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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics Table of Contents Sections

Pages

1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………….. 1‒2 2. Learn How to Teach This Program in 10 Minutes …………………………….. 3‒4 3. Sequence of Instruction: Grammar and Mechanics Worksheets ………………. 5‒9 (Individualized Instruction), Sentence Lifting (Direct Instruction) 4. TGM Diagnostic Assessments …………………………………………………. 10‒24 TGM Grammar Assessment: Parts of Speech, Sentence Structure, Usage, Word Choice Directions, Mastery Criteria, and Answers TGM Mechanics Assessment: Punctuation and Capitalization Directions, Mastery Criteria, and Answers Assessment Matrices 6. Parts of Speech and Grammar Worksheets …………………………………….. 25‒69 7. Mechanics Worksheets…………………………………………………………. 73‒108 8. Sentence Lifting (64 Lessons)………………………………………………….. 109‒371 Mechanics, Spelling, and Grammar Direct Instruction and Practice Sentence Diagrams, Sentence Models, and Dictations, Grammar Cartoons, Teaching Tips and Answers Appendix: Student Resources A. Parts of Speech…………………………………………………………. 372 B. Parts of Speech Rap…………………………………………….. 373 C. Irregular Verbs…………………………………………………………. 374 D. Grammatical Sentence Openers………………………………………... 375‒376 E. Mechanics Rules………………………………………………………… 377 F. Eight Conventional Spelling Rules………………….…………………. 378 Common Core State Standards Alignment……………………………………….. 379‒385

Sentence Lifting #18

Mechanics Underline movie and television shows. As a general rule, underline whole things. Practice The television show, “MASH,” was based upon the movie titled MASH. Spelling End a word with “ance,” “ancy,” or “ant” if the root ends with “ear” or “ure.” Practice The elegant young ladies gave the appearence of maturity. Grammar The second person singular and possessive pronouns are your if used before a noun and yours when used without a noun. Practice Your homework is your alone.

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Sentence Diagrams, Sentence Models, and Dictations #18

Sentence Diagram homework is alone Literary Sentence Model “Before you embark on a journey of revenge, dig two graves.” Confucius (551 B.C. - 479 B.C.) Student Sentence Model ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Mechanics Dictation Avatar was a great movie. Spelling Dictation How much does the car insurance cost? Grammar Dictation Revise and remove the second person pronouns: You students should listen to your parents.

Students should listen to their parents.

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Grammar Cartoon #18

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Teaching Tips and Answers #18 Mechanics “Today, we are studying how to punctuate movie and television shows. Please write down this rule: ‘Underline movie and television shows. As a general rule, underline whole things.’ Now, what is right and what is wrong in the practice sentence, according to the rule?” Advanced: Underlining indicates “a whole thing.” Since a television episode is not a “whole thing,” it is placed inside quotation marks. Answer: The television show, “MASH,” was based upon the movie titled MASH.

Spelling “Now, we will learn a useful spelling rule using the ance, ancy, and ant suffixes. Please, write down this rule: ‘End a word with ance, ancy, or ant if the root ends with ear or ure.’ Now, what is right and what is wrong in the practice sentence, according to the rule?” Advanced: This spelling rule combines with the Final Silent e Spelling Rule to drop the e at the end of the root before adding on the ure suffix. Example: assure + ance = assurance. Answer: The elegant young ladies gave the appearance of maturity.

Grammar “Next, we will discuss second person singular possessive pronouns. Please write this down: ‘The second person singular and possessive pronouns are your when used before a noun and yours if used without a noun.’ Now, what is right and what is wrong in the practice sentence, according to the rules?” Advanced: Avoid second person pronouns in essays designed to inform or convince the reader. Answer: Your homework is yours alone. yours

