Effect of Job Redesign on Employee Performance

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ISSN: 2276-7827 Submission Date: 07/04/014

ICV 2012: 6.03

Accepted: 28/07/014

(DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15580/GJBMS.2014.4.040714179)

Effect of Job Redesign on Employee Performance in Commercial Banks in Kisumu, Kenya By

Opiyo Evelyn Achieng Dr. Isaac Ochieng Silas Owuor

Published: 02/09/014

Greener Journal of Business and Management Studies

ISSN: 2276-7827

ICV 2012: 6.03

Vol. 4 (4), pp. 115-137, August 2014.

Research Article - (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15580/GJBMS.2014.4.040714179)

Effect of Job Redesign on Employee Performance in Commercial Banks in Kisumu, Kenya 1

Opiyo Evelyn Achieng, *2Dr. Isaac Ochieng (PhD), 3Silas Owuor 1

Department of Marketing and Management, Maseno University. 2 Department of Commerce, Laikipia University. 3 Department of Management Science, Maseno University.

*Corresponding Author’s Email: [email protected], Cell Ph: +254-725-920074 ABSTRACT Job redesign is the restructuring of the elements of work in order to make it more encouraging and inspiring for the employees. Even though redesign has been recommended as a means of improving performance in organizations, its effect on the performance of employees in the banking sector in Kenya, has not been empirically investigated, yet all banks have embraced it as a core strategy. This study sought to determine the effect of job redesign on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. The study adopted a cross sectional survey research design. A sample of 297 randomly selected staff of commercial banks was picked. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect primary data. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. The study established that task identity, task variety and task significance affects the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu, but that task autonomy does not affect the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu. The study concludes that job redesign affects the performance of employees and recommends that commercial banks create a high degree of task identity for their employees. Keywords: Task Identity, Task Variety Task Significance, Task Autonomy.

INTRODUCTION 1.1

Background of the Study

During the early part of this century, organizational theorists attempted to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations by developing a set of principles. The idea was that efficiency would be the ultimate criterion toward which organizations should strive and that the use of rational administrative practices and procedures would enable managers to reach this goal (Slocum & Sims 2000). Classical theorists developed a number of principles that they believed would maximize the rationality and efficiency of the organization. These principles emphasized the importance of clear and unambiguous channels of authority, centralization of decision- making, adherence to rules and regulations, and the division of labor. The latter principle had a great impact on the worker. In essence, this principle specifies that maximum work efficiency will be achieved if jobs are simplified and specialized to the greatest extent possible (Alber, 2007). The notion is that the employees will function most efficiently if they perform the same specialized functions repeatedly instead of spreading their attention and energies across several more complex tasks (Slocum & Sims, 2000). Unfortunately, numerous studies have shown that work designed according to the principles of classical and scientific management does not always improve productivity (Alber, 2007), particularly in the banking sector. This led to the development of job redesign. Job redesign is the restructuring of the elements of work including tasks, duties and responsibilities of a specific job in order to make it more encouraging and inspiring for the employees or workers (Alber, 2007). According to Aldag and Brief (1979), the process includes revising, analyzing, altering, reforming and reshuffling the job-related content and dimensions to increase the variety of assignments and functions to motivate employees and make them feel as an important asset of the organization (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). This study defines job redesign as the deliberate purposeful planning of the job, including all its structural and social aspects and their effect on the employee. It is a broad concept that can refer to any part or combination of parts of the job, and is characterized by task identity, task variety, and task significance, and autonomy. The idea is to place the right person in the right job and get the maximum output while increasing their level of satisfaction (Slocum & Sims, 2000). www.gjournals.org

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A job can be made more meaningful through task identity, task variety, task significance and autonomy. Individual jobs should focus on an entire unit as opposed to just a portion of it. For example, a bank teller may be responsible for satisfying all the hank needs of a customer, including transactions involving checking, savings, utility payments, loan payments, and mortgage payments, rather than specializing only in savings account deposits and withdrawals. This is task identity (Slocum & Sims, 2000). A task should also require an individual to develop and use a variety of skills and abilities in the performance of the task. In the case of a general superintendent of a banking plant, the technical knowledge of the firm’s machinery, the skill to supervise others and the ability to determine plant shutdowns and repairs without loss of revenues provides a significant amount of task variety (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2009). A job should have a substantial impact on the welfare of the organization (Alber, 2007). Recruiting high-caliber staff indicates that a high degree of task significance is attached to the job (Aldag & Brief, 1979). Task variety, task identity, task significance, and autonomy are the core dimensions of a job because they relate directly to the attainment of personal satisfaction. In a bank where there is task identity, tasks are combined, all tasks required to complete a given task are performed by one person, rather than by a series of individuals who do separate, small parts of the job (Slocum & Sims 2000). When a number of tasks are combined to form a single large one, task variety almost invariably increases. Moreover, task identity often improves as well, because the employee is able to identify with the complete product or service (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). And when work is formed into “natural” units, the parts of work handled by an employee are arranged into a logical grouping, focusing on the ownership of a job by giving the worker continuing responsibility for an identifiable portion of work. On the other hand, a worker is to feel personally responsible for a meaningful portion of his or her work, because, it is argued, a job is meaningful to an individual when he or she feels personally responsible for the job’s success or failure (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). The key to this is autonomy (Slocum & Sims 2000). These may be established and accepted principles of work performance in organizations, but, their applicability to employees in the banking sector in Kenya have not been investigated. 1.1.1

Banking Industry in Kenya

The Banking industry in Kenya is governed by the Companies Act, the Banking Act, the Central Bank of Kenya Act and the various prudential guidelines issued by the Central Bank of Kenya. The banking sector was liberalized in 1995 and exchange controls lifted. The Central Bank of Kenya, which falls under the Ministry of Finance, is responsible for formulating and implementing monetary policies and fostering the liquidity, solvency and proper functioning of the financial system (The Banking Survey, 2010). As at December 2008, there were 46 banking and non-bank institutions, 15 micro-finance institutions and 109 foreign exchange bureaus (Think Business, 2012). To address issues that affect the Banking industry in Kenya, banks have come together and formed a forum under the Kenya Bankers Association. Kenyan Banks have realized tremendous growth in the last five years and have expanded to the East African region (The Banking Survey, 2010). There is renewed competition from local banks and international banks, some of which are new entrants in the country (Think Business, 2012; The Banking Survey, 2010). The growth of banks has been mainly underpinned by; an industry wide branch network expansion strategy both in Kenya and in the East African community region (Think Business, 2012); automation of a large number of services and a move towards emphasis on the complex customer needs rather than traditional off-the-shelf banking products (The banking Survey, 2010). Players in this sector have experienced increased competition over the last few years resulting from increased innovations among the players and new entrants into the market, (Omondi, 2010). In today’s competitive banking environment, exemplary customer service is one of the distinguishing characteristics that a commercial bank exploits to obtain a competitive edge (Armstrong, 2007). Bloom and Reenen (2007) concurs that since most of the commercial banks offer comparable products and services, they continually search for a competitive advantage to attract new customers and help them retain existing ones. They, therefore, endeavor to develop innovative programs and initiatives to maintain superior customer service levels while remaining profitable. This has led commercial banks to either downsize or right size themselves while continuously restructuring their operations to develop more cost effective and efficient operations (Rajan et al., 1999). To be effective, commercial banks must have a high degree of credibility, and the capacity to keep track of and carefully analyze the many factors impinging on their core goal of maintaining price stability and financial stability (Berekely, 2010). As Kombo and Tromp (2006) point out, commercial banks must respond with sound and well thought through policies as and when the need arises, and one such move is to constantly redesign their jobs to obtain peek employee performance. In today’s intensely competitive and global market, maintaining competitive advantage puts a heavy premium on having a highly committed or competitive workforce (Jamie and Saks, 2011). According to Hudson (2004) and Jyothi (2007), the critical HRM impediments of hiring right staff, redundancies, retaining talent, staff development, salary inflation and other external threats as well as changing working conditions and re-skilling are basically job redesigning. www.gjournals.org

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1.2

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Statement of the Problem

Today, when commercial banks grapple with such challenges as redundancy, profit reductions, employee turn-over or job-hopping phenomenon, an understanding of jobs and what amount of productivity could be obtained from the holders has become critical. This may call for constant and regular redesign of jobs to make them interesting and challenging and engaging and produce maximum from employees. But while job redesign has been promoted and recommended as a means of improving performance in organizations, its effect on the performance of employees in the banking sector has not been comprehensively investigated. Indeed many firms carry out job design and redesign processes yet employee performance has still been seen to be deficient, barely effective and in some instances downright poor. Also, research in the area has tended to be inconclusive demonstrating an unclear understanding of what should constitute an effective redesign process. The effect of job redesign on the performance of employees is therefore unknown, yet all banks have embraced job redesign as a core strategy. This study has given particular attention to job redesign methods and their effect on employee performance. 1.3

