Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, volume 14 6th International Conference on Educational, Management, Administration and Leadership (ICEMAL2016)
The Pedagogical Communication Skill of Senior High School (SHS) Teachers in North Maluku Province, Indonesia Caraka Putra Bhakti Department of Guidance and Counseling Ahmad Dahlan University Yogyakarta, Indonesia Email: [email protected]
Suyatno Department of Educational Administration Ahmad Dahlan University Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Abstract— Teacher is an educator who is clearly recognized in Law of National Education System No 20 of 2003. Teachers’ Competences consist of pedagogical competence, personality competence, social competence, and professional competence. One of the most important competencies that a teacher has is pedagogical competence. Teacher’s success in teaching is affected by his pedagogical competence. Based on Indonesian Teachers Competency Test (TCT) of 2015, we found that teachers’ pedagogical competence is low, especially in teaching. Teaching skill is affected by the communication skill between teachers and students. This research aims to describe the pedagogical communication skills of Senior High School teachers. This is a descriptive study using the descriptive technique as the data analyzing method. These research employes teachers from 8 Senior High Schools in North Maluku Indonesia as samples. North Maluku is selected because it is in the frontier area of Indonesia and has unique cultures as a representation of Indonesia. Questionnaires and observation guides are used as the data collecting method. The teachers’ pedagogical communication aspects measured include: a) building rapport skill, b) teaching method variation, c) ability to motivate the students, d) ability to create a comfortable atmosphere in the classroom, e) ability to be a role model, and f) ability to develop learning media. This research showed that teachers in Senior High Schools in North Maluku have many patterns of communication skill depending on their culture. Their pedagogical communication skills are formed by their living area (coastal or inland), local wisdom, patterns of school leadership, and teacher qualifications. Keywords—Pedagogical communication skill, North Maluku, Senior High School Introduction
Siti Urbayatun School of Psychology Ahmad Dahlan University Yogyakarta, Indonesia Ika Maryani Department of Elementary Education Ahmad Dahlan University Yogyakarta, Indonesia
I. INTRODUCTION The changes in the socio-economical and spiritual spheres of modern society, trends in the renewal of the educational process put forward new demands to the level of modern communication teachers professional and pedagogical culture formation1, to be the master communication of education2. The interaction of teachers and learners in the classroom exists in the form of effective communication educational atmosphere. One of the teachers’ successes in teaching is affected by the extent of teachers’ communication skills. Communication is a skill that must be owned by a teacher3. Therefore, this skill is highly relevant to the teachers’ interpersonal competence. Communication is instrumental in supporting teachers’ success to deal with students in the classroom. Pedagogical competence of the teachers helps to develop the communication process to provide credible information to students who performed in learning activities in the classroom4. Speaking of competence pedagogic, it discusses the ability of didactic and methodology that should be owned by the teacher so that he is able to role as an educator and a good companion. Through this role, specifically, the teachers should help the students to learn easily. The skills of teachers in the learning process include: 1) the skills to start and end the lesson, 2) the skills to explain, 3) the skills to ask question, 4) the skills to provide reinforcement, 5) the skills to use media, 6) the skills to guide small group discussions, 7) the skills to manage a class, 8) the skills to master various competence, 9) the skills to teach students working individualy and in groups5-6. This article
Copyright © 2016, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
