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Cranberry Cooking For All Seasons

© Spinner Publications, Inc. 164 William Street New Bedford, MA 02740 All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Design by Hannah Haines and Joseph D. Thomas Text ©2002 Nancy Cappelloni Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cappelloni, Nancy. Cranberry cooking for all seasons / by Nancy Cappelloni. p. cm. ISBN 0-932027-71-7 (pbk.) 1. Cookery (Cranberries) I. Title. TX813.C7 C37 2002 641.6’476--dc21 2002014559

Cranberry Cooking For All Seasons

by

Nancy Cappelloni

Spinner Publications, Inc. New Bedford, Massachusetts

Acknowledgments To my husband, Bob, and to my daughters Lauren, Lisa and Dana for your continued encouragement, constant caring and for enjoying all the cranberry dishes I prepared for you. I would like to recognize, with sincerest thanks and gratitude: My family and friends, who tested and critiqued my recipes. My cousin, Richie for inspiring me in the kitchen through his joy of cooking. My mother for showing me the importance of food in our family. All the professional chefs and home cooks who shared their stories and recipes with me, including the Iroquois Cranberry Growers, the Nantucket Island Chamber of Commerce and Drew Spangler. The Cape Cod Cranberry Growers Association, Ocean Spray Cranberries, Plimoth Plantation, Cranberry Magazine and The Cranberry Institute for sharing their knowledge and research with me. Ruth Caswell and Janice Anderson Gram for their wisdom and support. The Wampanoag Tribe of Aquinnah, with special thanks to Helen Manning and Gladys Widdiss for their inspiration. All the cranberry growers in North America. Joe Thomas, my publisher, for believing in this project and the tremendous editorial efforts of everyone at Spinner Publications. Thank you.

Credits The publishers wish to thank Greater New Bedford Regional Vocational Technical High School for use of their Culinary Arts facility to prepare and photograph all of the food images. Thanks to chef Henry Bousquet of Four Corners Caterers and the Vocational students for their fine work in cooking and presenting the meals. Thanks also to our staff, friends and volunteers: Jay Avila, electronic imaging Ruth Caswell, copy-editing Cerulli’s Gourmet Foods Decas Brothers Cranberries Sharon Georgianna James Grasela, copy-editing Hannah Haines, design Marsha L. McCabe, editing

Kerry Downey Romaniello, proof-reading John K. Robson, photography Tim Sylvia, photography Andrea V. Tavares, copy-editing Anne J. Thomas, proof-reading Joseph D. Thomas, photography/design UMass Cranberry Experiment Station

Special Thanks to

e Cape Cod Cranberry Growers’ Association for their generous support The Cape Cod Cranberry Growers’ Association is one of the oldest farmers organizations in the country. Established in 1888 to standardize the measure with which cranberries are sold (the 100 lb. barrel), it has become one of the leading agricultural organizations in Massachusetts. In 1888 the Association’s mission was “to promote the interest of its members in whatever pertains to the growth, cultivation and sale of cranberries.” Although a great deal has changed in cranberry farming since the Association began, today’s cranberry growers still face many challenges. Through a unified voice the CCCGA works to promote the cranberry industry through active grower volunteer committees in Public Relations and Promotions, Government Affairs, Research and Environmental Affairs. The CCCGA has a professional staff that assists growers in solving everyday problems, offering assistance in regulatory compliance, sponsoring professional development seminars and organizing association activities such as the Massachusetts Cranberry Harvest Festival every Columbus Day weekend. The CCCGA also operates a frost warning system. In the event of frost danger, cranberry grower members are notified by a personal phone call or through access to a special code-a-phone. The CCCGA has invested over $500,000 in cranberry research to help improve the efficiency and environmental compatibility of cranberry farms. Over 450 cranberry farmers belong to the CCCGA today. Membership in CCCGA is voluntary and based on a per barrel assessment. Through continued grower support, CCCGA is working to ensure that cranberry farming can survive urbanization and that open space and clean water, vital to cranberry growing, will be preserved.

Financial support for this project was provided in part through the Massachusetts Department of Food and Agriculture’s Agricultural Specialty Crop Funds.

Contents Relishes, Sauces, Conserves, Preserves, Syrups, Jams and Glazes impl ranberry auc ……………………… raditional ranberry auc ………………… ranberry rang auc …………………… ranberry aspberry auc…………………… ranberry emo auc …………………… ranberry alnut auc …………………… piced ranberry auc ……………………… ranberry rang aisi onserv …………… ranberry rang aisi alnut onserv …… ranberry ea reserves …………………… ranberry ersimmo auc ………………… ranberry ersimmo ango reserves ……… ingered ranberry auc with lmonds ……… ranberry ort auc with hym …………… ango im ranberry onserv …………… resh ranberry rang elish ……………… resh ranberry elish ……………………… ppl, eca & rang ranberry elish …… ango ranberry rang elish ……………… he ranberry rang elish ……………… ranberry als ……………………………… ranberry atsup …………………………… ranberry ustard ………………………… ranberry apl yrup ……………………… ranberry apl row uga yrup ……… piced ranberry laz ……………………… ranberry utte …………………………… ri aa ranberry hutney ………………

                           

Salads and Salad Dressings ranberry inega …………………………… ranberry aspberry inaigrett……………… ranberry inaigrett ……………………… ixed aby reens with ried ranberries … ilted pinach alad with ried ranberries, ecans and et hees ……………… aspberry ranberry old …………………… ippy ranberry old ……………………… ou rea ranberry ing ………………… runchy ranberry alad old ………………

        

a acific hice alad with ranberries, lmonds & ineappl ………………… lbacor un with ill and ried ranberries ……………………… ranberry law ……………………………… ranberry aldorf alad ……………………

   

Vegetables, Grains and Stuffings ouscous with ried ranberries, in uts and resh int …………… ild ic with ried ranberries and oasted ecans …………………… angerin ams with ranberries …………… urpris oodl ugel ……………………… arvest utternut quash edley …………… cor quash with ranberry illing ………… “udding i th elly” ranberry tuffing ……

      

Photo Gallery of Dishes and Harvests …– Poultry, Pork, Game and Meat uffalo tes with ranberry, hipotl hili and ag auc ………… antucet oast oi of o with ranberry ornbread tuffing ………… ranberry rang apl laz ……………… ve oasted ornish am ens with ranberry rang apl laz …… ve raised ibs …………………………… ornish am ens with ranberry tuffing … o hops with immered ranberries ……… autéed hice with ranberries and ppl ide eductio …………… hice with oney and ried ruit ………… rilled hice with aramelized ecans and ranberry aspberry auc………… quab i ranberry arsal auc ………… uscovy uc reasts i herry, ort and ranberries …………………

           

uail i ranberry adeir auc …………… a-eared strich tes with ranberry rang osemary auc …… autéed hice i ranberry alsamic inega auc ……………… oast addl of eniso with ranberry ssenc and elery oot ure …………

   

Desserts ed pples with piced ranberries …………  ranberry pplesauc ………………………  ranberry aspberry lump …………………  ea and ranberry read udding …………  ranberry ppl runt ………………………  art arti with aramelized ranberries …  lueberry ranberry obble ………………  ranberry at ars ………………………  ranberry-ppl risp ……………………  ranberry ut art ………………………  orther tlantic oast ranberry lacberry ucl …………………  emo ranberry quares …………………  ranberry eca iscotti …………………  ranberry pricot lmond iscotti …………  ranberry art ……………………………  he ranberry i ……………………  ranberry “tuff ” …………………………  ppl ranberry urrant i with rumb opping ………………………  at ucre (weet astry hell) …………  weet ut rust ……………………………  asic i rust ……………………………  ranberry umpi i …………………  ranberry rèm rulé …………………  antucet ranberry psid ow  …  rea heesec with ranberry laz ……  ranberry orbet …………………………  ranberry ppl unflowe eed  ……  ampanoag ap od ranberry i ………  weetened ried ranberries ………………  ari ounty rail ix …………………  ornell ranberry hocolat hip ooies ……  ld-ashioned atmeal ooies with ranberries and alnuts ……… 

