CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study The Silence of the Lambs is a novel written by Thomas Harris, first published in 1988 in United State of America by St. Martin,s Press. The feature of the novel is cannibalistic serial killer by Dr. Hannibal Lecter. First novel by Thomas Harris is Red Dragon and followed by The Silence of the Lambs so that Hannibal and the last is Hannibal Rising, are the novel made by Thomas Harris and all was adapted in movie. The Silence of the Lambs takes place in February 1983 have 352 pages. The novel takes place in February 1983. Clarice Starling, a young FBI trainee, being asked to carry out an errand by Jack Crawford, the head of the FBI division that draws up psychological profiles of serial killers. Starling is asked to present a questionnaire to brilliant forensic psychiatrist and cannibalistic sociopath, Hannibal Lecter. Lecter is serving nine consecutive life sentences in a Maryland mental institution for a series of brutal murders. People also learn of Jack Crawford's hunt for a serial killer dubbed "Buffalo Bill", whose modus operandi involves kidnapping overweight women, starving them for about a week, and then killing and skinning them, before dumping the bodies in nearby rivers. The nickname was started by Kansas City Homicide, as a joke that "he likes to skin his humps." Throughout the investigation, Starling periodically returns to Lecter in search of 1
information, and the two form a strange relationship in which he offers her cryptic clues in return for information about her unhappy childhood as an orphan. When Bill's sixth victim is found in West Virginia, Starling helps Crawford perform the autopsy. Starling finds a moth pupa in the throat of the victim, and just as Lecter predicted, she has been scalped. Triangular patches of skin have also been taken from her shoulders. Furthermore, autopsy reports indicate that Bill killed her within four days of her capture, much faster than his earlier victims. On the basis of Lecter's prediction, Starling believes that he knows who Buffalo Bill really is. She also asks why she was sent to fish for information on Buffalo Bill without being told she was doing so Crawford explains that if she had had an agenda, Lecter would never have spoken up. Starling takes the pupa to the Smithsonian, where it is eventually identified as the Black Witch Moth, which would not naturally occur where the victim was found. Strangely the pupa was found in the mouth from victim came from Asia. It is finding can be a new clue to uncover the case because the pupa was found in the mouth of victim puts by the killer. In Tennessee, Catherine Baker Martin, the daughter of Senator Ruth Martin, is kidnapped. Within six hours, her blouse is found on the roadside, slit up the back: Buffalo Bill's calling card. Crawford is advised that no less than the President of the United States has expressed "intense interest" in the case, and that a successful rescue is preferable. Crawford estimates they have three days before Catherine is killed.
Lecter reminisces on the past, recalling a conversation with Benjamin Raspail, a former patient whom he later murdered. Raspail, during that therapy session, explained the death of a sailor named Klaus at the hands of Raspail's jealous former lover, Jame Gumb, who then used Klaus's skin to make an apron. Raspail also revealed that Gumb had an epiphany upon watching a moth hatch. Lecter's pleasant ruminations are interrupted when Dr. Frederick Chilton - the asylum's administrator and Lecter's nemesis - steps in. A listening device allowed him to record Starling's conversation, and Chilton has found out that Crawford's deal is a lie. He offers one of his own: If Lecter reveals Buffalo Bill's identity, he will indeed get a transfer to another asylum, but only if Chilton gets credit for getting the information from him. Lecter insists that he'll only give the information to Senator Martin in person, in Tennessee. Chilton agrees. Unknown to Chilton, Lecter has previously hidden under his tongue a paperclip and some parts of a pen, both of which were mistakenly given to him by untrained orderlies during his stay at the asylum. He fashions the pen pieces and paperclip into an improvised lockpick, which he later uses to pick his handcuff locks. Hannibal Lecter M.D. is a fictional character in a series of horror novels by Thomas Harris. Lecter was introduced in the 1981 thriller novel Red Dragon as a brilliant psychiatrist and cannibalistic serial killer. The novel and its sequel, The Silence of the Lambs, feature Lecter as the true antagonist after the other two serial killers of each story. In the third novel, Hannibal, Lecter becomes the main character. His role as the antihero occurs in the fourth
novel, Hannibal Rising, which explores his childhood and development into a serial killer. The first film adapted from the Harris novels was Manhunter (based on Red Dragon) features Brian Cox as Lecter, spelled "Lecktor". In 2002, a second adaptation of Red Dragon was made under the original title, featuring Anthony Hopkins, who had played Lecter in the motion pictures The Silence of the Lambs and Hannibal. Hopkins won an Academy Award for The Silence of the Lambs in 1991. In 2003, Hannibal Lecter (as portrayed by Hopkins) was chosen by the American Film Institute as the #1 movie villain. Empire magazine lists Hannibal as the 5th Greatest Movie Character of All Time. In Tennessee, Lecter toys with Senator Martin briefly, enjoying the woman's anguish, but eventually gives her some information about Buffalo Bill: his name is William "Billy" Rubin, and he has suffered from elephant ivory anthrax, a knifemaker's disease. He also provides an accurate physical description. The information is a red herring: bilirubin is a pigment in human bile and a chief coloring agent in human feces, which the forensic lab compares to the color of Chilton's hair. Starling tries one last time to get information from Lecter as he is about to be transferred. He offers a final clue - "we covet what we see everyday" and demands to hear her worst memory. Starling reveals that, after her father's death, she was sent to live with a cousin on a sheep ranch. One night, she discovered the farmer slaughtering the spring lambs, and fled in terror. The farmer caught and sent her to an orphanage, where she spent the rest of her
childhood. Lecter thanks her, and the two share a brief moment of connection before Chilton shooes her out of the room. Later on, she deduces from Lecter's clue that Buffalo Bill knew his first victim. Shortly after this, Lecter escapes by killing and eviscerating his guards, using one of their faces as a mask to fool paramedics. Starling continues her search for Buffalo Bill, eventually tracking him down and killing him and rescuing Catherine. She is made a full-fledged FBI agent, and receives a congratulatory telegram from Lecter, who hopes for her that “the lambs have stopped screaming”. The novel was a great success. Craig Brown of The Mail on Sunday wrote, "No thriller writer is better attuned than Thomas Harris to the rhythms of suspense. No horror writer is more adept at making the stomach churn". The Independent wrote, “Utterly gripping”, and Amazon.com wrote, “...driving suspense, compelling characters,...a well-executed thriller...” and children's novelist Roald Dahl also greatly enjoyed the novel, describing it as “subtle, horrific and splendid, the best book I have read in a long time.” Considering to the explanation and the reasons accepted, the researcher observes The Silence of the Lambs using Psychoanalytical approach and the writer constructs research entitled DUAL CONTRARY PERSONALITIES OF DR.HANNIBAL LECTER REFLECTED THE SILENCE OF THE LAMBS NOVEL (1988): PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH.