Aims of the study

The general aim of this study was to determine the effect of job redesign on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu city, with intention of developing suitable strategies for raising the performance of the employees and of the commercial banks in the city as a whole. The specific objectives of this study were to:i. ii. iii. iv. 1.4

Determine the effect of task identity on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City in Kisumu City. Establish the effect of task variety on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Assess the effect of task significance on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Determine the effect of task autonomy on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Research Questions

The main question of this study was – what is the effect of job redesign on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City? The specific questions of the study were:i. ii. iii. iv. 1.5

How does task identity affect the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City in Kisumu City? What is the effect of task variety on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City? Does task significance affect the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City? To what extent does task autonomy affect the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City? Scope of the Study

The study on the effect of job redesign on the performance of employees in commercial banks was conducted among the employees of 24 commercial banks in Kisumu City. Job redesign factors was conceptualized task identity, task variety, task significance and task autonomy, while performance was conceptualized as meeting targets, quantity of outputs, quality of output, and the time spent on work by the employee. The study was conducted through a cross- sectional survey research design, on a sample of 297 randomly selected staff of commercial banks, using questionnaire and interview methods, analyzed through percentages and means, and reported in tables and figures. 1.6

Justification of the Study

The outcome of this study should enable the management in commercial banks to understand and develop strategies to reduce the effect of job redesign related problems to individuals at risk of developing job redesign and its elements of task variety, identity and significance. Through the findings of this study, the Heads of Departments and the general management of the commercial banks would be informed on the price the banks pays for failure to redesign jobs. The study has produced the effect of each element of job redesign on the performance of employees . www.gjournals.org

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With this information, the management of the commercial banks in Kisumu City would be able to determine how much performance can be produced or realized from each employee under each job redesign factor. Such information should help the commercial banks in Kisumu City to balance job redesign and improve the productivity of the employees. The study should also benefit the employees of the commercial banks in Kisumu City because henceforth, they should be able to determine the maximum and minimum outputs that are possible from each of them given the prevailing conditions. Moreover, this is the only study that has so far investigated the relationship between job redesign and performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. As such, it has produced hitherto unavailable knowledge as far as job redesign and performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City is concerned. The study should therefore form a useful reference material on the literature of job redesign to employees of commercial banks, human resource practitioners, educators in banking and human resource, general readers as well as to researchers in this area. 1.7

Conceptual Framework

This study was guided by the conceptual framework indicated in Figure 1.1 based on the Motivation-Hygiene Theory of Hertzberg. This theory was selected because it has inspired a number of successful change projects involving the redesign of work. From the figure, the characteristics of job redesign; task identity, task variety, task significance and task autonomy will to some extent affect work quality and quantity, amount of time put in work and the portion of work completed within a specified time i.e. performance will depend on how well the jobs have been designed. Job Redesign (The Independent variable)

Employee Performance (The Dependent variable)

Task Identity Nature of tasks. Transformation of tasks. Focus on outcomes. -

Task Variety Skills. Ability and knowledge. Talents.

-

Quantity of work done. Quality of work done. Amount of time put in work. Proportion of work finished on time.

Task Significance Role of job to clients. Role of job to the unit. Role of job to the organization.

Task Autonomy Freedom. Independence. Discretion: in scheduling, procedure, methods and techniques.

Figure 1.1: Conceptual Framework Source: Self- conceptualization (2012). 1.8 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1

The Concept of Job Redesign

The term job redesign refers to activities that involve the alteration of specific jobs (or systems of jobs) with the intent of improving both productivity and the quality of employee work experiences. Although there are no generally accepted criteria for what is a well-designed job, there are some commonalities in job redesign projects ( Alber , www.gjournals.org

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2007). Typically, job specifications are changed to provide employees with additional responsibility for planning, setting up, and checking their own work; for making decisions about work methods and procedures; for establishing their own work-pace; and for dealing directly with the clients who receive the results of the work (Aldag & Brief, 1979). In many cases, jobs that previously had been simplified and segmented into many small parts in the interest of production efficiency are reassembled and made into larger and more meaningful wholes. Sometimes work is redesigned to create motivating and satisfying jobs for individual employees who work more or less on their own. Such activities are usually known as "job enrichment" (Herzberg, 1976). Alternatively, work may be designed as a group task, in which case a team of workers is given autonomous responsibility for a large and meaningful module of work. Such teams typically have the authority to manage their own social and performance processes as they see fit; they receive feedback (and often rewards) as a group; and they may even be charged with the selection, training, and termination of their own members. These teams are known as "autonomous work groups" (Gulowsen, 1972), "self-regulating work groups" (Cummings, 1978), or "self-managing work groups" (Hackman, 1990). A well-known and well-documented example of the design of work for teams is the Topeka pet food plant of General Foods. Both individual and team job redesign can be viewed as responses and alternatives to the principles for designing work that derive from classical organization theory and the discipline of industrial engineering. These principles specify that rationality and efficiency in organizational operations can be obtained through the simplification, standardization, and specialization of jobs in organizations (Slocum & Sims, 2000). These principles are based on the assumption that most employees, if managed well, will work efficiently and effectively on such jobs. Research over the last several decades has documented that job redesign, job enlargement, and job enrichment are closely related terms and will not be distinguished here. Current approaches to job redesign, then, tend to have a behavioral emphasis and attempt to create jobs that enhance work productivity without incurring the human costs that have been associated with the traditional approaches (Aldag & Brief, 2009). Opatha (2002) considers job design to include the functions of arranging task, duties and responsibilities into an organizational unit of work. The working definition for the study purpose is that, ‘The job design is the way to organize the contents, methods and relationship of jobs in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives as well as satisfaction of job holders. There are various approaches to job design. Regarding this Aswathappa (2006) explained that, various approaches to job design are; job rotation, job engineering, job enlargement, and job enrichment. In the view of Garg & Rastogi (2006), it is closely associated with sophisticated computer applications, Computer Assisted Design (CAD), and human – machine interactions. Job rotation and job enlargement were designed to take advantage of specialization of labor from the job engineering approach (Luthans, 2005). Job rotation allows an employee to work in different departments or jobs in an organization to gain better insight into operations (Aswathappa, 2006). Job enlargement can be used to increase motivation by giving employees more and varied task. Job redesign is designing and redesigning jobs in such a way that they become attuned to what individual employees are able and willing to do as an important issue in the world of work today. Job redesign aims to improve jobs in the organization (Alber, 2007). The goal of job design and job redesign is to reconstitute jobs or work roles in terms of work functions and worker capabilities that are both appealing to individuals and are in alignment with the organization’s strategy and vision (Turner & Lawrence, 2005). Job design involves the planning of the job including its contents, the methods of performing the job, and how it relates to other jobs in the organization (Rahim, 2001). Job design and redesign’s goal is to connect the needs of the individuals performing various jobs with the productivity needs of the organization. An important aim for job design and redesign is to provide individuals with meaningful work that fits effectively into the flow of the organization. The goal of job design is simplifying, enriching, enlarging, or otherwise changing jobs to make the efforts of each employee fit together better with jobs performed by other workers. Redesigning one job can make the overall system work more efficiently (Van de Ven & Ferry, 1980). Aldag and Brief (1979) concur with Davis (2005) that job redesign is more likely to improve performance when the changes in job content are sufficiently non-trivial to be perceptible to the workers, typically in terms of greater self-regulation, diversity, meaningfulness, challenge, and social responsibility; and when the changes in job content are part of a more pervasive program of improved working policies and practices, which include elements of adequate pay and job security, proper resources and working conditions, increased mutual influence by people at all levels, and constructive labor-management relations. Job redesign can improve organizational performance through job rotation, horizontal job enlargement, vertical job enlargement and the creation of autonomous working groups. In job rotation, workers can change places from time to time. Under this system the job of each worker may be simple, but variety is introduced as they swap places. Workers can learn to carry out any number of the tasks, instead of staying put at one position on the line (Slocum & Sims, 2000). In a horizontal job enlargement, a given workstation may be allocated more to do – thus the cycle time is extended. This change may also mean that the transformation to the product is more obvious. The enlargement is ‘horizontal’ in the sense that the level of difficulty is constant (Turner & Lawrence , 2 0 0 5 ) ; while a www.gjournals.org