Breads, Scones, Coffee Cakes and Muffins ranberry ticy uns …………………… ranberry rang ut read ……………… ucchini ranberry ut read …………… ucchini ranberry ut uffins …………… umpi ranberry read ………………… eg-eg anan ranberry read ………… ranberry or uffins …………………… asy ranberry ornmeal at uffins ……… ranberry ra uffins ………………… ranberry rang uffins ………………… ranberry lueberry uffins ……………… ranberry pplesauc uffins …………… ranberry wirl offe  with treusel opping ……………… ou rea ranberry offe  ……… ohnnyces with hopped resh ranberries… ranberry lapjacs ……………………… ranberry angerin e  with angerin yrup ……………… ranberry angerin oaf es…………… ranol with ried ranberries, herries and pricots ……………… ranberry rang cones …………………

                   

Beverages aliforni ranberry erry moothi ……… ranberry hai imead ………………… piced ranberry e ……………………… piced ranberry ide …………………… ranberry pritze - o lcoholic ………… ango ranberry ndia assi …………… oinsetti ………………………………… ranberry pritze with hit in ……… ex o th each ………………………… osmopolita……………………………… ap od ………………………………… ap odde ……………………………… e reez ……………………………… awaiia reez o ay reez ………… adras ……………………………………

              

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MEAT S

Grilled Chicken with Caramelized Pecans and Cranberry Raspberry Sauce 6 boneless, skinless chicken breasts · cup raspberry vinegar 2 tablespoons olive or vegetable oil

CARAMELIZED PECANS: 1 cup pecan pieces 1 tablespoon butter 2 teaspoons water · cup sugar CRANBERRY RASPBERRY SAUCE: 3 cups cranberries (12-ounce bag) 1 cup water 1‡ cups sugar One 12-ounce bag frozen raspberries Researchers from

SERVES 6 • MAKES

ABOUT

2‡

CUPS

Marinate the chicken in the vinegar and oil for at least 2 hours or overnight. Prepare the Cranberry Raspberry Sauce and the Caramelized Pecans. Grill the chicken breasts on a medium-high grill until done. To serve: On each plate place one grilled chicken breast covered with a few spoonfuls of the Cranberry Raspberry Sauce. Sprinkle with some Caramelized Pecans on top.

CARAMELIZED PECANS: Melt the butter in a large skillet or frying pan on low heat. Add the pecans and stir, about 2-3 minutes. Add the water and sugar, stirring until the sugar caramelizes and the pecans are evenly coated, about 5 minutes. Cool.

CRANBERRY RASPBERRY SAUCE: Place the cranberries and water in a medium saucepan or pot. Stir in the sugar and cook on medium heat for 5-10 minutes or until the cranberries have almost all popped open. Add the raspberries and continue to cook about 5 more minutes or until the sauce is well blended.

Harvard and Rutgers Universities have correlated the benefits of

A polybag packaging machine at Ocean Spray's Middleboro plant, circa 1965.

cranberries in fighting urinary tract infections. Scientists have uncovered hints that the infection fighting powers in cranberries contain a compound that prevents bacteria from attaching to the lining of the urinary bladder.

Ocean Spray Cranberries photograph

DESSERTS

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99

Cranberry Apple Grunt S E R V E S 6-8 How did a “grunt” get its name? One story is that “grunt” refers to the sound of satisfaction heard after eating one. Regardless of the origin of the name, culinary historians generally agree that grunts are always steamed. They are an old fashioned New England dessert of fruit, usually some form of berries, topped with a biscuit dough. Unlike a cobbler, which is a deep dish fruit topped with a biscuit and baked, grunts are stewed or steamed. A grunt is also recognized as a dumpling, and many recipes for grunts and dumplings are quite similar. Sift the flour, baking powder, salt and sugar together into a mixing bowl. Add the egg and cream alternately, stirring gently to form a smooth dough. Do not over mix, as over mixing will toughen the dough. Set aside. Put the apples, cranberries, sugars, water and cinnamon in a large sauté pan or Dutch oven. Bring to a boil. Reduce to a simmer. Simmer for 5 minutes, stirring as it cooks. Drop the dough by the tablespoonful onto the fruit mixture, spacing the dumplings about 1" apart. You should have enough dough to make 6-8 dumplings. Cover and continue to simmer undisturbed for 15 minutes. The dumplings will puff up when done, and a toothpick inserted into one will come out clean. To serve, place the dumplings in individual bowls and spoon the fruit mixture around them. Serve with cream or ice cream. — Adapted from a recipe by Drew Spangler, Mill Valley, CA

FOR THE TOPPING: 1 cup all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons baking powder · teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg, beaten ‡ cup light cream FOR THE FRUIT: 4 cups apples, peeled, cored and sliced · inch thick (about 3 large) 2 cups whole cranberries, fresh or frozen fl cup brown sugar fl cup granulated sugar ‡ cup water 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon

The first known cranberry bog was planted in 1846 by Captain Alvin Cahoon in the Pleasant Lake area of

Water-reel harvesting near Pleasant Lake in Harwich, Cape Cod, MA.

Harwich. His cousin and neighbor, Captain Cyrus Cahoon, also began developing bogs and together the two men experimented and developed methods of cultivation that gave a foundation to the young industry. Within ten years, the total cranberry land on Cape Cod was 1,074 acres, with Harwich the leader.

Joseph D. Thomas photograph

HISTORY

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23

T F T In England, the Pilgrims’ tradition was to celebrate a successful harvest by holding religious observances and feasting. They combined the importance of family, church, prayer, feasting and charity. In the autumn of 1621, they planned to celebrate their good fortune and plentiful harvest with a thanksgiving feast. This celebration came to be known as the First Thanksgiving. There is much we don’t know about that first Thanksgiving in Plymouth, but we do know this: Thanks to the Wampanoag, the Pilgrims had harvested enough food by the fall of 1621 to last through the winter, and their health had improved. In his 1622 book of letters, Edward Winslow wrote: “Our corn did prove well, and God be praised….” They were living comfortably in their homes and had built a church. “I never in my life remember a more seasonable year than we have here enjoyed…I make no question but men might live as contented here as in any part of the world…give God thanks who hath dealt so favorably with us.” Captain Miles Standish, the leader of the Pilgrims, invited Squanto, Samoset, Massasoit and “ninety men” to join in the celebration with 52 Pilgrims. “We have found the Indians very faithful in their covenant of peace with us, very loving and ready to pleasure us. We often go to them, and they come to us…We entertain them familiarly in our houses, and they as friendly bestowing their venison on us.” The Indians included sachems, or council members, from the villages allied with Massasoit, and representatives from each of the Wampanoag villages. For three days the Wampanoag feasted with the Pilgrims, a special time of friendship and camaraderie, though the invitation to the Wampanoag may have been more of a political gesture than an offer of peace and friendship. Edward Winslow accounts: “Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labors. They four in one day killed as much fowl as, with a little help beside, served the company almost a week. At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and

Re-enactment of First Thanksgiving, Plimoth Plantation, 1962.

they went out and killed five deer; which they brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor; and upon the captain and others. And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our Plenty.”

Spinner Collection

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HISTORY

The second source documenting the First Thanksgiving is from the book, Of Plymouth Plantation, by William Bradford, 1620-1647. “They began now to gather in the small harvest they had, and to fit up their houses and dwelling against winter, being all well recovered in health and strength and had all things in good plenty. For as some were thus employed in affairs abroad, others were exercised in fishing, about cod and bass and other fish, of which they took good store, of which every family had their portion. All the summer there was no want; and now began to come in store of fowl, as winter approached, of which this place did abound when they came first (but afterward decreased by degrees). And besides waterfowl there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many, besides venison, etc. Besides, they had about a peck a meal a week to a person, or now since harvest, Indian corn to that proportion. Which made many afterwards write so largely of their plenty here to their friends in England, which were not feigned but true reports.” No specific date is given for the celebration, but it was between September 21, 1621, when the Shallop returned from Massachusetts Bay, and November 9, when the Fortune arrived with settlers from England. Today Thanksgiving is a particularly American holiday with a full table of turkey, stuffing, cranberry sauce, pumpkin pie and the enjoyment of friends and family, football and parades. At the start of their Thanksgiving feast, many people take a moment to give thanks for nature’s bounty, and for the things in their lives for which they are truly grateful. “Plymouth in 1622.” In this late 19th-century painting, the houses appear a little too large, and the landscape too well-trimmed; but the overall size of the settlement appears accurate.