B. Literature Review In this study the researcher presents the previous study dealing with the novel entitled The Silence of the Lambs. The researcher does not find the same title at university library, from journal write by Jesse Stommel entitled “The Silence of the Lambs, The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, and the Visual Pleasures of Horror” (2011). The content of the journal focuses on the violent act that shows in the movie. He explains that the viewer can catch the emotion and massage from the director throughout act, dialogue and music of the movie. The essays above can inspire the researcher to conduct the research paper because the content isn’t too far from the object and issue from what the researcher would be explaining. C. Problem Statement Based on the background of the research, the researcher proposes the following problem statement. The problem of the research:”How is a dual contrary personality of Dr.Hanibal Lecter reflected in novel The Silence of the Lambs (1988) by Thomas Harris?” D. Limitation of the Study In this research, the researcher focuses on the analysis of the dual contrary personalities of Dr. Hannibal Lecter in Thomas Harris The Silence of the Lambs novel. Based from the novel The Silence of the Lambs Dr. Hannibal Lecter has different personality than other character and the writer deicide to
analyze Dr. Hannibal Lecter deeply, to uncover the mind and the way of thinking based on the The Silence of the Lambs novel. E. Objective of the Study The objectives of the study are as follows: 1. to analyze novel based on structural elements, and 2. to analyze novel based on dual contrary personalities of Dr. Hannibal Lecter on the psychoanalytical perspective. F. Benefit of the Study 1. Theoretical Benefit It gives contribution to the larger body of knowledge, particularly literary study about Dr. Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs novel. It is expected to give useful information the novel that analyzed by psychoanalytic approach. 2. Practical Benefit This study is expected to help the researcher get deeper understanding about the novel and how to use literary theory in analyzing the novel. This research can expected can be useful for the other researcher who will do the same research as the literary reviews, the research expected can give inspiration for the student that want to do the research and find another object they interest based on the novel and the research expected can be an addition opinion for the lecturer.
G. Research Method 1. Type of the Study In this study, the researcher uses the descriptive qualitative method as type of the research. It purposes to analyze novel based on the structural elements of the novel and to analyze the novel based on the psychoanalytical perspective. 2.
Type of the Data and the Data Source The type of data in this study is a text that consists of words, phrases and sentences. There are two data sources in this study. They are the primary data source and secondary data sources. a. Primary Data Source The primary data source of the study is Thomas Harris The Silence of the Lambs novel. b. Secondary Data Source The secondary data source consists of the other data, which have relationship with the study, such as some biography of the author, and other relevant information. 3. Technique of the Data Collection The method that the researcher uses to collect data are both documentation by collecting and recording the primary and secondary source, library research by summarizing, paraphrasing and wording. The researcher uses documentation as technique of data collecting. The writer takes the following steps;
a. reading the novel repeatedly after for material of criticism, b. taking notes of the important part in primary and secondary data, c. classifying the data into some categories, and d. selecting them by rejecting the irrelevant information, this does not Support the topic of the study 4. Technique of the Data Analysis The technique of data analysis of the research is descriptive analysis. In this case, the researcher tries to describe the structural elements of the novel and psychoanalytical analysis. The collected data are interpreted and analyzed in detail, in this case is psychoanalytical approach to show dual contrary of personalities of Dr. Hannibal Lecter shows in The Silence of the Lambs novel by Thomas Harris. H. Research Paper Organization Chapter I is introduction that consists of the background of the study, literature review, problem statement, limitation of the study, objective of the study, benefit of the study, research method, and paper organization. Chapter II delivers underlying theory, which covers the notion of dual contrary personalities, structural element of novel, and theoretical application. Chapter III is structural analysis, which presents structural element of novel and discussion. Chapter IV discusses psychoanalytic analysis, and Chapter V draws the conclusion and suggestion.