LISTENING TRANSCRIPT 1 – LECTURE GLOBALIZATION As you will notice on your syllabus we are starting a unit now on globalization. In the following weeks we will discuss the past, present, and future of globalization. Today we will discuss some positive and negative effects of globalization. Globalization is one of those words everyone has heard of, but the meaning of which is not very widely understood. So before we proceed to the discussion on the positive effects of globalization, let’s take a look at what globalization is. The world is becoming a smaller place. Products, which were once confined to western countries, are available across the globe. Work can be outsourced to any part of the world that has an Internet connection. This is globalization. Globalization is the integration, or coming together, of ideas, cultures and values. Now I want to talk about some areas that are affected by globalization. I hope to show that there are both positive and negative effects of globalization in each area. The four main areas we will address are employment, foreign trade, culture and education. So, first of all, employment is an issue that is on everyone’s mind. You as students are probably thinking about employment. With globalization, companies in developed countries have expanded into developing countries and created jobs for them. But it is one of the positive and negative effects of globalization, depending on the point of view you wish to see it from. It has given an opportunity to invest in new markets. Doing business in developing countries is generally cheaper, too, so businesses can expand more quickly. In developing countries, there is often a lack of money which hinders, or slows, the growth of local companies and therefore, employment. In such cases, due to global nature of the businesses, people of developing countries can gain employment opportunities. But the developed countries have lost jobs because of this movement of jobs to the developing world. So, in

general globalization has a positive effect on employment in developing countries, but a negative effect on employment in developed countries. The second area which globalization has greatly affected is foreign trade. On the positive side, with globalization, companies can sell their products to markets all over the world in the global economy. If you start a business in Istanbul, you can find customers in London, Los Angeles and Mombasa. You are not limited to one area. However, one negative effect is that large, multinational companies have begun to take over local markets. You can find a McDonald’s or Starbucks in almost every big city in the world. The local restaurants and coffee shops there usually go out of business. So, globalization can have a negative effect on local economies in this way. Which brings us to our third area of the effects of globalization: the spread of culture. Cooking styles, languages and customs have spread all due to globalization. The same can be said about movies, musical styles and other art forms. This has helped people to expand their perspectives and at times become more tolerant of differences. However, there are disagreements about whether the spread of culture is good or bad because the spread of culture is unbalanced. Finally, we have come to the spread of education. At first glance this seems to be a very positive effect of globalization. More people have access to more education in more places around the world. Study abroad and student exchange programs are extremely popular. However, if we look closer, it seems that rich people are getting richer and more educated, and poor people are getting poorer and less educated. Also, with more competition around the world, universities are having trouble finding funding, or money. This is generally seen as a negative effect of globalization. Now that we have looked in general at these four areas which are affected by globalization, let’s look at each one in detail in terms of the historical....



LISTENING TRANSCRIPT 1 – LECTURE GLOBALIZATION As you will notice on your syllabus we are starting a unit now on globalization. In the following weeks...

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