Painting by W. L. Williams, 1891

HISTORY

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25

T G L The Mayflower passengers celebrating Thanksgiving included sixteen men, four women, twenty-three children and nine hired seamen and servants. Only about half of those who left England in 1620 lived through the first winter. Guests included John Alden, Isaac, Bartholomew, Remember and Mary Allerton, John, Elinor, John Jr. and Francis Billington, William Bradford, William and Mary Brewster and Love and Wrestling Brewster, Peter Browne, Carver’s maidservant, Mary Chilton, Francis and Humility Cooper, John Crackstone, Edward Dotey, Francis and Samuel Eaton, Ely, Samuel and Samuel Fuller, Jr., Richard Gardiner, Stephen, Elizabeth, Constance, Giles, Damaris and Oceanus Hopkins, John Howland, William Latham, Edward Lester, Desire Minter, Richard Moore, Priscilla Mullins, Joseph Rogers, Henry Sampson, George Soule, Myles Standish, Elizabeth Tilley, William Trevore, Richard Warren, Resolved and Peregrine White, Edward Winslow, Susanna (White) Winslow, and Gilbert Winslow. What foods were included in the first Thanksgiving feast? Food included waterfowl— ducks, geese and swans—also wild turkeys, Indian corn and cornmeal, probably in corn bread or corn pudding. Cod, bass and other fish may have included clams, oysters, lobsters, crabs, mussels, scallops, herring, skate, turbot and eels. The Wampanoag brought five deer to the feast. The meats were most likely roasted or boiled in the traditional English way, and the fish either boiled or grilled in the Indian style. The foods would have been prepared in a simple manner “The First Thanksgiving.” The settlers’ first celebration of thanks has been a bit over-dramatized and romanticized by artists and historians.

Painting by Jennie Brownscomb, 1914, in the collection of the Pilgrim Society, Plymouth, MA

26

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HISTORY

Plimoth Plantation Thanksgiving, 1962. — Spinner Collection

Harvest display, Westport, MA Fair. — John K. Robson photograph

in order to feed all of the guests. Many of the wild fruits were no longer in season though some may have been preserved and served. Winslow notes: “Here are grapes, white and red…strawberries, gooseberries, raspas (raspberries)…Plums of three sorts, with black and red.” Walnuts, chestnuts, hickory nuts, and cherries also grew wild in the area. Edible plants picked during the winter might have been served at that table. “Many kinds of herbs we found here in winter, as strawberry leaves…sorrel, yarrow, carvel, brooklime, liverwort, watercresses… leeks and onions…” The herbs were either boiled along with the meats as “sauce” or used in “sallets,” a vegetable dish served raw like a salad or cooked. The first crop of barley survived and provided the colonists with malt for beer. Children drank beer along with the adults. Beans, pumpkins and squash, important crops for both Indians and settlers were probably cooked and served with spices the English brought over with them. What foods were not served at the First Thanksgiving feast? The first planting of English seeds may not have grown abundantly the first year, including carrots, turnips, parsnips, cabbage, onions, radishes, beets, lettuce, skirrets and melons. According to Mr. Winslow, “…our pease not worth the gathering, for we feared they were too late sown. They came up very well, and blossomed, but the sun parched them in the blossom.” Sweet potatoes, yams, potatoes, apples and sweet corn were not yet available in early New England. The corn grown by the colonists and Indians was a flint variety, which was good for grinding into cornmeal. Pumpkin pie would not have been served, as sugar was not available. Maple syrup would have been scarce and pie crusts made of flour would not be on the table because of the lack of wheat. Tea and coffee were not used in England or known to the Pilgrims at this time. Neither Mr. Winslow nor Mr. Bradford mentioned cranberries in their accounts of the first Thanksgiving. However, Mr. Winslow noted there were numerous edible plants “and vines everywhere” growing in Plymouth, some unfamiliar to the English.

HISTORY

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27

T T  Y So how did pumpkin pie, cranberry sauce, and turkey with stuffing become synonymous with Thanksgiving? They most likely came later. The next recorded Thanksgiving was called by Governor Bradford on July 26, 1623, a religious day to give thanks for an end of a drought. On February 22, 1631, settlers of Massachusetts Bay Colony in Boston celebrated the arrival of the ship, Lyon, with a day of prayer and thanksgiving. On September 18, 1639, the governor of Connecticut made a proclamation calling for an annual thanksgiving for “general causes,” to thank God for the safety of the colony and the bounty of the season. This

Frontispiece from 17th-century English cookbook.

became a seasonal custom, though the day was never the same; it came as an announcement by the governor. This custom spread throughout other parts of New England and continued for many years, even though the political picture in New England was changing during the mid-1700s. On November 1, 1777, the Continental Congress called for a day of Thanksgiving and all thirteen colonies participated to celebrate the defeat of the British. Other Thanksgivings were called by the Continental Congress in 1778 and 1783 to celebrate political victories and the end of the Revolution. In November of 1789, after much encouragement and debate over the separation of church and state, George Washington, the nation’s first president, proclaimed a day of thanksgiving and asked for “All citizens of all religions and all denominations” to celebrate the well-being of the United States. No days of Thanksgiving were celebrated for eight years when John Adams, who followed Washington, was in office. Thanksgiving returned with President James Madison who called for a national day of prayer and Thanksgiving at the end of the War of 1812. After Madison’s term in 1815, Thanksgiving did not receive national recognition, though some individual New England states continued their own Thanksgiving traditions. In 1846, Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of Lady’s Magazine and later Godey’s Lady’s Book, petitioned several presidents to make Thanksgiving a national, annual event. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln called for a day of Thanksgiving to be held on August 6. In response to Ms. Hale’s petition, Mr. Lincoln called for a national Thanksgiving Day to be held on the last Thursday in November and Thanksgiving became a national event.

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HISTORY

Cranberry agriculture is a compatible and environmentally sound use of open space. The practices and systems employed by cranberry growers protect and preserve wetlands. They have developed a sophisticated water management system to conserve water by recycling water from bog to bog and grower to grower, filtering groundwater and providing flood control. The cranberry’s growth cycle and harvest requires the support of a large complex ecological system that includes wetlands, uplands, rivers, streams, ponds and reservoirs. In turn, cranberries thrive in the presence of a unique combination of sandy soil, a favorable climate and underlying geological conditions that help maintain a sufficient supply of water. Cranberry growers responsibly manage natural resources, as it is critical to the survival and proliferation of their product to make sure the wetlands are clean and undisturbed. On average, every planted acre is supported by 4-10 acres of surrounding land. These woodlands and wetlands provide open-space, wildlife habitat, groundwater recharge and a buffer to suburban sprawl. Fewer than one thousand cranberry growers operate in Oregon, Washington, Wisconsin, Massachusetts, New Jersey, British Columbia and Quebec. Smaller acreages flourish in Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Maine, Ontario, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick. Cranberries are now grown commercially in Chile. A springtime greening-up on A. D. Makepeace Company’s Big Bog along the Wankinco watershed in East Wareham, MA.

John K. Robson photograph

HISTORY

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37

M  H B The medicinal values attributed to cranberries hundreds of years ago by both the Indians of the Eastern Woodlands and earliest settlers have been validated by researchers around the world. What was once medicinal folklore is now scientifically based fact. Since 1984, studies have shown that cranberries have numerous health benefits, particularly their “anti-adhesion” effect on certain bacteria. With increasing interest in alternative medicine, natural ingredients and overall health, cranberries are turning up in more recipes and packaged foods and have become a staple in many American homes. Health researchers are proving that cranberries are a healthy, low calorie fruit that can help fight bacteria naturally, particularly in the urinary tract. Also, evidence suggests that cranberries inhibit certain bacteria in the stomach and oral cavity. Research on the potential benefits of cranberries on heart disease and cancer prevention is ongoing. Chemically, the cranberry consists of water, plant fibers, sugar, acids, pectin, waxy materials, protein, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus, plus various vitamins. Cranberry juice contains proanthocyanidins, or condensed tannins, which actually “disable” certain harmful bacteria that cause infection. With just 25 calories per half cup, raw cranberries contain essentially no fat and no cholesterol, are low in sodium, high in fiber and Vitamin C.