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focuses on measuring the level of teachers’ communication pedagogical competence seen in working life achievement of competence and competence development. Teachers’ pedagogical competence strongly support the improvement of literacy skills. The terms of information literacy (IL), very popularly used in the research of information studies, is concerned to develop independent learners on all levels, in professional and personal life. The older forms of the term IL were the library orientation, bibliographic instruction, and user education7. A result of a research on pedagogical states that the average junior high school science teacher in the city of Ternate is in the middle category (49.18%), while the remaining, which is 34.34%, are in a good category, and 16.39% are in the low category. The results of the study shown that the pedagogical competence development in the process of ERUs learning is carried out through improving the implementation process of learning by using various learning methods/strategies which increase the learners’ motivation. An absolute pedagogical competence is held by the teachers in order to successfully carry out the learning task8. Additionally, teachers’ pedagogical competence has not been optimized due to the failure of the government to support the practice of SBM. In other words, the intervention from the government limits the teachers’ creativity. Besides, the occurrence of the intervention is considered by the teachers and school managements as impeding the implication of SBM it self9. In pedagogical competence context, there is a research about “Teacher Professionalism: A Study on Teachers’ Professional and pedagogic Competencies at the Junior, Senior, and Vocational High Schools in Banyumas Regency, Central Java, Indonesia.” This paper discusses teachers’ professionalism. The review of the teachers’ competencies is summarized in four items, namely professional competence, pedagogical competence, personal competence, and social competence. This paper focused on both teachers’ professional and pedagogic competencies. It was carried out to research the teachers of Junior, Senior, and Vocational High Schools in Banyumas Regency, Central Java, Indonesia10. Setyarahajoe and Irtanto have researched similar issue entitled “The Competency of Teachers as Human Resources at Senior High School, in Kediri, East Java, Indonesia” in 2013. The result of this research shows that the rate of teachers’ competency is satisfactorily in line with the standard categories, especially the pedagogic, personal, professional, and social competencies. Of the four competencies stated previously, the weakness existed especially in professional competency concerning an indicator of scientific writing11.
was used as the method of data collecting. The questionnaire uses semi-open type of questions. Pedagogic communication skills which were being measured include the ability to build rapport, various teaching methods, the ability to motivate the students, the ability to create a comfortable atmosphere in the classroom, the ability to be a model for the students, and the ability to develop learning media. III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The teachers’ working life tenure is about 1 until 27 years for the most senior one, with the mean of 1,54 years. This finding shows that the teachers have a long working period experience that enables them to master a good job. The age is divided based on five tenure categories: <5, 610, 11-15, 16-20, >20. Tenure (year) <5 6 – 10 11 – 15 16 – 20 > 20
Percentage 19.2 23.1 34.6 11.5 11.5 100
Form 52 teachers, it is revealed that the majority of working tenure is between 11 to 15 years. Teachers who have more than 20 years tenure are only 11.5% of total teachers, while teachers with tenure of fewer than five years are 19.2%. No
The ability to compose the learners’ rapport (proximity). The ability to motivate the learners to keep their spirits to learn. The ability to explain the learning materials clearly and comprehensibly to the learners. Able to use and develop the learning media for a better teaching explanation. Able to respect the learners in the learning activities. The ability to listen to the learners’ need. The ability to conclude the materials explained. The ability to create a warm and enthusiastic atmosphere both inside and outside the classroom. The ability to be the role (behavior) in learners’ character development. The ability to create a studentcentered learning. The ability to manage the class to create an effective learning atmosphere. Able to offer both open and closed question for the learners to communicate their understanding during the learning process. The ability in changing the learning method frequently.