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vertical job enlargement (job enrichment) gives the worker more responsibilities in handling his or her job. It is also known as ‘job enrichment’ because it contributes to self-esteem. Added responsibility for planning and for quality control indicates to a person that he or she is being trusted to exercise judgment (Katzell, 1980). From the management’s viewpoint, jobs, as performed, must lead to efficient operations quality products, and well-maintained equipment. From the workers’ viewpoint, jobs must be meaningful and challenging, provide feedback on performance, and call on their decision-making skills. Jobs must be designed in such a way that they allow the organization to take full advantage of technological breakthroughs without alienating the workers affected by change. Redesigning jobs allow companies to retain skilled workers, while enhancing output (Van de Ven & Ferry, 1980). Job redesign is similar to job enrichment in another sense in that it entails enriching job, which refers to the inclusion of greater variety of work content, requiring a higher level of knowledge and skill, giving workers, autonomy and responsibility in terms of planning, directing, and controlling their own performance, and providing the opportunity for personal growth and meaningful work experience (Garg & Rastogi, 2006). According to Herzberg (2003), job enrichment provides the opportunity for the employees’ psychological growth, while job enlargement merely makes a job structurally bigger. According to Hertzberg’s theory, only a challenging job has the opportunity for achievement, recognition, advancement and growth that will motivate personnel. Because of that, job characteristics model (JCM) superseded the two-factor theory and it is the most widely recognized model (Garg & Rastogi, 2006). The Hackman & Oldham model suggests the relationship between five core job dimensions – task variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback – and the occurrence of intrinsic motivation (Samarakoon, 2002). In the view of Garg & Rastogi (2006), task variety refers to the extent to which the job requires the employee to draw from a number of different skills and abilities as well as upon a range of knowledge. Task identity refers to whether the job has an identifiable beginning and end or how complete a module of work the employee performs, task significance refers to the degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people, autonomy refers to the degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures, and feedback refers to the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. 2.1.1

Outcomes of Work Redesign

Job redesign, when competently executed in appropriate organizational circumstances, generally increases the work satisfaction and motivation of employees whose jobs are enriched (Alber, 2007). Especially strong effects have been found for employees' level of satisfaction with opportunities for personal growth and development on the job as well as for their level of internal work motivation (i.e., motivation to work hard and well because of the internal rewards that good performance brings) (Aldag & Brief, 1979). Hackman and Oldham (1980) argue that though there is little evidence that job redesign increases satisfaction with aspects of the organizational context such as pay, job security, co-workers, or supervision; indeed, enrichment of the work sometimes prompts decreases in satisfaction with pay and supervision, especially when these organizational practices are not altered to mesh with the new responsibilities and increased autonomy of the persons whose jobs are redesigned. The quality of the product or service provided generally improves. When a job is well designed from a motivational point of view, the people who work on that job tend to experience self-rewards when they perform well. And, for most people, performing well means producing high-quality work of which they can be proud (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2009). According to Slocum and Sims (2000), the quantity of work done sometimes increases, sometimes is unchanged, and sometimes even decreases. What happens to production quantity when work is redesigned may depend mostly on the state of the work system prior to redesign (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Specifically, productivity gains would be expected under two circumstances: (i) when employees were previously exhibiting markedly low productivity because they were actively "turned off by highly routine or repetitive work or (ii) when there were hidden inefficiencies in the work system, as it was previously structured such as redundancies in the work, unnecessary supervisory or inspection activities, and so on (Slocum & Sims, 2000). Barr, et al (1978) are of the view that if such problems pre-existed in the work unit, then increases in the quantity of work performed are likely to appear after the work is redesigned. Davis (1975) confirms that if such problems were not present, then quantity increases would not be anticipated; indeed, decreases in quantity might even be noted as people worked especially hard on their enriched jobs to produce work of high quality. Findings regarding employee attendance at work - absenteeism and turnover - are not clear. The research needed to draw trustworthy conclusions about turnover is not yet available; and it may be that turnover is far more powerfully affected by economic and labor market conditions than by how jobs are designed (Fein, 2004). Hackman and Lawler (1971) indicate that research findings regarding absenteeism, like those for production quantity, are inconsistent: Some studies report improvements in attendance when jobs are enriched; some report no change, and some show worse absence problems than before. It may be that who is absent is different from routine , simple jobs www.gjournals.org

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compared to complex, challenging jobs. More talented employees, for example, may show higher absence rates for routine jobs because of boredom. Less talented employees may be unhappy (and therefore more frequently absent) for challenging jobs, because they find themselves overwhelmed by the same complexity that engages and motivates their more competent peers. This hypothesis would suggest that any overall indicator of absenteeism for total work groups could be misleading because of the differential effects of job redesign on employees who differ in competence (Katzell, 1980). Turner and Lawrence (2005) point out that although it is now generally recognized that job redesign is not a panacea for all organizational ills, it remains difficult to arrive at a "bottom line" estimate of the costs and benefits of job changes. Simple reports of improvements in job satisfaction are not likely to significantly warm the hearts of costconscious line managers; and for reasons outlined above, simple measures of production quantity or labor cost are inappropriate when used as the sole measure of the effects of job redesign. And despite the recent popularity of work design as a research topic and change technique, many unanswered questions remain, especially regarding the application of work design principles in complex, ambiguous organizational situations. 2.1.2

Job Redesign Approaches

There are varieties of approaches to job design. Motivational approaches are grounded in the earlier work on job enrichment. Job enlargement and various characteristics of jobs, the motivational approach has primarily been developed within the domain and scope of organizational psychology. The motivational approach has generally searched for job design constructs that will be correlated with such primary outcomes variables as satisfaction, motivation, involvement, absenteeism, and job performance (Van de Ven & Ferry, 1980). The mechanistic approach to job redesign has generally been on improving the efficiency with which jobs can be performed. Jobs that are constructed according to the mechanistic approach require less training and is less expensive to staff. In essence the jobs are simplified and have lower levels of responsibility. With mental demands being lower, output quality may increase (Turner & Lawrence, 2005). The other approach is the perceptual-motor approach. According to Katzell (1980), the presumed benefits of the perceptual-motor approach include the increase in output quality and a predicted decrease in accident rates due to the emphasis on the reliability and safety of the job. The reduced mental demands of the job would also reduce employee job redesign and fatigue. According to Herzberg’s theory of motivation, people have two sets of needs and requirements: motivator needs and hygiene needs. Motivator needs are related to the status of the task identity and how challenging it is. Outcomes such as; interesting work, autonomy, responsibility, being able to grow and develop on the job, and a sense of accomplishment and achievement, help to satisfy motivator needs. Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed. Hygiene needs are satisfied by outcomes such as pleasant and comfortable working conditions, pay, job security, good relationships with coworkers, and effective supervision (Davis, 2005). Herzberg’s two-factor theory provided real impetus to job redesign. Herzberg’s approach to job redesign involves improvement of the motivation factors, such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and opportunity for growth. This approach is based on the assumption that job enrichment or redesign increases job satisfaction, which, in turn, increases motivation and better performance (Van de Ven & Ferry, 1980). Holman et al. (2002) identify that organizations are in need of methods and tools that they can be utilize to design, implement and evaluate job designs. These authors believe that organizations recognize the importance of job design as a critical factor in the success of new ways of working. It is recognized, however, that the process of implementing job redesign is a key determinant of success. In the banking literature, there is little in the way of how the banking role might be restructured (Birnbaum & Somers, 1995). What does appear in the literature is generic and ‘high-level’ or conceptual and has limited practical value. Despite this, we do know a lot about job design. If we apply what we know, adopt a more comprehensive set of concepts, consider an interdisciplinary method, and develop usable methods and tools, job redesign could become more relevant. It is important to recognize that job redesign will look different in different settings. Some job characteristics will have more meaning than others. The choice of job characteristics to highlight will depend on an understanding and analysis of both the job and the context. With this in mind, the effects of job redesign will vary due to individual and contextual differences. 2.1.3

Perspectives on Job Design

Job design, or work design as it is identified by some, has a rich documented history dating back to the industrial revolution. There are four main perspectives: mechanistic, motivational, biological and perceptual motor. The classical, post-industrial period of job design focused on division of labor, simplification of work and specialization of work. This mechanistic perspective of job design further developed its underpinnings through the scientificmanagement school of thought. This mechanistic approach contributed to the removal of planning, coordinating and controlling (thus accountability) of activities from those who performed the tasks. Jobs high in mechanistic features www.gjournals.org