      Raw (1 cup = 113 gm)

Sauce (1 cup = 227gm) sweetened, canned, cooked

Calories

54.0

549

Protein

0.5 gm

0.3 gm

Fat

0.8 gm

0.8 gm

Carbohydrates

12.8 gm

142.4 gm

Calcium

16 mg

22 mg

Phosphorus

12 mg

19 mg

Iron

0.7 mg

0.8 mg

Vitamin A Value (I.U.)

50

80

Vitamin B1 Thiamine

0.03 mg

0.06 mg

Vitamin B2 Riboflavin

0.02 mg

0.06 mg

Vitamin B2 Complex Niacin

0.1 mg

0.3 mg

Niacin

0.1 mg

0.3 mg

Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid

13 mg

5 mg

S: ..

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HISTORY

Although the medical community has long believed that cranberry juice decreased the risk and helped alleviate the symptoms of urinary tract infections, scientific evidence was lacking. In a breakthrough study in 1998, a research team from Rutgers isolated compounds called condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins from cranberry fruit. They were found to have antiadhesion properties, and thus are able to prevent Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria—the primary bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections—from attaching to cells in the urinary tract. Cranberries also contain plant chemicals that may play a role in preventing certain types of cancer. Epidemiological evidence has long supported the role of naturally occurring anti-cancer and protective heart agents in fruits and vegetables. These plant chemicals are called flavonoids and include anthocyanins (which gives the cranberry its color), proanthocyanidins and flavonols. Cranberries are also a rich source of the flavonoid, quercetin, which inhibits breast and colon cancers. The extract contains antioxidants, which play a fundamental role in slowing the oxidation that leads to heart disease. The cranberry has the ability to inhibit oxidation of LDL cholesterol, so it may help in maintaining cardiovascular health. Researchers have also connected the cranberry with healthy gums. The same “anti-adhesion” properties that prevent bacteria from forming in the urinary tract prevent bacteria from forming in the mouth. This “bacteria inhibiting” effect minimizes the formation of dental plaque, a leading cause of gum disease. The good news goes on. Compounds found in cranberries may have a role in protecting against ulcer-causing bacteria. Cranberry compounds, identified as condensed tannis or proanthocyanidins, stop certain disease causing bacteria from sticking to the stomach lining. Susan Mann of Plymouth corrals berries at her family's Garland bog, 1989. These berries are a large, red and white variety called Stevens, which were first cultivated in Wisconsin. They have a high yield and, if harvested late, turn a deep red.

Joseph D. Thomas photograph

HISTORY

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39

B C You can buy fresh cranberries in the market from mid-September through December. Fresh cranberries will keep well in the refrigerator up to four weeks in an unopened bag. Before using fresh berries, rinse them under cold water and discard any soft, bruised or discolored berries. Because the cranberry season is short, stock up on fresh berries, which can be frozen up to a year. Freeze them right in their packaging without washing them first. Before using, rinse and discard any bruised or discolored berries. They do not need to be thawed before using them in recipes. When cooking cranberries, boil them until the skins crack in order to allow the sugar to penetrate the fruit. One 12-ounce bag yields approximately 3 cups of whole cranberries. One pound (16 ounces) of whole cranberries yields about 4 cups of cranberries. And 2 cups of whole berries yields 2 cups of chopped cranberries. Dried cranberries are slightly tart, delicious as a snack, perfect in recipes calling for dried fruit, and a treat when added to salads and other dishes. Dried cranberries can be used in many of the recipes in this book calling for fresh, frozen whole or chopped cranberries. Simply remember to reduce the amount of sugar being called for in the recipe, since the dried cranberries have already been sweetened during their processing.

Corralled berries are raked into a conveyer or “elevator” that carries then deposits the berries into an 18-wheeler on the “shore.”

Joseph D. Thomas photograph

Gathering dry-harvested berries via “bog buggy,” on the Decas Brothers’ Stuart Bog, Rochester, MA.

Joseph D. Thomas photograph

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RELISHES, SAUCES, PRESERVES

Simple Cranberry Sauce There are many delicious cranberry variations to be discovered. Conserves, preserves and sauces all start with fruit, sugar and liquid and require a short period of cooking. They can be stored in sterilized jars and sealed or enjoyed within a couple weeks. Just as the Native Americans, new settlers and Shakers utilized ingredients seasonally available to them, you can add to cranberries any fruits available fresh or frozen throughout the year. Add more sugar to taste if you prefer a sweeter sauce.

BASIC INSTRUCTIONS:

Gold leaf engraving on the cloth cover of Eastman: The Cranberry and its Culture, 1856.

Combine selected fruit and cranberries and place in a large saucepan. Add sugar to taste, usually 1–1‡ cups for every 12-ounce bag of cranberries (about 3 cups) or 2 cups for every pound of cranberries (about 4 cups). Add liquid such as water or fruit juice (between ‡ to ‚ cup liquid for every 3 cups of fruit). Bring to a boil and simmer for 15 minutes or until liquid has reduced and the fruit has thickened. Cool completely before using or storing. Store sauces in the refrigerator in tightly sealed jars or containers for up to two weeks. The sauces can also be frozen.

Traditional Cranberry Sauce MAKES

‚ cup water 1‡ cups sugar One 12-ounce bag of fresh or frozen cranberries (about 3 cups)

ABOUT

2‡

CUPS

This recipe has been written in various forms since the 1930s. It was originally called “Ten-Minute” Cranberry Sauce by the Eatmor Cranberry Company. It hasn’t changed a bit, except now it can be made easily in the microwave oven, as well. Put all ingredients into a 2 quart pan. Boil gently for about ten minutes, or until all the cranberries have popped open.The sauce will be a little watery. Cool. Sauce will thicken as it cools. For one pound of cranberries, use 1·cups water and 2 cups sugar (sweeten to taste).

MICROWAVE INSTRUCTIONS: In a glass or microwave safe bowl, put in all the ingredients. Cover with plastic wrap. Cook on HIGH for 4 minutes. Stir. Cook on HIGH for 3 minutes. Stir. If the cranberries have not all popped open, continue to cook for another minute or two. Cool. Sauce will thicken as it cools. Add more sugar to taste if you prefer a sweeter sauce.

RELISHES, SAUCES, PRESERVES

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43

Cranberry Orange Sauce MAKES

ABOUT

2‡

CUPS

This is a delicious version of the traditional “Ten Minute” Cranberry Sauce. from the 1930s. It still takes only ten minutes to cook! In a medium saucepan, combine all the ingredients. Boil gently, and cook for 10 minutes or until all the cranberries have popped open. Cool. Remove cinnamon stick. Serve at room temperature.

MICROWAVE DIRECTIONS: Place all ingredients in a microwave safe bowl. Reduce water to ⁄ cup. Cover tightly with plastic wrap. Cook on HIGH 4 minutes. Stir. Cook for 4 more minutes on HIGH or until the cranberries have popped open. Let sit to cool and thicken.

One 12-ounce bag fresh or frozen cranberries 1 cup sugar Juice of 1 orange or fresh orange juice measuring ‡ cup Grated rind of one orange 1 stick cinnamon · cup water

Cranberry Raspberry Sauce MAKES

ABOUT

2‡

CUPS

Place the cranberries and water in a medium sauce pan or pot. Stir in the sugar and cook on medium heat for 5-10 minutes or until the cranberries have almost all popped open. Add the raspberries and continue to cook for about 5 more minutes or until the sauce is well blended.

3 cups cranberries (12-ounce bag) 1 cup water 1‡ cups sugar 1 12-ounce bag frozen raspberries

Delicious served over Grilled Chicken Breasts with Caramelized Walnuts, over johnnycakes or flapjacks or with Cranberry Orange Scones. Serve warm or chilled. Keeps in the refrigerator up to two weeks.

Cranberry Lemon Sauce This sauce is very tangy and delicious! Add the grated rind from 2 lemons and 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice to the Traditional Cranberry Sauce recipe (page 42). Increase the sugar to 2 cups or to taste. Cook as directed. An engraving of the Bell cranberry variety, 1856. — From Eastwood: Cranberry…Culture.