Sentence Diagram Answers: Your

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Grammar Assessment Directions: Place the letter that best matches in the space to the left of the number. ___21. The students who got into trouble are _____. A. them B. me and she C. I and he D. they E. those ___22. The teacher yelled at two students, Rachel and _____. A. I B. me C. it D. he E. us ___23. He stirred the sauce, and then let John taste _____. A. them B. this C. it D. these E. that ___24. That movie _____we watched was entertaining. A. this B. those C. it D. which E. that ___25. She should _____ whenever she has her picture taken. A. smile B. have smiling C. have had smiled D. smiled E. have smiled ___26. Ismelda _____ three miles to her school today. A. had been walking B. has walking C. is walking D. will walked E. walk ___27. John and Jean _____ their father on his lunch hour. A. visits B. been visiting C. were visited D. have been visited E. visited ___28. Both Annie and Debra _____ their opponents. A. has defeated B. had defeated C. had been defeated D. defeats E. had defeating ___29. Compared to her happy sister, she is _____. A. happier B. most happy C. happiest D. more happier E. most happiest ___30. Of all the happy people, he was _____. A. happier B. most happy C. happiest D. more happier E. most happiest ___31. Compared to last time, this work is definitely _____. A. most difficult B. more difficulter C. difficultest D. more difficult E. difficulter ___32. He is the _____ of the students in his class. A. most intelligent B. more intelligent C. intelligentest D. more intelligent E. intelligenter ___33. Please _____ as much as possible. A. will have been studied B. will study C. study D. are studied E. studied ___34. Yesterday, she must _____ more than he did. A. will have been studying B. had studied C. study D. were studied E. have studied ___35. After she planned for two hours, she then _____ even harder. A. studied B. will study C. study D. had studied E. have studied ___36. I _____ for two hours when she called. A. will have been studying B. will study C. study D. had studied E. studied ___37. We _____ more later this afternoon. A. will have been studying B. will study C. study D. are studied E. have studied ___38. By the time the clock strikes three, we _____ for four long hours. A. will have been studying B. will study C. study D. are studied E. have studied ___39. If he _____, he might have a better chance at passing the test. A. will have been studying B. will be studying C. study D. are studied E. were studying ___40. The chapter notes _____ by the whole class. A. will have been studying B. will study C. have studied D. are studied

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Mechanics Assessment Directions, Mastery Criteria, and Answers Directions and Mastery Criteria: Each of the following eight assessment problems has four targeted items in enlarged boldface, one from each of the four punctuation and capitalization sections. The numbers above each item represent the corresponding skill number on the TGM Mechanics Matrix. Mark a / for each error in the student’s row on the matrix and assign that worksheet for remediation. Ignore errors unrelated to the targeted assessment items. 49 41 57 (needs both) 65 1. a friend named John said, “I am glad I don’t need any help on my homework” 42 (needs both) 50 (needs both) 66 58 2. that new student, paula, is from South Africa; she told me she had never seen the star wars movie in that country 43 (needs both) 59 3. she saw pictures of the costumes, robots, and ship models in the newsweek article 67 (needs both) 51 (needs both) (the one that featured Space Camp) 44 60 (needs both) 68 52 4. yes, you should listen to that song called “the one monster’s howl” before Halloween 69 45 53 (needs both) 61 5. bring both girls’ best dresses to atlanta, georgia to see the play titled Fiddler on the Roof 46 70 62 (needs both sets) 54 (needs both) 6. joe, please read these chapters: “knots” and “cooking” to prepare for the Boy Scouts meeting tonight 71 47 63 (needs both) 7. mr. wong put on his glasses, and then he read the magazine article titled “my dog spoke 55 English”

8.

48 (needs both salutation and closing) dear mary, 72

64 (needs both)

what a complete surprise! no one had read the short story titled “yankees and 56 (needs both) rebels” about the Civil War yours truly, amy Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ©2003, 2011 Pennington Publishing

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Grammar Mastery Matrix

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Pronouns

Adjectives

Verbs

Adverbs

Prepositions

Conjunctions

Simple Subject

Compound Subject

Simple Predicate

Compound Predicate

Simple Sentences

Compound Sentences

Complex Sentences

Compound-Complex Sentences

Identifying Fragments

Revising Fragments

Identifying Run-ons

Revising Run-ons

TGM Worksheet #’s Teacher ___________________ Class

___________________

Student Names

Fragments – Run-ons

Proper Nouns

Sentence Structure

Common Nouns

Directions: Record any un-mastered grammar skills with a / in the appropriate column for each student. Assessment Categories Parts of Speech Subject – Predicate