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could be staffed by almost anyone as long as they were trained in the task. Campion and Thayer (1987) state that because mental demands are minimal for these workers, job redesign and overload are unlikely. As well, errors are less common because mistakes are less likely to occur. The disadvantages to this approach are that staff is less satisfied and less motivated and this eventually translates into absenteeism, staff turnover, and health complaints and injuries related to physical wear, carelessness or repetition (Van de Ven & Ferry, 1980). During the 1950’s human relations advocates recognized the absence of attention to human needs in the mechanistic approach to job design and advocated for an approach that addressed work motivation and organizational behavior. The motivational perspective to job design takes into account social or people-interaction aspects as well as task variety, feedback, and achievement (Campion & Thayer, 1987). Recognizing that staff has feelings, motives and needs, organizational psychology developed two main theoretical approaches to motivational designs: socio-technical and job characteristics theories. Socio-technical theory is concerned with the interdependence of both the social and technical systems of organizations. Its premise is that the incremental gains of doing more of what is already being done and doing it better are limited (Tonges, 1998). Job design needs to include both how the work is designed and how the people are organized. Socio-technical theory has, in particular, encouraged the innovation of autonomous work groups (Holman et al., 2002). The second main theoretical approach is that of the characteristics of jobs and this has been strongly influenced by the work of Hackman & Oldham (1980) and their Job Characteristics Model. They suggest that three psychological states are necessary for high levels of work quality and propose that five core job dimensions are instrumental in producing these psychological states. The five core job dimensions include: task variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and job-based feedback. Task variety is related to the fact that completing repetitive tasks offers no challenges to staff and can cause them to lose interest and become dissatisfied. Task identity suggests that staff is more satisfied when they have an opportunity to complete a ‘whole’ piece of work. Task significance suggests that staff need to feel responsible for their work and understand the significance of their work and how it impacts on other. Autonomy is the individual’s control of their individual work. Finally, feedback suggests that everyone needs information on how they are doing otherwise there is no satisfaction from performing effectively. These 5 core dimensions affect the outcome of work by influencing three psychological states: experienced meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results. Once these three psychological states are activated, supposedly work motivation, job satisfaction and work performance should improve. It is further suggests that these outcomes would be more significant for employees with high growth needs. The goal of this model is to design work so that it will be personally satisfying and intrinsically rewarding. This model along with the Job design survey has guided a significant number of job design studies (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Job enlargement and job enrichment are another variation on the motivational perspective of designing jobs (Pierce, 1980). Recently, job enlargement and enrichment have seen resurgence as organizations have become concerned with empowerment, operator control and autonomy, and division of labor. Job enlargement refers to an increase in the number and variety of duties and tasks performed although it may not give employees more responsibility; it is the opposite of the mechanistic approach that included repetitive jobs. Job enrichment involves expanding the depth of a job supposedly allowing for more responsibility, accountability, independence and participation in decision-making. Campion and Thayer (1987) conclude that the benefits of the motivational approach to job design may include increased satisfaction and possibly improved performance. The disadvantages are that jobs often require longer training times, have greater mental demands resulting in job redesign and mental overload, are resultantly more expensive to staff and, have an increased occurrence of errors. As attention to biomechanics and ergonomics grew, a biological perspective to job design developed. Its main premise was to minimize the physical costs and biological risks of work (Campion & Thayer 1987). The benefits of jobs exhibiting a biological approach include less physical fatigue, fewer health complaints, fewer injuries, lower absenteeism and possibly even increased job satisfaction because they are physically less arduous. However, some tasks are just physical, involve working shift work or involve environmental stressors such as lifting and transferring clients. 2.2

Job Design and Employee Performance

It would appear from the historical review of job design as well as a selective review of previous research that the design of the job is multidimensional. There are many key concepts associated with job design and as a more holistic, integrated approach to job design is developed, these key concepts must be considered. The next section identifies key job characteristics as well as other components related to job design. The traditional job characteristics identified by Hackman and Oldham (1980) in the Job Characteristics Model still have some merit for the design of banking jobs but require ‘tweaking’ for bankers as they are knowledge workers providing a human service and working in collaboration with other health care providers. These traditional job characteristics include task variety, task identity, job significance, job feedback and autonomy. Other job characteristics that are important to consider www.gjournals.org

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when redesigning jobs of bankers are also identified. These include accountability, empowerment, knowledge, selfefficacy, interdependence, emotional identity, and social identity. Further to these job characteristics are influencing variables that are more external in nature. These include context, models of banking care, scope of practice, and personal attributes of the bankers. Although each of the job characteristics and influencing variables are discussed individually, it is important to note that many of them are interrelated and interdependent. 2.2.1

Task Variety and Employee Performance

Hackman and Oldham (1980) defined task variety as the opportunity to use a number of valued skills and abilities. Some job design literature has argued that enriched or complex jobs promote increased satisfaction and motivation while others report that organizational climate moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and job complexity (Ferris and Gilmore, 1984). Bankers’ jobs are known to be high in task variety and thus require attention to organizational supports including opportunities for new skill acquisition, ongoing training and development as well as attention to standards of skill competence (Barr et al., 1978). Task variety would require sufficient knowledge of the issue at hand. Task variety refers to the degree to which a job requires a variety of activities that involve the use of a number of different skills and talents of employees. Task identity is the degree to which the job requires an employee to perform a complete piece of work that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome; while task significance – this refers to the degree to which the job has an impact on the work of other people within or outside the organization. Autonomy is the degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the employee in scheduling his or her work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Feedback, on the other hand, is the amount of information that results from the performance of a job by an employee about how well she or he is performing (Barr et al., 1978). The jobs that are high on task variety, task identity, and task significance influence the meaningfulness of the work. Job autonomy and feedback influence responsibility for outcomes of the work and knowledge of the actual results of the work. Higher levels of psychological states lead to positive personal and work outcomes, such as high internal work motivation, high growth satisfaction, high general satisfaction and high work effectiveness (Van de Ven & Ferry, 1980). However how well this applies to the banking sector has not been investigated. Task variety and knowledge go hand in hand. Knowledge is a job characteristic that was not uniquely identified in the literature but is identified here as a characteristic to address concepts such as decision-making, problem solving, information processing, innovation idea generation and even specialization (Davis, 2005). Of interest is Wrezesniewski and Dutton’s (2001) concept of cognitive task boundaries which refers to understanding how one sees their job, that is, as a set of discrete pieces or as an integrated whole. For banking, their jobs are knowledge and skill-based and require a level of cognitive competence associated with them. There are two underlying currents within knowledge. Firstly, knowledge in the form of enrichment can influence motivation. Parker et al. (2001) supports the need for a characteristic that reflects worker’s needs for skill acquisition. Secondly, banking practice requires a theoretical and analytical knowledge base. Knowledge is the foundation of banking practice. Banking work requires the attending to and the processing of information. Tasks do not direct the work of knowledge workers but rather decisions guided by knowledge. In knowledge work, one cannot count the number of tasks completed and equate this with productivity or performance. In knowledge work associated with banking is the fact that “quality is the essence of the output” (Drucker, 1999) and thus, the productivity of banking work is concerned with not only the quantity of work but also the quality of work. Holman et al. (2002) state that enhanced learning impacts on improved outcomes through a wider knowledge base, a better understanding of how the job relates to other organizational practices, and a better ability to solve problems, performance can be increased. Thus, knowledge work requires continuous learning and teaching by the knowledge worker (Drucker, 1999). Knowledge and decision-making are influenced by accountability and autonomy. Greater autonomy will enhance the acquisition and utilization of knowledge (Holman et al., 2002). In highly autonomous settings, employees learn to anticipate and prevent errors as well as dealing with variances (Burr, 2001). 2.2.2

Task Identity and Employee Performance

Task identity has its roots in the job characteristic named task identity as identified by Hackman and Oldham (1980). They refer to task identity as knowing that a piece of work is complete so that the worker can perceive that a result has been achieved. It is important within banking not to focus on individual tasks but to focus on objectives, desired outcomes and accomplishments. A job should be seen as an integrated whole rather than as a collection of distinct tasks. “A focus on tasks in inconsistent with the competency-based approach used by [banking regulatory bodies]” (Lowe, 2003). Task identity needs to be broadened to task identity for bankers. Task identity has implications for bankers as they determine ‘whose role is what’ when collaborating with other healthcare providers. For some , task www.gjournals.org