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V E G ETA BL E S

Couscous with Dried Cranberries, Pine Nuts and Fresh Mint SERVES 6 One 12-ounce package couscous One 14-ounce can chicken or vegetable broth Pinch of salt 3 tablespoons walnut, almond or olive oil 1 teaspoon fresh lemon juice ‚ cup dried cranberries fi cup pine nuts fi cup fresh mint leaves

Couscous with Dried Cranberries (photo page 76)

Serve as a delicious side dish with lamb, poultry, or fish. Cook the couscous according to the package directions, using broth instead of water. Add a pinch of salt to the broth. While it is cooking, roast the pine nuts in a very low (250°) oven for 10 minutes or until lightly browned. Wash and finely chop the mint leaves. When the couscous has finished cooking, drain any excess liquid. If more liquid is needed to cook the couscous, add water, a little at a time. Pour the couscous into a serving bowl. Add the oil and the lemon juice. Stir well to coat all the grains. Add the cranberries, pine nuts and mint leaves. Stir to combine all the ingredients. Serve immediately.

Wild Rice with Dried Cranberries and Roasted Pecans S E R V E S 6-8

4 cups cooked wild rice · cup walnut or olive oil 2 tablespoons orange juice 2 tablespoons raspberry vinegar 4 scallions, diced ‡ teaspoon salt Grated zest of one orange ‚ cup dried cranberries ‚ cup oven roasted pecan pieces

This is a delicious side dish for pork, poultry or fish. In a serving bowl add all the ingredients to the wild rice, stirring after each addition. Let stand for a few hours or overnight. Keep refrigerated if stored overnight. Serve at room temperature. Thanksgiving greeting card, circa 1925

Nancy Cappelloni

V E G ETA BL E S

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61

Tangerine Yams with Cranberries M A K E S 10

SERVINGS

The tangerine brings a new twist to this elegant dish. Preheat oven to 350°. Cut the yams into quarters and boil in a large pot of salted water for 15 minutes or until soft. Drain well and peel skins. Cut yams into large chunks. In a large mixing bowl or food processor with the metal knife in place, combine the yams and the 3 peeled and seeded tangerines. Process until smooth. Add the butter, brown sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg and rum. Continue to process until the yams are pureed. Gently mix in the cranberries. Pour the mixture into a buttered 2‡-quart casserole or baking dish. Bake covered for 40 minutes at 350°. Garnish with tangerine slices. Serve immediately.

3 pounds yams 3 tangerines, peeled and seeded 1 cup fresh or frozen whole cranberries 4 tablespoons butter, melted fl cup brown sugar · teaspoon cinnamon · teaspoon nutmeg 2 tablespoons rum (optional) 1 tangerine, sliced for garnish

No American Thanksgiving dinner would seem complete without cranberries, or for that matter, without yams or sweet potatoes. Cranberries and pumpkins are among the many foods believed to have been served at the first feast of 1621, but yams are presumably a more recent addition.

Thanksgiving celebration at historic Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA, 1962.

Patent illustration for the B. F. Bee Cranberry Picker or “snap scoop,” 1890. — Courtesy of Nancy Davison.

Spinner Collection

72

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GALLERY

Acorn Squash with Cranberry Filling (page 63)

Tim Sylvia photograph

Muscovy Duck Breasts in Sherry, Port and Cranberries (page 90)

Tim Sylvia photograph

GALLERY

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73

John K. Robson photograph

Little Bog, Big Bog In Southeastern Massachusetts, many cranberry bogs are small, owner-operated farms nestled between woodlands and cedar swamps. In the scene above, Steve Ashley, owner of My Achin’ Back Bog in East Freetown, and his dog, Boy, look for muskrat holes and ditches that might disable the water-reel harvester operated by Steve Bottomley. Below, water-reels are hard at work at Milestone Bog on Nantucket. This 280-acre bog, built in 1900, is the largest contiguous bog in the world.

Joseph D. Thomas photograph

90

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MEAT S

Muscovy Duck Breasts in Sherry, Port and Cranberries Muscovy Duck Breasts… (photo page 72)

2 pounds boneless Muscovy duck breasts (3-4 breasts; if breasts are large, halve, and trim any excess fat and skin) 3 tablespoons medium dry Sherry 3 tablespoons dark Soy sauce

FOR THE SAUCE: 1 cup chicken broth ‡ cup plus 2 tablespoons sugar 2 cups whole fresh or frozen cranberries fi cup Port wine

M A K E S 4-6

SERVINGS

Score the duck breasts by making several diagonal cuts in the skin, being careful not to go through the meat. Place the duck in a glass baking dish. Mix the Sherry and Soy and pour over the duck, turning the breasts to coat all sides. Cover and refrigerate at least 2 hours or overnight. In a medium saucepan combine the chicken broth, sugar and cranberries. Cook over medium low heat about 10 minutes or until the berries have popped and the sauce has begun to thicken. Add the Port and simmer for 5 more minutes. Keep warm. Remove the duck from the marinade. Heat a large skillet, frying pan or Dutch oven. Cook the breasts on medium heat, skin side down, until the skin begins to get crispy, about 10 minutes. Turn the breasts over and continue to cook, browning the other sides, for 5-10 minutes or to desired doneness and until the skin is crispy. Transfer the duck to a plate covered with paper towels, and keep warm. To serve, place a duck breast on each plate and spoon some of the Cranberry-Port sauce over each piece. Serve with roasted potatoes, wild rice or other grain.

An old village of bog houses In South Carver, MA is left to the ages. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, these small shacks housed migrant workers harvesting the bogs from September to November. Although most shacks were designed to house 1–4 people, accounts from 1911 show that as many 12-15 men were packed into a single dwelling (National Child Labor Commission).

John K. Robson photograph

MEAT S

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91

Quail in Cranberry Madeira Sauce S E R V E S 2-4 An elegant, colorful meal served with glazed carrots and rice or garlic mashed potatoes. Preheat oven to 425°. In a large sauté pan heat the oil. When the oil is hot, brown the quail, turning each one frequently to brown all sides, about 7 minutes. Remove the quail from the pan and place in a baking dish, breast side up, and bake for 10 minutes. Reduce the heat to 375° and cook for 10 more minutes. While the quail are in the oven prepare the sauce. Deglaze the sauté pan by pouring the chicken broth into the pan, scraping the bottom of the pan while cooking on medium high heat. Stir in the cranberries and the sugar. Bring to a boil and simmer for 10-15 minutes until all the berries have popped and the sauce has thickened. Add the Madeira and the thyme, bring back to a simmer and turn off the heat. When the quail are out of the oven, pour any juices that may have accumulated under them into the cranberry sauce, stirring to combine. To serve: Place one or two quails on each plate and spoon some of the Cranberry Madeira sauce alongside each quail. Garnish with a sprig of fresh thyme.

1 tablespoon olive oil 4 quail, washed and patted dry, legs trussed with kitchen string

SAUCE: ‡ cup chicken broth · cup Madeira wine 1 cup fresh or frozen cranberries fi cup sugar 1 teaspoon fresh thyme Thyme sprigs for garnish

Adjacent woodland area near the bogs of the Federal Furnace Cranberry Company.

John K. Robson photograph

132

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BEVERAGES

California Cranberry Berry Smoothie MAKES 2 1 banana 1 cup frozen raspberry low-fat yogurt fl cup cranberry juice ‡ cup frozen blueberries ‡ cup frozen raspberries Smoothie (photo page 79)

SERVINGS

There are many ways to make a smoothie. Experiment with different ingredients until you find the right combination. Try this version for a start: Combine all ingredients in a blender. Blend. Try using frozen bananas, mango or blackberries and different flavors of frozen yogurt or sherbet.

Cranberry Thai Limeade S E R V E S 6-8

8 fresh limes, halved 4 cups water, boiled ‚ cup granulated sugar pinch of salt 2 tablespoons frozen cranberry juice concentrate 6-8 lime slices for garnish Fresh mint leaves for garnish

Squeeze the juice from the limes. Set the juice and the lime rinds aside. Pour the boiling water into a bowl. Add the sugar and salt. Stir well to dissolve. Add the lime rinds and let the mixture stand for 10 minutes. Squeeze the remaining juice from the rinds into the sugar water and discard the rinds. Pour the water through a sieve into a pitcher. Add the reserved lime juice and the cranberry concentrate. Stir well. To serve, fill a tall glass with ice and limeade. Garnish with lime and a sprig of mint.

