order to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation of different terms used, the
researcher gives the definition of following essential terms: a. Motto :
Motto is the words or phrases that reflecting an organization,
institution, and individual as the principle of life and it expresses the aims and beliefs of a person, a group, and used a rule of behavior (Oxford Dictionary,2008: 286).
b. Saying: Saying is a short, clever expression that usually contains advice or expresses some obvious truth, motivation, success, friendship, love, personality, social, ideology. (Pemathic.Blogspot.com/2012/11/kumpulan katamutiara- dan- bijak- tentang-motivasi accessed on Thursday at 13:35). c. AlQuran: “Etymology Quran comes from the Arabic word is verb qaraʼa ()قرأ, “read”or something to read over and over ". As for the terminology is that the Quran is the word of Allah that is a miracle it is revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, written and narrated, and read it is including worship”. (Ash Siddieqy, 1992: 2). d. Semantics: Semantics is the study of meaning communicated through language. (Saeed, 1997: 3). e. Meaning: Meaning are ideas or concepts that can be transferred from the mind of the hearer by embodying them as they were, in the form of one language or another (Lyons, 1981: 136). f. Contextual Meaning: Contextual meaning is the meaning of a word in one context where it is connected with the condition such as place, time, and environment. (Chaer, 1995: 290).
Organization of Paper This research is composed into five chapters. Each of them is respectively arranged as
a. This research is divided in to five chapters. The first chapter is introduction. In this chapter the researcher explains about the background
of the problem, statement of problem, purpose and significance of research, definition of key terms, and organization of writing. b. The second chapter is theoretical review. In this chapter the researcher relates about subject matters, they are: Motto which is divided as definition and function,kinds of motto source based on used by user, kinds of motto and the next about semantics definition, meaning, kinds of meaning. c. The third chapter is methodology. In this chapter the researcher divides methodology in to the method, data of research, data resources, technique of collecting data, and the steps of data analysis. d. The fourth chapter is analysis category and meaning of motto in English department graduating papers State Islamic of UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung. In this chapter the researcher will answer the statement of problem, they are: category of motto based on source that is used by user and the meaning of motto based on user understanding. e. And the fifth chapter consist of conclusion of the whole analysis and suggestion for better understanding.