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identity may not be viewed in its broadest sense and may be embedded in its traditional roots of task identity. Occasionally, this may be reflected in job descriptions or models of banking care that emphasize a set of tasks to be complete without recognizing the integrated whole. For some, a job that involves an entire piece of work is equated with a banking practice model that reflects the entire care for a client. Of course, integrating the whole care of a client is not easy when there are multidisciplinary team members involved with providing care. The potential for role ambiguity and role conflict exists. Tonges (1998) states that role ambiguity is related to lack of clarity on job scope and responsibility, lack of clarity on the function of each team member, vague task definition, and inconsistency in supervisor direction. Tonges (1998) also explains that role conflict is associated with violations of principles associated with single accountability and unity of command. Needless to say, planning, coordinating and communicating are required to minimize role tension as well as clarifying accountability. Goal setting may be a strategy to integrate activities and to understand their relationship to the whole. Goal setting also has the potential to enhance role clarity and minimize role ambiguity by understanding and clarifying the goals of a job and enhancing the bankers’ understanding of their relationship between his/her role and the role of others (Umstot et al., 1978). Task identity is synonymous to task clustering which refers to a small collection of related tasks that are normally performed by a single person (Morgeson and Campion, 2003). Once individual tasks are clustered they are rated in terms of interdependency between clusters, significance of job characteristics, integration into work flow or work process, and appropriateness of whether the job should perform the task cluster. A criticism of this strategy is that it starts with an analysis of tasks. As Porter O’Grady (1996) would say “shifting to a new paradigm of work requires moving from a focus on tasks to a focus on accountabilities for outcomes”. Broadening task analysis to a functional analysis of the job in terms of workflow, work processes, workload and other job characteristics can provide valuable information for strategic job redesign. Relatively little research and few change programs have focused on the design of lower-level jobs in management. These jobs deserve greater attention for two reasons. First, supervisory jobs in many organizations are as poorly designed as are rank-and-file jobs selected for enrichment. Yet, in the rush to attend to the jobs held by supposedly alienated rank-and-file workers, very real problems in the design of managerial jobs often are overlooked (Van de Ven & Ferry, 1980). Second, the jobs of lower-level managers invariably are affected, often negatively, when their subordinates' jobs are improved. Indeed, improvements in employee jobs are sometimes made directly at the expense of managerial jobs: Decision-making responsibilities and special tasks that traditionally have been reserved for management are given to workers, and the jobs of managers may be denuded to about the same extent that subordinate jobs are improved (Barr et al., 1978). And when this happens, supervisors may become justifiably angry at the effects of work redesign on the quality of their own life at work, with predictable effects on their continued cooperation with the job redesign activities. Moreover, constraints on the supervisory job (and limited opportunities for training and practice) may make it difficult for supervisors to learn the new behaviors that they need to effectively manage employees who work on newly enriched jobs (Walton & Schlesinger, 1979). 2.2.3

Task Significance and Employee Performance

In banking, task significance refers to the degree in which the job has a substantial impact on clients or families or communities, banking Unit, or the organization. Birnbaum and Somers (1995) found that bankers wish to perform more critical tasks and less of those tasks that could be more appropriately carried out by unit clerks, bankers’ aides, housekeeping, etc. It is important here to recognize that it is not the completion of the task that identifies the significance of the job but the contribution that bankers offer to healthy client outcomes. Baumann et al. (2001) state that bankers work best when their expertise is respected. Wrezesniewski and Dutton (2001) suggest that traditional job designs deal with employees’ interpretation of task elements and social information to produce motivational and attitudinal responses to the work. The understanding of task significance should be expanded to more intentionally address and revise the meaning of work and the social environment within which employees work. The meaning of work relates to employees’ understanding of the purpose of their work and relates back to role identity. Job crafting is suggested by Wrezesniewski and Dutton (2001) as a strategy to reframe the purpose of the job and thus the meaning of work. The significance of a task is closely related to empowerment. Empowerment is suggested here as a job characteristic rather than as an outcome of a well-designed job because of the factors that influence empowerment. Laschinger et al. (2003) summarize empowerment theory into two themes, namely psychological and structural. The first theme, psychological empowerment, relates to perception of empowerment and increased intrinsic task motivation which is influenced by the psychological variables of choice, competence, meaningfulness and impact. Choice (or self-determination) refers to using one’s judgment and taking responsibility for one’s actions. Choice could also be related to ones feelings of control over work (Laschinger 2003). Competence is the degree to which one can perform skillfully. Meaningfulness refers to value-added of one’s work . www.gjournals.org

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Impact refers to the degree to which one’s actions are seen as making a difference. These variables are similar to the three psychological states defined in the Job Characteristics Model: that is experienced meaningfulness, knowledge of results, and experienced responsibility. However, the psychological empowerment approach recognizes that influences beyond job characteristics such as peer support can be influential (Parker et al., 2001). The second theme, structural empowerment, relates to the structural variables that impact on empowerment. As discussed under accountability, these include having access to information as well as resources, receiving support and having opportunities to learn and grow. Although these structural variables enhance empowerment, empowerment is not something that one can give to someone else. It is a recognition and application of the power that is already present in a job (Porter O’Grady, 1996). To further enhance empowerment, roles and expectations must be clear. Role ambiguity is the enemy of successful empowerment. 2.3

Employee Performance

Putterill and Rohrer (1995) defines job performance as focusing directly on employee productivity by assessing the number of units of acceptable quality produced by an employee in a banking environment, within a specific time period. The working definition for study purpose is that, achievement of targets of the tasks assigned to employees within particular period of time in view of the quantity and quality of the product. The success of business depends on employees’ performance. One of the most effective ways to increase business performance and profit is to increase the performance of employees, from the lowest levels of the organization to senior management (Ivancevich, 1998). Performance improvement is not only a result of well functioning system but also depends on effective human resource strategies that succeed in recruiting and maintaining a committed and motivated workforce (Al-Ahmadi, 2009). The dimensions of performance on which an employee is evaluated are called the criteria of evaluation (Ivancevich, 1998). Opatha (2002) suggests that several criteria become needed in order to evaluate job performance of an employee accurately. In the view of Mathis and Jackson (2003), the data or information that managers receive on how well employees are performing their jobs can be of three different types. Trait-based information, Behavior-based information, Result based information. Opatha (2002) indicates that trait-based information identifies a subjective character of the employee such as attitude, initiative or creativity. Behavior-based evaluations of job performance focus on what is included in the job itself (Mathis & Jackson, 2003). Results are outcomes produced by the employee. Result based information consider employee accomplishment. For jobs in which measurement is easy and obvious, a results-based approach works well (Opatha, 2002). There are various evident for relationship between job design and employees’ performance. Al-Ahmadi (2009) indicates that the status of job itself was found positively correlated with performance, which indicates that satisfaction with amount of variety and challenge in one’s job actually influence performance. The sense of job significance, feeling important in eyes of others, realizing ones’ competence, and freedom to make decisions are positively related to performance. Ivancevich (1998) suggests that, approaches to job design place different emphasize on performance and satisfaction as desired outcomes. In other words, certain methods of job design are primarily interested in improving performance; others are more concerned with satisfaction. According to Borman, employee training and job redesigning, the focus is almost always on improving job performance (Borman, 2004 as cited in Kahya, 2007). Some argue that job design improves workers motivation and dedication to work. However at closer examination job design can only contribute to better efficiency within an organization and eliminate some health problems. It will not impact employees’ morals and enthusiasm at work (Ivancevich, 1998). In the view of Garg & Rastogi (2006), well designed jobs can have a positive impact on both employee satisfaction and quality of performance. The perceived work demands, job control and social support through job design leads to high productivity (Love & Edwards, 2005 as cited in Garg & Rastogi, 2006). Likewise Campion et al. (2005) suggests that status of work has a substantial impact on an employee’s performance and attitude. Hence there is a strong relationship between Job design and employees’ performance. Traditionally, many agencies have measured their organizational performance by focusing on internal or process performance, looking at factors such as the number of full-time equivalents (FTE) allotted, the number of programs controlled by the agency, or the size of the budget for the fiscal year (Barr et al., 1978). In contrast, private sector businesses usually focus on the financial measures of their bottom line: return-on-investment, market share, and earnings-per-share. Alone, neither of these approaches provides the full perspective on an organization’s performance that a manager needs to manage effectively. But by balancing internal and process measures with results and financial measures, managers have a more complete picture and can know where to make improvements (Kaplan & Norton, 2011). Kaplan and Norton (2011) have developed a set of measures that they refer to as a balanced scorecard which provides a fast but comprehensive view of the organization’s performance and include both process and results measures. The balanced scorecard philosophy need not apply only at the organizational level . A balanced www.gjournals.org

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approach to employee performance appraisal is an effective way of getting a complete look at an employee’s work performance, not just a partial view. Too often, employee performance plans with their elements and standards measure behaviors, actions, or processes without also measuring the results of employees’ work. By measuring only behaviors or actions in employee performance plans, an organization might find that most of its employees are appraised as outstanding when the organization as a whole has failed to meet its objectives. By using balanced measures at the organizational level, and by sharing the results with supervisors, teams, and employees, managers are providing the information needed to align employee performance plans with organizational goals. By balancing the measures used in employee performance plans, the performance picture becomes complete (Kaplan & Norton, 2011). Job performance is a commonly used, yet poorly defined concept in industrial and organizational psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. It's also part of Human Resources Management. It most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well (Alber, 2007). Despite the confusion over how it should be exactly defined, performance is an extremely important criterion that relates to organizational outcomes and success. Among the most commonly accepted theories of job performance comes from the work of John P. Campbell and colleagues (Davis, 2005). Coming from a psychological perspective, Campbell describes job performance as an individual level variable. That is, performance is something a single person does. This differentiates it from more encompassing constructs such as organizational performance or national performance which are higher level variables (Van de Ven & Ferry, 1980). Campbell (1990) defines performance as a behavior, or as something done by the employee. This concept differentiates performance from outcomes. Outcomes are the result of an individual's performance, but they are also the result of other influences. In other words, there are more factors that determine outcomes than just an employee's behaviors and actions. Revenue can be generated or not, depending on the behavior of employees. When the employee performs this sales job well, he is able to move more merchandise. However, certain factors other than employees' behavior influence revenue generated. For example, sales might slump due to economic conditions, changes in customer preferences, production bottlenecks, etc. In these conditions, employee performance can be adequate, yet sales can still be low. The first is performance and the second is the effectiveness of that performance. These two can be decoupled because performance is not the same as effectiveness (Slocum & Sims, 2000). Another closely related construct is productivity (Aldag & Brief, 1979). Hackman and Oldham (1980) indicate that this can be thought of as a comparison of the amount of effectiveness that results from a certain level of cost associated with that effectiveness. In other words, effectiveness is the ratio of outputs to inputs - those inputs being effort, monetary costs, and resources. Thus utility is another related construct which is defined as the value of a particular level of performance, effectiveness, or productivity. Utilities of performance, effectiveness, and productivity are value judgments. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.0