Spiced Cranberry Tea MAKES 4 2 cups brewed black tea 2 cups cranberry juice 2 teaspoons sugar 4 cinnamon sticks 4 slices orange

SERVINGS

This tea is delicious served either steaming hot in a mug or cold over ice as a refreshing iced tea. In a 2 quart saucepan, combine the tea, cranberry juice, sugar and cinnamon sticks. Simmer for five minutes. Pour the tea into 4 glasses or mugs. Serve with a slice of orange and cinnamon stick floating in the tea. Serve hot or chilled over ice.

MICROWAVE DIRECTIONS: Combine the tea, juice, sugar and cinnamon in a microwave safe bowl or pitcher. Heat on HIGH for three minutes. Serve as directed.

Counter-top, display ad for cranberry juice, circa 1940. — Ocean Spray Cranberries.

BEVERAGES

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133

Spiced Cranberry Cider M A K E S 8-10

SERVINGS

Combine all the ingredients in a 4-quart pot or kettle. Simmer for 5 minutes, stirring continually. Serve hot in mugs garnished with a cinnamon stick.

Cranberry Spritzer - Non Alcoholic MAKES

4 cups apple cider 4 cups cranberry juice 1 teaspoon whole cloves 3 cinnamon sticks · cup packed brown sugar 8-10 cinnamon sticks for serving

A SINGLE SERVING

Add 2 tablespoons frozen concentrate cranberry juice to 6 ounces chilled club soda. Or, add ‡-cup chilled cranberry juice cocktail to ‡ cup chilled club soda. Garnish with a slice of lemon or lime. — John Burton, School of Bartending Santa Rosa, CA

2 tablespoon frozen concentrate cranberry juice, thawed 6 ounces chilled club soda Garnish, lemon or lime

There are 44,000 cranberries in one gallon of cranberry juice! If you strung all the cranberries produced in North America this year, they would wrap around the earth about forty-five times!

Mango Cranberry Indian Lassi MAKES

THREE

6- O U N C E

SERVINGS

Lassi is a simple drink made from yogurt. This nutritious Indian yogurt drink may be the original smoothie. Lassis are enjoyed throughout India. They are especially refreshing on hot summer days. The Lassi in Northern India is flavored with salt and pepper. Try this sweet and tart Lassi on a warm day or as a festive addition to a lunch or Sunday Brunch.. Place yogurt, mango, cranberries, water, honey or sugar and lemon juice in a blender. Blend until the ingredients are fully combined. Add the ice cubes and continue blending until the Lassi is nice and frothy. — Drew Spangler, Mill Valley, CA and Rekha Dutt, Tiburon, CA and Calcutta, India

1 cup (8 ounces) plain yogurt ‡ cup mango pulp (fresh is best but canned or frozen chunks may be used) fi cup whole cranberries fi cup cold water 5 tablespoons honey or sugar* 1 tablespoon lemon juice 4 ice cubes *You can use both honey and sugar. Honey will give the Lassi a distinct flavor. For tart Lassi lovers, use sugar, and reduce it to 3 tablespoons. For sweet Lassi lovers, increase the sugar or honey to 6 tablespoons.

HISTORY

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The American Cranberry by Nancy Cappelloni

G  C The cranberry most often used in commercial cultivation in North America is an eyepopping red, sour, round berry. A native wetland crop, it thrives in a rare combination of conditions—sandy soil, a favorable climate and proper underlying geology. Its botanical name is Vaccinium macrocarpon from the Heath family Ericaceae. This trailing woody vine produces stems or “runners” from one to six-feet long. The runners sprout short little branches about two or three inches long called “uprights,” on which pale rose flowers form buds. Most of the berries, borne by blossoms on the uprights, are round and turn red in early fall. During the growing season, from April to November, the leaves are a dark glossy green, then a reddish brown in the dormant season. Cranberries grow on low-lying vines in beds, commonly known as bogs or marshes, which result from glacial deposits that left impermeable kettle holes lined with clay. These beds became filled with water and decaying matter, creating an ideal environment for cranberries. Cranberries can only grow and survive under a very special combination of factors: they require an acid peat soil, a fresh water supply and a prolonged growing season. Besides the bog, cranberry growth relies on a surrounding network of fields, forests, streams and ponds, which make up the cranberry wetlands system. Cranberry vines need not be re-planted as they will survive indefinitely if they are undamaged. More than 100 varieties of cranberries grow in North America, chiefly the “Ben Lear,” “Early Black,” “Howes,” “McFarlin,” “Pilgrim,” “Searles” and “Stevens.” In Massachusetts, some vines are over 150 years old and still bear fruit. In contrast to its cultivated kin, the wild American cranberry is a trailing evergreen vine found as far north as Newfoundland, west to Minnesota, and south to the higher elevations of North Carolina.

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N  C A graceful water bird appears to play a part in the naming of the cranberry. One theory suggests that Dutch and German settlers called the fruit “crane-berry,” having observed it to be a favorite food of cranes. Another theory suggests the slender stem and downward hanging blossom, resembling the head and neck of an English crane, gave rise to the name “crane-berry,” which was later shortened to “cranberry.” The Indian tribes of the Woodland region gave different names to the wild cranberry, based on their diverse languages stemming from the Proto-Algonquian culture. The Wampanoag of eastern Massachusetts called the berry “sassamenesh,” meaning very sour berry. The Cape Cod Pequot and Leni-Lenape tribes of New Jersey, Delaware, southeast New York and eastern Pennsylvania called the cranberry “ibimi,” meaning bitter berry or bitter fruit. The Algonquians of Wisconsin used “atoqua,” the Chipppewa tribes “anibimin” and the Narragansett’s “saytaash.” The Indians of the Columbia River region called the cranberry “soolabich.” According to Wampanoag legend, the cranberry was brought from heaven in the beak of a white dove as a gift from the Great Spirit. The dove dropped the berries into a bog where they flourished under the care of Granny Squanit, or Squauanit, the traditional women’s god or spiritual guardian who ensured the survival of the many wild fruits and herbs they depended upon. In the fall, when the cranberries around Aquinnah, Martha’s Vineyard (formerly Gay Head) were ripe, a young boy would leave a basket of food in the hollows among the sand dunes as a tribute to Granny Squanit. European settlers created their own version of how the cranberry first came to Massachusetts. An Indian medicine man and an early Christian missionary were arguing over who was most powerful. The Indian cast a spell and mired the Reverend Richard Bourne in quicksand. The two men agreed to a fifteenday battle of wits. Bourne promised if he lost, he would serve the medicine man, but if he won, he must be fed. Unable to move, Bourne was kept alive by a white dove, which periodically flew down from heaven and fed him a succulent berry. On one occasion, the dove dropped its berry. When the medicine man

Reverend Bourne’s respite. — Pen and ink by Robert A. Henry.

spotted the berry, he realized the dove was feeding Bourne and he tried unsuccessfully to cast a spell on the dove. Finally, the medicine man fell to the ground, exhausted from his own lack of food and water, and the spell on the Reverend Bourne was released. The berry that had fallen to the ground took root and thus began Cape Cod’s wild cranberry bogs.

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T I   W R  T W The first North American Indians encountered by the early explorers and settlers were tribes of the Woodland region, which extended south from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, and west from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River. The traditional practices of each tribe were distinct, even speaking different languages. In the northeast, farmers and hunters lived in small villages scattered throughout the forests. Their environment supplied them with a plentitude of wildlife, fish, shellfish, wild game, wild berries and nuts. Corn, squash and beans grew in the fertile soil. Maple syrup was tapped from maple trees in some areas. The forests also provided them with resources and materials for their tools, canoes, cooking implements, weapons, clothing and homes. The tribes had a solid botanical knowledge of the plants and their properties. They knew where to find plants with the most desired properties, which parts of the plants to pick and when, how best to preserve them, prepare the medicines, and deliver the most effective doses. When gathering medicinal plants, only a few could be taken from a patch. The rule was to leave a growing plant. The Wampanoag people inhabited the region of southern New England for more than 12,000 years, thus evolving countless hunting, fishing and food gathering strategies. Managing abundant wild resources, they moved to horticulture and pottery more than 3,000 years ago. The Wampanoag, called “Eastern People,” “People of the Light,” “People of The First Light” or “People of the Dawn” lived by hunting, gathering, farming and fishing. In the many villages, the people drew what they needed from the land without ever exploiting the resources. That respect for nature’s bounty was passed down through the generations. Gladys Widdis, Wampanoag elder from Aquinnah, remembers, “When we were youngsters growing up, we ate anything and everything that grew, from the time it sprouted until the time it became food, whatever it was.” Only the amount that was needed was harvested. In the spring, the early tribes moved their villages to the seashore to fish and plant crops. They gathered spring shoots and roots, flowers, fruit, berries, nuts, acorns and various leaves. In the fall and winter, the Wampanoag moved inland to the forests of oak, maple and pine where they hunted deer, wolf, bear, beaver, moose, wild turkey, otter and wildcat. They fished the streams, rivers, lakes and ocean. In winter their diet was largely dependent on what they had stored, though they caught fish through holes in the ice.