5 6 7 8
9 10 11
II. METHODS The experiment subject of the data collecting method were 52 teachers from 8 different High Schools in the research samples in North Maluku province. The questionnaires of semantic models with a range of 1-10 scale
Frequency 10 12 18 6 6 52
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The highest average of 13 skills above is the ability to motivate the learners to always be enthusiasm in learning (6.0). In this skill, the margin (range) of the score is so high, which is 10. It means that there are respondents who answered that they have the skill of 0 to a perfect score (10). It proves that many teachers are able in mastering this skill, yet some other teachers are not. In the second place, there is the skill to listen to what the learners desire to learn with the mean value of 5.77. This skill has a value of mode 7, which is not too high. Most respondents felt they have the skill to listen to what the students desire to learn. Three skills that have the lowest score in the skill are the ability to create a student-centered learning, the ability to perform a variety of learning methods, and the ability to manage classes to have the learning atmosphere more effective. The average value of the ability to create a studentcentered learning is the lowest of all (5). The ability to create a student-centered learning has a mean score of 4.87. The maximum score for this competency is 8, in contrast to the other skills that achieve a score under 8. This indicates that the teachers have not optimally performed tasks and materials that are prepareded. Even some respondents who answered with a score of 0, which means that they are not capable enough. Tasks and materials that are designed structurally will increase the student-centered learning. Competence creates a central learning followed by another low competence, the ability to manage the class results an effective learning atmosphere and able of providing an open and closed question for the learners in revealing the learners’ learning comprehension. Two last competencies are also related to the competence of creating a centralized learning. Centered learning is also related to educational media as a source of learning. Competence with the second lowest average is the ability to handle or manage the class to make learning more effective with an average of 5.23. This skill is related to the class management that is how to make teaching effective. The maximum score on this competence is 9, which means better than the three-lowest competences. Competence with the three lowest average is able to provide an open and closed question for the learners in revealing their learning understanding with a mean value of 5.25. This competence is also related to the ability to master the teachers’ material preparation and creativity in teaching. The lowest scores indicate that the ability to master the material and the creativity of teachers in the teaching is also questionable.
The fairly stable tenure is between 16-20 years. Teachers with tenure of zero to five years had a mean competence in a range of five. In line with the increasing in the working age (experience), the average value of competence also increased until the tenure of 20 years. Teachers with tenure of over 20 years experience decreased the mean of competence when compared with other groups of working lives. The graph shows that tenure is not always increasing followed by the mastery of competencies that is increasing as well. This has implications for teacher recruitment process that needs to be more selective. For teachers who have assisted, the necessary of education and training aimed at improving the competence number 13. Teachers who are given an education and training are not only the new teachers but also all teachers who do not experience the expected competencies (all ages). Indirect proportional condition between the years of service with the teachers’ competence is a challenge. Especially at this time of global society, teachers are required to adapt the technological advances and freshness/contemporary. The declaration of the Prague UNESCO in 2003, launched the urgency (information literacy), the ability to seek, understand, to evaluate critically, and to process information into useful knowledge for the development of personal and social life Curriculum 2013 in Indonesia also has a framework of new development includes the development of digital literacy in schools, including information literacy, media literacy, and technological literacy12. To end it, the school literacy movements began to be developed based on the Permendikbud No. 23 of 2015 about the Character Growth. The literary movement School (GLS) is a business or activity that is participatory, involving the school community explicitly the students, teachers, principals, staff, school inspectors, school committees, parents/guardians of learners), academics, publishers, media, community (community leaders who can represent exemplary, businesses, etc.), and stakeholders under the coordination of the Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education Ministry of Education and Culture13.
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To support this literacy movement, the teachers must have the competence to facilitate an increase in the literacy skills of students in learning. A learning process is directed at efforts to enable the learners and not in the physical sense, but in overall learning behavior15. The quality of teaching competence plays an important role in the creation and establishment quality of the students learning process and shows the level of teachers’ professionalism based on the reviews of their field and can contribute to improving learning performance16. The success of the students’ learning is one of the aspects of the learning process. The paradigm shifts the learning concept of not only to receive knowledge passive-receptively, but to find and construct knowledge through a variety of strategies based on the student center learning. The Student Center Learning (SCL) is the principle of the student center. Then, the basic idea of the studentcentered is the student MIGHT not only choose what to study but how and why that topic MIGHT be interesting to study. SCL is a learning strategy that puts the student as the subject/active and independent learner with a psychological condition as an adult learner. They are entirely responsible for learning, as well as being able to learn beyond the classroom. With the principle -this principle, the students are expected to have and live life as well as life-long learners to master hard skills and soft skills that are mutually supportive17. The paradigm shifts the learning way of looking at knowledge, learning, and teaching. The world of work is in severe need of soft skills in soft skill in addition to hard skills. Not all things can be taught, but everything can be learned. Learning is not only receiving knowledge passivereceptively but is finding and constructing knowledge through a variety of strategies18. The strategies of Student Centered Learning (SCL), which gives more opportunities and responsibilities to the students will be an effective strategy, where the students will become active learners with different potential. On the other hand, the teacher becomes a facilitator and a learning partner; it leads the teacher to be no longer a major source of knowledge.
IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION From the research findings, it is indicated that the increase of competence mastery does not always follow the increase of the employment period, thus it is needed for further development and improvement. Along the curriculum development, teachers are required to be able to organize a system that makes the students learn as the main role of learning widely through the development of digital literacy in the curriculum of 2013. In this context, it is necessary to provide a role model that can facilitate the training of teachers in improving the students’ literacy skills. The learning systems in academic education are required to provide learning experiences for the students that lead the Student Center Learning (SCL). There is a mentioned basic idea of the student-centeredness that the students MIGHT not only choose what to study but how and why that topic
MIGHT be interesting to study. SCL is a learning strategy that puts the students as subject/active and independent learners, with a psychological condition as an adult learner who is entirely responsible for learning, as well as being able to learn beyond the classroom17. In some learning strategies, SCL is a discovery-learning, project-based learning, and problem-based learning. On the implementation of SCL, teachers are required to be able to facilitate, motivate, give tutorials, and provide feedback to the students. In the context of literacy, skills are needed to develop training for the teachers to organize literacy SCL to improve the students’ skills. A revealed research finds that 81.82% of teachers do not use learning media19. A media leads an individual to be able to understand surrounding ethical issues of the media production forms and to use various critique on the inclusion or exclusion of opinion or factual information in media reports21. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Publication of the presented result has received funding from the Directorate of Research and Community Service, Directorate for Strengthening Research and Development, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education under project no PUPT-062/SP3/III/2016. The content of this is part of a study on the Development of Communication Pedagogical Ability to Improve Literacy Student at High School in North Maluku. REFERENCES Albina R. Sahidullina, Natalya Y. Evsyukova, “The Curriculum Project in Professional Pedagogical Teacher Communication,” Mediterranean Journal of Social Science, Italy , vol. No. 2 S3, pp. 202-208, April 2015.  Muhammad Surya. Psikologi Guru : Konsep dan Aplikasi. Bandung : Alfabeta. 2013.  Muqowim. Pengembangan Soft Skill Guru, Yogyakarta : Pedagogia. 2011.  W. Haskins., “ethos and pedagogical communication: Suggestions for enhancing credibility in the classroom,” Current Issues in Education, Arizona , vol. 3 No.4, pp. 202-208, March 2000.  Udin Syaefuddin Saud. Pengembangan Profesi Guru. Bandung: Alfabeta. 2012.  Ali Mudlofir. Pendidik Profesional. Jakarta : PT. Raja Grafindo Persada. 2011.  Batool, Syeda Hina & Mahmood Khalid. Teachers’ Conception about Information Literacy Skills of School Children. Pakistan Journal of Library & Information Science, 13. 2012.  Rachman, Mardia Hi. Pedagogical Competence Junior High School Science Teacher. 2nd International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education (ISQAE). 2013.  Syahruddin, dkk. Teachers’ Pedagogical Competence in School-Based Management: A Case Study in a Public Secondary School at ParePare, Indonesia. Journal of Education and Learning, Vol. 7 (4), pp. 213-218. .2013.  Ahmad and Setyaningsih. Teacher Professionalism: A Study on Teachers’ Professional and Pedagogic Competence at Junior, Senior, and Vocational High Schools in Banyumas Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. In Sosiohumanika, Jurnal Pendidikan sains sosial dan Kemanusiaan , Vol.5, No.1. 2012.  Akhyak, dkk. Implementation of Teachers Pedagogy Competence to Optimizing Learners Development in Public Primary School in 
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