Introduction

This chapter describes the research design, sampling techniques, data collection as well as data analysis methods which were used in the study. It also deals with research procedures and quality control techniques which were being used in the study. 3.1

Research Design

This study employed a cross sectional survey research design. A survey is suitable when descriptions events or opinions rather than manipulation of variables are intended (Oso & Onen, 2009). The variables under investigation in this study were job redesign and performance of employees. It was therefore necessary to describe them as they are. It was with this intention to describe “variables as they are” that made the survey the ideal design for this study. Cross sectional survey was used as an alternative to longitudinal survey which would have required the researcher to follow a few staff over a long period of time. 3.2

The Area of Study

The study was conducted in Kisumu City and carried out among the 1,269 employees in all the 24 commercial banks in Kisumu City. Kisumu City is part of Kisumu County and was given City status in 2001. The City is fast growing and there are numerous businesses opening up especially with the modification of the airport in 2011, which is now Kisumu International Airport, Kenya. www.gjournals.org

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Target Population

The target population for this study was all the 1,269 staff of the 24 commercial banks in Kisumu City. Commercial banks in Kisumu City was selected as describe in 3.2. 3.4

Sample Size

The sample comprised 297 of commercial banks in Kisumu City. The sample size was determined according to Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of samples that recommend a sample size of 297 for a population of 1,269, at 95% confidence with 5.0% margin of error. These were the same conditions that the researcher had imposed on her study (see 3.7). 3.5

Sampling Technique

Sampling technique is the actual procedure followed to obtain the individual members of the sample to represent the population (Oso & Onen, 2009). This study employed stratified and simple random sampling methods to select the individual members of the sample. Stratified sampling was used to determine the proportionate sizes of employees from each bank that were included in the sample. Stratified sampling was used to ensure that each stratum was represented in the sample, and that the subgroup differences were accounted for. For each commercial bank, the sub-sample size was determined as (sub-population size/total population) x required sample size. For example, the size of employees from Equity Bank in the sample was determined as (69/1269) x 297 = 16 and for Chase Bank employees as (900/1269) x 297 = 6. The same procedure was followed for all the banks and the sample in Appendix V obtained. This study employed simple random sampling technique to select the individual 297 employees that were included in the sample. It ensured that each employee in each bank had an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample, and that the employees that were finally included in the sample from each bank were included purely on chance and not any other criteria. In each bank, the researcher selected employees based on determined proportionate representation. 3.6

Data Collection Method

The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data to achieve its objectives. The data was collected using questionnaires and interviews from employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. Questionnaires were used because the study was concerned with variables which could not be directly observed: job redesign cannot be directly observed, but can only be gauged through a test. Secondly, the sample size of 297 that was used in this study was also quite large and given the time constraints, questionnaire was the best tool for collecting data from a large sample in a short time (Gay, 1987), as was the case in this study. In-depth interviews enabled the researchers to obtain detailed information on specific issues, and to collect information that was not directly observable. 3.6.1

Data Collection Procedures

The researcher collected data from 297 employees in the 24 commercial banks in Kisumu City using questionnaires, and interview. The researcher administered the questionnaires through a drop-wait-and-collect method. The researcher went to the heads of bank’s office for clearance to access the employees of each bank. The researcher then administered questionnaires to the selected employees of each bank. The interviews were conducted by the researcher on appointment with the key informants. Each key informant was interviewed in his or her office during official working hours and the interviews recorded in the researcher’s notebook. 3.7

Data Analysis and Presentation

This study collected and analyzed quantitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed through percentages and means, using SPSS software, and presented in tables and figures. Percentage is an analysis technique that simplifies data by reducing them to a range of between 0 and 100, with 100 as base to facilitate comparison (Kothari, 1990). The percentage distribution technique was used to show the face values of the effects of job redesign on the ability of employees to finish their tasks on time, the quality and quantity of work done as well as the time taken to finish work. The study compared the mean scores of performance of employees between employees with different status of job redesign. Through analyzing variances , the study determined whether there was a sufficient difference www.gjournals.org

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between the means of employees who operate under high, moderate and low job redesign, at 95% level of significance, and 5.0% margin of error. Hence the researchers are 95% sure of the results and only 5% of the results could occur by chance. 3.8

Validity of Instruments

Validity was ensured through use of experts. The questionnaires were given to two senior lectures in research to evaluate the relevance of each item in the instrument to the objectives. Validity index was then determined from their agreement, and a content validity index calculated as n3/4/N, where n3/4 is the number of items marked good by all experts and N was the total number of items assessed. Hence out of any ten items used in this study, at least seven of them measured what they were intended to measure. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 3.0

Introduction

This study investigated the effect of job redesign on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Job redesign was characterized by task identity, task variety, task significance and task autonomy. Performance of employees was measured from the quantity and quality of work done, amount of time put into the work and the proportion of work on time. Questionnaires were administered to 297 employees in the 24 commercial banks in Kisumu City. Data collected was analyzed in percentages and means. This chapter presents analyses of the data, and interprets the findings of the study along the four objectives of the study. 3.1

Background Information on Respondents

Data was collected from all the 297 sampled employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. This response rate was achieved because the researcher made several visits to the same respondents and encouraged them to respond. 4.1.1

Distribution of Respondents by Gender

The employees were asked to indicate the gender and they responded as summarized in Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1: Gender of respondents. Figure 4.1 shows that the study collected data from 152 males and 146 female respondents which represented 51.01% and 48.99% of males and females in the sample respectively . This distribution shows that the study www.gjournals.org

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investigated as many female employees as males. The proportion of males and females were fairly the same in the sample. The study therefore captured the views of each gender of employees fully in the population. 4.1.2

Distribution of Respondents by Age

The respondents were asked to indicate the ages and they responded as summarized in Figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2: Age of respondents. Figure 4.2 shows the distribution of respondents by age. It shows that most (139, 46.8%) of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City are aged between 40-49 years while just 15 (5.1%) of employees of the commercial banks are aged over 60 years. This distribution follows the normal age distribution of a normal population. It was therefore taken to represent the true ages of the population of employees of the university. 4.1.3

Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status

The respondents were asked to indicate the marital status and they responded as summarized in Figure 4.3.

Figure 4.3: Marital of respondents. Figure 4.3 shows the distribution of respondents by marital status. It shows that majority (157, 52.9%) of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City are married while just 12 (4.0%) of employees of the commercial banks are divorced. Another 98 (33.0%) are single while 30 (10.1%) are widowed. There were more married staff in commercial www.gjournals.org

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banks as compared to other marital status. It was therefore taken to represent the true marital of the population of employees of the commercial banks since the sample was selected at random. 4.1.4

Distribution of Respondents by Level of Education

The respondents were asked to indicate the level of education and they responded as summarized in Figure 4.4.