Woodlands Indians hunting at Sconticut Neck, Fairhaven, MA. — Illustration by Robert A. Henry, 1984.

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During the summer and fall when fruits and berries were harvested, they were dried whole or prepared in small cakes to be used during the winter months in cooking and trading. The “three sisters”—corn, beans and squash were planted together by the Wampanoag women. Corn, the primary crop, was easily dried and stored. Deer was the most important meat source. The decline of the Wampanoag tribe began before the Pilgrims arrived, devastated by diseases brought over by European explorers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, as well as from losses sustained in war. As the English arrived, they created laws stating that unoccupied lands were not owned and quickly expropriated much of the coastal land. The Wampanoag believed in commonly held land and private ownership conflicted with these beliefs.

D , “  ” The Wampanoag picked sassamanesh (sour berry) from an abundant natural supply, which grew wild in sandy bogs along the coast. The berries became a tasty ingredient in breads, ground or mashed with cornmeal. Pemmican was a cake made of fat, dried deer, bear or moose meat and fresh cranberries pounded together, then dried in the sun for later use. A staple food, pemmican provided proteins and vitamins through the winter and on long trips. Cranberries were also boiled in combination with other foods. During the winter the Wampanoag lived mostly on food that was dried and stored in pits, located near and inside their weetoos (huts). The lined pits, which were dug by the women, were carefully filled with dried cranberries, other fruits and berries, nuts and meats, then topped with mats and covered with earth. Roger Williams observed how the Narragansett took the dried berries called sautaash, beat them to a powder and mixed them with parched corn to make “sautauthig”, “…a delicate dish…which is as sweet to them as plum or spice cake to the English.” The Wampanoag knew the healing virtue of cranberries and used them for internal and external treatments. Medicine men brewed them to make poultices to draw poison from arrow wounds. Cranberries were used in tea, believed to calm the nerves. The red dye produced by cranberries was used to color wool and the dried plants were used in the making of rugs and blankets. Other Northeastern tribes used the leaves of the high bush cranberry as a lotion to treat venereal disease. A tea made from dried leaves acted as a diuretic and cleansed the urinary tract. According to Erichsen-Brown in Medicinal and other uses of North American Plants, as early as 1708 and as late as 1915, the Penobscot and Malecite tribes cooked cranberries for medicinal purposes: “They make a conserve of them and esteem them for medicine for stomach problems…. The High-bush cranberries are steeped and drunk for swollen glands and mumps. Plant is boiled and the mess rubbed in the eyes for sore eyes.”

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Many Eastern Woodland Indians added maple sugar to cranberries, other wild berries, roots and nuts. As noted by John Heckwelder, in 1819: “They make an excellent preserve from the cranberry and crab-apple, to which, after it has been well stewed, they add a proper quantity of sugar or molasses.” To create their sweetener, the Indians gathered the sweet sap of the flourishing family of maple trees (called “sheesheegummawis,” meaning sap flows fast), and boiled it down to a syrup. They collected the watery liquid and then placed it in a pot of bark or clay. Hot rocks were dropped into the sap to cook it down to a thick, deep brown syrup, or finally, to sugar. They also tapped wild cheerry, box elder, birch, beech, hickories and other sap bearing trees. This late winter harvest produced rich rewards, and the oral traditions of many tribes spread this knowledge. The Mohican Indians believed the melting snow caused the spring sap to run in the maples. Whole Indian families and clans would move to their “sugar bush”—sugar maple groves—for the sweet late-winter labor of sugaring. This lasted from three to six weeks, until the maple trees had budded and blossomed and the clear sap had turned to pale amber. Maple sugar was also mixed with parched corn and carried in small leather pouches and eaten plain, boiled or mixed with water or fruit juices. The colonists learned to tap the maple trees from the Woodland regional tribes and began storing the maple sugar in wooden tubs to use year-round. They bored a hole in the maple tree to drain the sap, then plugged up the hole with wood from the same tree so it could be tapped over again. Since white sugar was not available until around 1650, and was very expensive, maple sugaring became common practice among New Englanders throughout the 18th century.

T W  A  C D The Wampanoag people lived for 10,000-12,000 years on Aquinnah, a 3,400-acre peninsula on the southwestern end of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. Aquinnah means “the end of the island.” Pursuing a traditional economy based on fishing and agriculture, the Wampanoag shared their resources with European settlers,

After picking berries in the sand dunes in the Lobsterville section of Aquinnah (Gay Head), Martha’s Vineyard, a family of Wampanoag celebrate Cranberry Day with a clam boil, 1989.

a fact documented from the early 1600s. The Wampanoag survived on Noepe, “the dry place,” though many members were decimated by disease brought over by the early settlers. The tribe had always held land in common, and this included the cranberry bogs. In 1987, the Aquinnah Wampanoag received

John K. Robson photograph

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tribal recognition and settlement of long-standing land claims by the federal government. What was left of their common land, including the cranberry bogs, Lobsterville and the Gayhead Cliffs was returned to them. Today, about 300 tribal members live on the Island and care for 477 acres of ancestral land. Wild cranberries still grow on 200 of those acres. A long-time tradition and important holiday for the Aquinnah Wampanoag is Cranberry Day. Beginning as a week-long encampment at the dunes of Lobsterville, it later became a threeday festival. Today, Cranberry Day is a major one-day celebration, the second Tuesday of October, a symbol of the tribe’s revitalized spirit— embodying the spiritual, cultural and political renaissance of the tribe. It is also one of many thanksgiving celebrations held throughout the year, a day of prayer and giving thanks to the Creator. Recognized by the local government as a holiday, Wampanoag children are excused from school to harvest and picnic on their tribal land, one of the last wild cranberry bogs left in this country. On Cranberry Day, picking begins when the cranberry agent declares the bogs open, usually around 6:00. At 9:00, everyone gathers for the harvest. Traditionally, families bring picnic baskets and food is shared with all. According to Helen Manning, Aquinnah Wampanoag elder, the afternoon is filled with games and storytelling and children listen intensely to the legends told by their elders. The evening ends with a community potluck dinner and singing and dancing. Gladys Widdis, an Aquinnah Wampanoag elder, recalls how her parents came to the bogs in oxcarts and gathered cranberries by the bushel. “We picked for two or three days, enough for A Wampanoag couple at Aquinnah gather berries near the dunes at Lobsterville, Martha’s Vineyard, circa 1930.

Spinner Collection

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what we figured we needed through the winter, and more. While waiting for our elders to finish picking in the afternoon, we raced cranberries down the dunes, making a trough from the top of the dunes to the bottom; sometimes snake-like, sometimes straight. We’d set the cranberries in a line at the top, push them to start and see whose reached the bottom first.” The men took the harvested cranberries by fishing boats to New Bedford and exchanged them for flour, sugar and molasses. Helen Manning remembers arriving at the bogs in oxcarts and filling them with cranberries, which were stored for the remainder of the year. Her friend’s house contained a whole room for storing cranberries picked these few days. Without central heating, the house stayed cool. “As a young boy, my father liked to go into the room and hear the popping sound as he stepped on the cranberries. The cranberries were used for very simple recipes such as cranberry dumplings, cranberry sauce and cranberry cobbler. Everyone had a cow then,” Helen recalled,” so the cobbler would be served with fresh cream.” Gladys Widdis recalls, “In my family, after we picked the cranberries, they were poured on the upper level of our homestead, and my grandfather would put in boards so they wouldn’t roll out. Those cranberries would stay there all winter and when we children felt bad we’d go up there and run though the cranberries to hear them crack.” The Wampanoag have chosen not to weed, fertilize or tamper with the 200 acres of dunes and cranberry bogs they control. Gladys Widdis explains, “We say, let the Great Spirit take care of them. Some years we have a lot of cranberries, some years we don’t have as many.”

P’ A On September 6, 1620, 102 people boarded the Mayflower in Plymouth, England and crossed the ocean in search of religious freedom in the New World. On November 9, they sought shelter along the tip of Cape Cod (now Provincetown) but could not find a promising place to settle. They continued to sail, and on December 11 (or 21) they landed at Plymouth

Massasoit at Plymouth, MA.

Rock and established a settlement. When winter came, food supplies dwindled and the Pilgrims, who knew little about hunting and fishing, were starving. By spring, only 57 Pilgrims and half the crew had survived. The survivors began planting seeds they had brought from home and they continued to build homes. Samoset, a Pemaquid Indian Chief from the coast of what is now Maine, walked into the Pilgrims’ village one day in April and welcomed them in broken English, which he had learned from English fishermen. Days later, he returned to Plymouth with Tisquantum

John K. Robson photograph

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(nicknamed Squanto by William Bradford) who spoke better English. Squanto was a sole survivor of the Pawtuxet, a Wampanoag tribe. He had been kidnapped by the English and taken to London. Tisquantum informed the Pilgrims that the Wampanoag chief, Massasoit, the sachem of Pokanoket, near Bristol, Rhode Island, wanted

Native Americans instruct settlers on farming techniques. — From Ebenezer W. Pierce: Indian History…, 1878.

to speak with them. Massasoit had alliances with other Wampanoag villages and these made up the Wampanoag Confederacy. Though there were many villages besides the Pokanoket, the settlers referred to the Wampanoag as the Pokanoket. Governor John Carver and Massasoit worked out a peace agreement on March 22, 1621, making the Pilgrims and Wampanoag allies. According to Mourt’s Relation A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, two of the six agreements read: “That neither he nor any of his should injure or do hurt to any of our people” and “If any did unjustly war against him, we would aid him; if any did war against us, he should aid us.” This simple treaty was never broken, and the two groups enjoyed a peaceful coexistence. Massasoit remained an ally of the Pilgrims until his death in 1661. Over time, however, hostilities grew among new settlers and colonists, and many Indian tribes of the Eastern Woodlands were devastated, losing lives and land as well as their freedom. Squanto stayed in Plymouth and taught the new settlers how to fish the rivers, coastline and sea. He shared the seeds of his ancestors and taught them how to grow corn, beans, pumpkins and squash. He taught them how, where and when to gather various wild plants, fruits, berries and nuts. In late summer he led them to cranberry bogs to pick the wild berries, which were new to the Pilgrims, and taught them the patterns of wild game and how to hunt. Through his native skills, sound advice and loyalty, Squanto saved them from complete devastation. He also served as a liaison between the Indians and Pilgrims. The settlers learned new skills and traded with other tribes of the Woodland region as well.

F S The first explorer to document the wild cranberry may have been Captain John Smith, the “Admiral of New England,” when he voyaged along the coast of the New World in 1614. According to John Smith’s Works, “The Herbes and Fruits are of many sorts and kinds: as Alkermes, currans, mulberries…of certain red berries, called Kermes…and may be yeerly gathered in a good quantity.”

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Another seventeenth century Englishman, John Josselyn, made two voyages to America, one in 1638 and again in 1663. Returning to England in 1672, he wrote New Englands Rarities Discovered, an early, authentic botanical guide to the area’s plants and animals. He described the cranberry in detail: “Cran Berry, or Bear Berry, because Bears use much to feed upon them, is a small, trayling Plant that grows in Salt Marshes, the tender Branches (which are reddish) run out in great length, lying flat on the ground, where at distances they take Root, overspreading sometimes half a score Acres, sometimes in small patches of about a Rood, or

Title page from New Englands Rarities Discovered.

the like; the leaves are like Box, but greener, thick and glittering; the Blossoms are very like the Flowers of our English Night Shade, after which succeed the Berries, hanging by long, small stalks no bigger than a hair, at first they are of a pale yellow Colour, afterwards red, and as big as a Cherry, some perfectly Round, others Oval, all of them hollow, or a sower astringent Taste; they are ripe in August and September.” When Roger Williams, pioneer of religious liberty, was forced to flee the Massachusetts Colony, he began living among the Narragansett Indians of southern New England and learned their language. He later founded Rhode Island. Williams, in his famous Key into the Language of America, An Help to the Language of the Natives of New England, written in 1643, noted that the Narragansett Indians had a name for cranberries and a high regard for their medicinal purposes. He wrote: “Sasemineash-Another Sharp, Cooling fruit, growing in fresh water in the Winter…; Sweet, like currants, Some Opening, some of a binding nature….” Williams further observed one interesting way the Narragansett used cranberries in their cooking. “They took the dried cranberries, sautaash, beat them to a powder and mixed them with parched corn to make sautauthig, “a delicate dish…which is as sweet to them as plum or spice cake to the English.” John Eliot was an early missionary in the region of Concord, Massachusetts. After preaching a sermon in 1647, a question arose asking, “…how it comes to pass that the Sea water was salt, and the Land water fresh.” Eliot responded, “Why are Strawberries sweet and Cranberries sowre? There is no reason but the wonderfull worke of God that made them so.” By the late seventeenth century, the American cranberry had gained such popularity that it was considered, along with corn and codfish, one of the most prized foods found in the colonies. In 1677, in order to appease King Charles II over the colony coining its own money, the authorities of the Massachusetts Colony sent him three of their choicest products, a gift comprising “tenn barrells of cranburyes, two hogsheads of special good sampe (Indian corn) and three thousand of cod fish.”

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In 1686, cranberries were again sent to noted English botanist, John Ray. He, in turn, described the berry and gave it its American name “cranberry”. Early evidence of the cranberry’s popularity in both New Jersey and Pennsylvania is found in several sources as well: Thomas Budd, a Quaker, settled in Burlington, New Jersey and wrote one of the first books about America. In his little book, Good Order Established in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in America, 1685, Budd lists cranberries

16th century (earliest known) woodcut of wild cranberry (European), called marsh wort. — From Henry Lyte: A Nievve Herbal…, 1578.

among the region’s natural resources: “Fruits that grow natural in the Countries are Strawberries, Cramberries, Huckleberries, Blackberries, Medlers, Grapes, Plums, Hickory Nuts, Mulberries….” “Cramberries” is also the term Gabriel Thomas used in An Historical and Geographical Account of the Province and Country of Pennsylvania and of West-New-Jersey in America, 1698: “…several sorts of Wild Fruits, as Grapes…Cramberries, and Plumbs, of several sorts….” Mahlon Stacy, an early settler near Trenton, New Jersey, wrote a letter to his brother in England in 1689: “The cranberries, much like cherries for colour and bigness, which may be kept till fruit come in again….” The settlers obviously learned to store cranberries by observing the Indians. And Stacey enthusiastically endorsed the use of the cranberry in “modern” American cooking: “…an excellent sauce is made of them for venison, turkeys and other great fowl, and they are better to make tarts than either gooseberries or cherries….” Cranberries were also used as a trade commodity for the Indians in their dealings with the English. According to Stacy, “They (the Indians)…brought to market in season, huckleberries, strawberries, cranberries, grapes and venison. And delivered them as well!…and we have them brought to our homes by the Indians in great plenty.” Meanwhile, on the Northwest coast, Lewis and Clark recorded paying “high prices” to a group of Chinook women for “Cramberies.”

C  G M Wild cranberries growing along Cape Cod were particularly welcome to the Pilgrims, who had long been deprived of fruit. Their diets consisted almost exclusively of salted meat and biscuits, the same endured by sailors during long voyages. Lacking Vitamin C, many suffered from scurvy. Undoubtedly, they learned of the nutritional and medicinal properties of the cranberry from their Wampanoag friends, who had been using them for hundreds of years. The high Vitamin C content in cranberries provided a natural remedy for scurvy, as John Josseyln noted in 1638: “They are excellent against Scurvey. For the Heat in Feavors. They are also good to allay the fervour of Hot Diseases.” Roger Williams, in Key into the Language of America (1643), also noted that “Sasemineash (were) Excellent to conserve against Feavors, of which there are divers kinds….”

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