Figure 4.4: Level of education of respondents. Figure 4.4 shows the distribution of respondents by level of education. It shows that most (45.1%) of the employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City have secondary level of education, 36.7% of employees have tertiary while 18.2% have primary levels of education. This distribution was not unexpected as the commercial banks employees all types of people as academicians and support staff. It is therefore expected that people with all levels of education be found in a commercial bank. This distribution was therefore taken to represent the true representation of the population of employees of the commercial banks since the sample was selected at random. 4.1.5

Distribution of Respondents by Length of Service

The respondents were asked to indicate the length of service and they responded as summarized in Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.5: Length of serviceof respondents. www.gjournals.org

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Figure 4.5 shows the distribution of respondents by length of service. It shows that most (46.1%) of the employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City have served for between 6-10 years in the same bank, while 39.1% have worked in the commercial banks for between 0-5 years in the same banks. It shows therefore that majority of the employees (85.2%) have worked in the same bank for less ten years or less. Only 11.8% have worked for between 11-15 years, while just 3.0% have worked for over 16 years. This statistics have a bearing on the attrition rates in the banks. Even though the study did not delve into which specific commercial banks staff stay long versus which they leave fast, it nevertheless shows that most employees tend to leave the commercial banks after just a few years. 4.2.1

Task Identity and Performance of Employees in Commercial Banks in Kisumu City

The first objective of this study was to determine the effect of the task identity on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Task identity was measured through status of tasks, transformation of tasks, and focus on outcomes. Respondents were asked to react to statements on a Likert scale intended to measure their views on status of tasks, transformation of tasks, and focus on outcomes in the work they do. The responses were rated 1 through 5 for strongly disagree to strongly agree. The scores for all construct were added to obtain the overall rating of the task identity for each employee. The status of task identity of each employee was rated as good, moderate or poor. The actual performance of each employee was also measured as described in 4.3.0. The average performances of all employees with good, moderate and poor task identity were compared. The finding reveals that employees with good task identity (9.09%) have high performance (81.10%) as compared to employees with moderate (68.93%), and those with poor task identity (53.34%). The overall results indicate that the overall performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City is 61.06%. Performance of employees is dependent on the status of task identity; and that the better the task identity, the higher the performance of that employee. But since task identity is an element of job redesign, it can be deduced from these results that poor task identity reduces the ability of employees to perform the work. Hence the study has established that the status of task identity affects the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. But the study also established that there are more employees (57.57%) with poor task identity while 3.33% of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City had just moderate task identities. Only 9.09% of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City have good task identity. This shows that the status of task identity reduces the performances of at least 57.57% of the employees in the commercial banks in Kisumu City. 4.2.2

Task Variety and Performance of Employees in Commercial Banks in Kisumu City

The second objective of this study was to determine the effect of the task variety on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Task variety was conceptualized as skills, ability and knowledge, and talents. Respondents were asked to react to statements on a Likert scale so as to gauge the views on skills, ability and knowledge, and talents. The responses were rated 1 through 5 for strongly disagree to strongly agree. The scores for all constructs were added to obtain the overall rating of task variety for each employee. The status of task variety of each employee was rated as good, moderate or poor, and the actual performance of each employee was also measured as described in 4.3.0. The average performances of all employees with good, moderate and poor task variety were compared. Employees with good task variety (10.43%) have high performance (79.09%) as compared to employees with moderate task variety (67.82%). The employees with poor task variety had the lowest performance (54.87%). The overall results indicate that the overall performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City is 61.06%. The results indicate that the performance of employees is dependent on the status of task variety, and that the better task variety of an employee, the higher the performance of that employee. It must be pointed however that since task variety is an element of job redesign, it can be deduced from these results that poor task variety reduces the ability of employees to perform. Hence the study has established that the status of task variety affects the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. Further, the study also established that there are more employees (61.27%) with poor task variety while 28.28% of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City have moderate task variety. Only 10.43% of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City have good task variety. This scenario shows that the status of task variety reduces the performances of at least 61.27% of the employees in the commercial banks in Kisumu City. Only a small proportion of 10.43% of employees benefit from the positive effect of task variety in commercial banks in Kisumu City. 4.2.3

Task Significance and Performance of Employees in Commercial Banks in Kisumu City

The third objective of this study was to determine the effect of the task significance on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Task significance was measured from role of job to clients , role of job to the www.gjournals.org

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unit, role of job to the organization. Respondents were asked to react to statements on a Likert scale intended to gauge their views on the role of job to clients, role of job to the unit, role of job to the organization. The responses were rated 1 through 5 for strongly disagree to strongly agree. The scores for all constructs were added to obtain the overall rating of the task significance for each employee. The status of task significance of each employee was rated as good, moderate or fair, and the actual performance of each employee was also measured as described in 4.3.0. The average performances of all employees with good, moderate and poor task significances were compared. Table 4.3 summarizes grouped statistics of the performance of employees based on the status of task significance as reported by each employee. The table shows that employees who reported their tasks as significant (9.76%) have high performance (87.22%) as compared to employees who reported that their tasks only moderately significant (72.25%). The employees who reported that the task significance is low had the lowest performance (53.37%). The overall results indicate that the overall performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City is 61.06%. The results in the table indicates that the performance of employees in commercial banks is dependent on the status of task significance, and that the higher the task significance, the higher the performance of that employee. Since task significance is an element of job redesign, it can be deduced from these results that low task significance reduces the ability of employees to perform. Hence the study has established that the status of the task significance affect the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. The study also established that there are more employees (67.00%) who regarded significance of their tasks low; while 25.84% of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City regarded the significance of their tasks as just moderate. Only 9.76% of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City regard their tasks as highly significant good. This scenario shows that the status of the task significance reduces the performances of at least 67.00% of the employees in the commercial banks in Kisumu City. Only a small proportion of 9.76% of employees benefit from the positive effect of task significance in commercial banks in Kisumu City. 4.2.4

Task Autonomy and Performance of Employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City

The last objective of this study was to determine the effect of the task autonomy on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Task autonomy was characterized by freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling, procedure, methods and techniques. Respondents were asked to react to statements on a Likert scale intended to gauge their views on the freedom, independence, and discretion they have in scheduling, procedure, methods and techniques. The responses were rated 1 through 5 for strongly disagree to strongly agree. The scores for all constructs of task autonomy were added to obtain the overall rating of the task autonomy for each employee. The status of task autonomy of each employee was rated as good, moderate or fair, and the actual performance of each employee was also measured as described in 4.3.0. The average performances of all employees with good, moderate and poor task significances were compared. Employees who reported high task autonomy (18.85%) had high performance (62.03%) as compared to employees who reported only moderate task autonomy (60.81%). The employees who reported low task autonomy had the lowest performance (60.86%). The overall results indicate that the overall performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City is 61.06%. These indicate that the performance of employees is slightly dependent on the status of task autonomy, and that the higher task autonomy, the higher the performance of that employee. However, the mean performances of employees based on the task autonomy are rather too small to produce a significant effect. With a change of just 1.22 percentage points between high and poor task autonomy, the case for effect of task autonomy on the performance of employees cannot be sustained. Hence despite the fact that task autonomy is an element of job redesign and despite the fact small fall in performance could be detected, it could not be deduced from these results that task autonomy can influence the ability of employees to perform. Hence the study has established that task autonomy does not affect the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. Further, there are more employees (41.41%) who regard their task autonomy as low while 39.73% of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City regard their task autonomy as just moderate. Some 18.85% of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City regard their task autonomy as good. Even in this case, the percentage changes are too small to point to a significant change in performance based on the change in work. Hence task autonomy does not affect the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu city.

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4.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1

Summary of Findings

This study pursued four specific objectives and consequently made four major findings. First, the study determined the effect of the task identity on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City: the task identity was measured through nature of tasks, transformation of tasks, and focus on outcomes. The preliminary analyses indicated that employees with good task identity (9.09%) have high performance (81.10%) as compared to employees with moderate task identity (68.93%). The employees with poor task identity had the lowest performance (53.34%). Based on preliminary and further analyses, the study has established that the status of task identity affects the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. In fact, the status of task identity reduces the performances of at least 57.57% of the employees in the commercial banks in Kisumu City. Secondly, the study determined the effect of task variety on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City; with task variety being conceptualized skills, ability and knowledge, and talents. The study observed that employees with good task variety (10.43%) have high performance (79.09%) as compared to employees with moderate task variety (67.82%), while employees with poor task variety had the lowest performance (54.87%). These results suggested that the performance of employees is dependent on the status of task variety, and that the better the task variety, the higher the performance of that employee. Hence the study has established that the status of task variety affects the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. The study also determined the effect of the task significance on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Task significance was characterized by role of job to clients, role of job to the unit, and role of job to the organization. Preliminary analyses under this objective indicated that employees who regard their tasks significant (9.76%) have high performance (87.22%) as compared to employees who reported their tasks is only moderately significant (72.25%), and that employees who reported low task significance had the lowest performance (53.37%). These results suggested that the performance of employees is dependent on the status of task significance, and that the more significant the task of an employee, the higher the performance of that employee. The study therefore established that the status of task significance affect the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. Lastly, the study determined the effect of task autonomy on the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City, with task autonomy being determined from freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling, procedure, methods and techniques. It was noted that employees that reported high task autonomy (18.85%) had high performance (62.03%) as compared to employees who reported moderate task autonomy (60.81%). However, employees that reported the low task autonomy had the lowest performance (60.86%). The study also found that the mean discrepancy (1.22%) of employees based on the task autonomy is rather too small to produce a significant effect. It was established that task autonomy does not affect the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. 4.2

Discussion of Findings

This study pursued four specific objectives and consequently made four major findings. The study found out that the work itself, the task variety, and the task significance affect the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. However, the study established that task autonomy does not affect the performance of employees of commercial banks in Kisumu City. The finding that the status of task identity affects the performance of employees can be understood in various angles. Firstly, as Hackman and Oldham (1980) had suggested, task identity has its roots in the job characteristic as identified. This means that knowing that a piece of work is complete so that the worker can perceive that a result has been achieved enhances it accomplishment. Further, it is also important within banking not to focus on individual tasks but to focus on objectives, desired outcomes and accomplishments. A job should be seen as an integrated whole rather than as a collection of distinct tasks. Thus the focus on tasks is inconsistent with the competency-based approach used by banking regulatory bodies (Lowe, 2003). This also adds to better accomplishments. On the other hand, the fact that task identity is synonymous to task clustering, or to a small collection of related tasks that are normally performed by a single person also raises individual responsibility. This is consistent with the views of Morgeson and Campion (2003) that once individual tasks are clustered, they are rated in terms of interdependency between clusters, significance of job characteristics, integration into work flow or work process, and appropriateness of whether the job should perform the task cluster. The finding is also in line with the argument of Barr et al. (2000) that jobs of lower-level managers invariably are affected, often negatively, when their subordinates' jobs are improved. In fact, as they also point out, improvements in employee jobs are sometimes made directly at the expense of managerial jobs : decision - making www.gjournals.org

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responsibilities and special tasks that traditionally have been reserved for management are given to workers, and the jobs of managers may be denuded to about the same extent that subordinate jobs are improved. And when this happens, supervisors may become justifiably angry at the effects of work redesign on the quality of their own life at work, with predictable effects on their continued cooperation with the job redesign activities. Moreover, as Walton and Schlesinger (1979) had stated earlier, and as this finding confirm, constraints on the supervisory job (and limited opportunities for training and practice) may make it difficult for supervisors to learn the new behaviors that they need to effectively manage employees who work on newly enriched jobs. The finding that task variety affects the performance of employees is in line with the views of Hackman and Oldham (1980) who argued that task variety gives the opportunity to use a number of valued skills and abilities. And as Ferris and Gilmore (1984) have also indicated, some job design literature has argued that enriched or complex jobs promote increased satisfaction and motivation while others report that organizational climate moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and job complexity. Further, bankers’ jobs are known to be high in task variety and thus require attention to organizational supports including opportunities for new skill acquisition, ongoing training and development as well as attention to standards of skill competence. This increases performance on the job. But on the other hand, high task variety also increases the degree to which a job requires a variety of activities that involve the use of a number of different skills and talents of employees; and the degree to which the job requires an employee to perform a complete piece of work that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. But the finding also takes note of the fact that task variety go hand in hand with knowledge. As job variety increases, the knowledge that was not uniquely identified must be identified as a characteristic to address concepts such as decision-making, problem solving, information processing, innovation idea generation and even specialization (Davis, 2005). And as Wrezesniewski and Dutton’s (2001) indicates, the concept of cognitive task boundaries requires understanding how one sees their job, that is, as a set of discrete pieces or as an integrated whole. This understanding in itself improves efficiency and effectiveness. For banking, their jobs are knowledge and skill-based and require a level of cognitive competence associated with them. Since banking work requires the attending to and the processing of information; tasks variety directs the work of knowledge workers but rather decisions guided by knowledge. In knowledge work, one cannot count the number of tasks completed and equate this with productivity or performance. The finding that the task significance affects the performance of employees is in agreement with Birnbaum and Somers (1995) that task significance increases the degree in which the job has a substantial impact on clients or families or communities, banking unit, or the organization. In fact as Baumann et al. (2001) had suggested, and in line with this finding, completion of the task that identifies the significance of the job contributes to healthy client outcomes. Task significance goes above traditional job designs and deal with employees’ interpretation of task elements and social information to produce motivational and attitudinal responses to the work. The understanding of task significance thus expands more intentionally which addresses and revises the meaning of work and the social environment within which employees work. But more importantly, task significance increases employee empowerment; more so as a job characteristic rather than as an outcome of a well-designed job because of the factors that influence empowerment. This finding supports the views of Laschinger et al. (2003) that empowerment increases intrinsic task motivation and influences the psychological variables of choice, competence, meaningfulness and impact. Task significance also increases competence and the degree to which one can perform skillfully. The study however determined the task autonomy that does not affect the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City. Autonomy as the degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the employee in scheduling his or her work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out, can only work if such employee is competent enough to do the tasks they are entrusted to do. The implication of the finding could be the employees are not autonomous enough, or that they are not competent. But more importantly, this funding disapproves the commonly held view and belief that autonomy of work improves performance. 5.4

Recommendations

Based on the findings, the discussions and the conclusion drawn so far, the study makes the following recommendations. The study recommends that: 1. Commercial banks creates high degree task identity for its employees by providing the nature of tasks, transforming such tasks, and creating focus on outcomes among employees through good workloads, good work rotations and suitable work enrichment to keep employee to consistently enjoy their work.

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2. Commercial banks provide task variety in all jobs for all employees. A job should be designed such that it required different skills, ability and knowledge, and talents to accomplish it. Such skills and abilities should then be consciously developed in employees. 3. The significance of each task in the commercial banks needs to be improved through defining role of job to clients, role of job to the unit, and role of job to the organization in clear, simple, measurable, observable and achievable determinants. The trend where all jobs look alike and where all jobs are vaguely defined should stop. 4. Even though the study did not obtain a positive link between task autonomy and employee performance, it is nevertheless an important job redesign factor. The study recommends that all employees be encouraged and made to develop freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling, procedure, methods and techniques of the works they do. 5.4.1

Limitations of the study

The major limitation of this study was its confinement to commercial banks in Kisumu City; job redesign has been promoted in all Commercial Banks in Kenya. This study should have been conducted in all commercial banks in Kenya and a sample selected from all commercial banks in this country. But resource constraints dictated a smaller scope. The applicability of the results of this study to other commercial banks in Kenya should take this limitation in mind. 5.4.2

Suggestions for Further Research

This study only determined whether or not job redesign affect the performance of employees in commercial banks in Kisumu City, but it did not determine the actual effect of the job redesign on the performance of employees. This weakness came about because the study was conducted through a survey rather than by experimental design. The researcher therefore recommends that a study be conducted to determine the actual individual and combined effect of job redesign on the performance of employees. REFERENCES Advisory Committee on Health Human Resources [ACHHR]. (2002). Our health, our future: Creating quality workplaces for Canadian bankers – Final report of the Canadian Banking Advisory Committee. Ottawa: Al-Ahmadi H, (2009), ‘Factors Affecting Performance of Hospital Bankers in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia’, International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 22 (1), 40-54. Amin G & Ventresca MJ (2005). Keywords and Natural Change. Sociological Forum 20(4) : 523-5. Alber, J, (2007) An Exploratory Study of the Benefits and Costs of Job Enrichment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University Park, PA.: The Pennsylvania State University Aldag, R, and Brief, A, (1979) Task Design and Employee Motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman. Armstrong, M (2007) The practice of Human Resource Management. London: Aswathappa.K, (2006). ‘Job Analysis and Job Design’, Human Resource and Personal Management, 4th Edition, pp.93-125, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Barr, SH, Brief, AP, & Aldag, RJ (1978). Measurement of perceived task characteristics (Working Paper 78-14), College of Business Administration, University of Iowa. Baumann A, O’Brien-Palls L, Armstrong-Stassen M, Blythe J, Bourbonnais R, Cameron S, Irvine Doran D, Kerr M, McGillis Hall L, Vezina M, Butt M & Ryan L (2001). Commitment and care: The benefits of a healthy workplace for bankers, their clients and the system, A policy synthesis. Ottawa: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation. Berekely (2010) Global Human Resource Management Guide. California: Birnbaum, D & Somers MJ (1995). Another look at work design in hospitals: Redesigning the work roles of bankers. Journal of Health Human Service Administration, 17, 303-316. Bloom & Reenen (2007) Measuring and explaining management practices across firms and countries. Quart. J. Econ. 122(4):1351-1408. Bulletin, 1970, 74, 18-31. Borman WC (2004). The Concept of Organizational Citizenship. Current Directions in Psychological Science 13(6), 238-241. Burr, R (2001). Self-management efficacy as a mediator of the relation between job design and employee motivation. Human Performance, 14(1), 27-44.

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Cite this Article: Achieng OE, Ochieng I, Owuor S, 2014. Effect of Job Redesign on Employee Performance in Commercial Banks in Kisumu, Kenya. Greener Journal of Business and Management Studies. 4(4):115-137, http://dx.doi.org/10.15580/GJBMS.2014.4.040714179

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Effect of Job Redesign on Employee Performance

ISSN: 2276-7827 Submission Date: 07/04/014 ICV 2012: 6.03 Accepted: 28/07/014 (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15580/GJBMS.2014.4.040714179) Effect of J...

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