Totals

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Grammar Worksheet #4

Adjectives

Name ________________________

Definition: An adjective describes a proper noun, a common noun, or a pronoun with how many, which one, or what kind. Examples: The five teammates How Many? took that bus Which One? to the old arena across town. What Kind? Writing Hints Adjectives usually are placed before nouns and pronouns. Don’t use descriptive adjectives instead of well-chosen nouns and verbs. Especially avoid using adjectives that do not add meaning to a sentence. For example, adjectives such as interesting, beautiful, nice, and exciting do not help your reader understand the nouns or pronouns any better. Be specific as possible with your adjectives. The sympathetic man is better than the nice man. Practice Sort the following italicized adjectives into the correct columns: twenty-story building, most sports, juicier hamburgers, these games, that bright color, a dozen flowers, the muddy Missouri River, few announcements, this idea, those desserts, navel orange, thousands of islands, spicy pizza, certain groups, loud rap music How Many?

Which One?

What Kind?

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

Formative Assessment Compose three sentences, using an adjective from each category. Use none of the adjectives listed on this worksheet. Be as specific as possible. How Many? ___________________________________________________________________ Which One? ___________________________________________________________________ What Kind? ___________________________________________________________________

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Mechanics Rule #43

Commas (Lists)

Name ________________________

Skill: Use commas after each item, phrase, or clause in lists (except the last). Writing Hints Newspapers and some magazines eliminate the last comma; however, most style manuals still require the last comma. Writing Models John, Jan, and Jose left early. If crazy Mary, unpredictable Bobby, or silly Joe were up to something, I would know about it. The crowd hushed, the lights dimmed, and the fireworks began. Practice • Place commas where needed in the following sentences. Frightened, Jane Mike and Ray pulled the car off to the side. Along the road, an old car two broomsticks and a funny green-eyed monster stood guard. She said, “Give me five cups of sugar two pounds of pepper one pinch of salt and four gallons of maple syrup. Take a hike smell the flowers and enjoy life for the rest of the afternoon. Joan counted one two three four five. •

Fill in the blanks with the word groups listed below and properly punctuate.

_____________________________________ are my favorite colors. They ordered _____________________________________ for breakfast. The teacher called on the following students: _____________________________________. Jaime Marta Frank

blue green yellow

eggs bacon wheat toast

Formative Assessment Compose your own sentence with commas after each phrase in a list (except the last). ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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TGM Answers: Other Punctuation Mechanics Worksheet #65 Answers Practice: they’ve, who’s, haven’t, can’t, don’t, they’re, There’s, isn’t, didn’t, won’t It’s, You’re, you’ve, Where’s, aren’t, she’s, they’d Mechanics Worksheet #66 Answers Practice: shopping; “Sawmill;” Blues;” tutor; British; War; all; looking; failures; Mechanics Worksheet #67 Answers Practice: (1845-1910) (the ones to Charlene) (it was once a barn) (the longest river in the world) (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) (the author of the Declaration of Independence) (the one with a white picket fence) Mechanics Worksheet #68 Answers Practice: child’s, horse’s London’s, rose’s, Mom’s Nature’s, Life’s Mechanics Worksheet #69 Answers Practice: firemen’s, Smiths’, puppies’, women’s, Children’s, girls’ parents’, restaurants’, workers’, Thompsons’ Mechanics Worksheet #70 Answers Practice: items: Sirs: history: pieces: true: Rule: posted: Mechanics Worksheet #71 Answers Practice: B.C., p.m., P.S., N.F.L., N.A.S.A., S.C.U.B.A., Mrs., U.S.A., e.g., etc., 5.5 Mechanics Worksheet #72 Answers Practice: Run! Walk. lot. treasure! talented. creativity! was! know. excitement! basketball. it? it! surprising! out? it. or ? of! law! silent. awful! way. year. that!

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Grammar Worksheets Sequence of Instruction Parts of Speech

#1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8

Common Nouns Proper Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions

Subject / Predicate

#9 #10 #11 #12

Simple Subject Compound Subject Simple Predicate Compound Predicate

Sentence Structure

#13 #14 #15 #16

Simple Sentences Compound Sentences Complex Sentences Compound-Complex Sentences

Fragments / Run-ons

#17 #18 #19 #20

Identifying Fragments Revising Fragments Identifying Run-Ons Revising Run-Ons

Pronouns

#21 #22 #23 #24

(Subject) Nominative Case Objective Case Pronoun-Antecedents Pronoun Pests

Subject-Verb Agreement

#25 #26 #27 #28

Indefinite Pronoun-Base Form Verb Agreement Amount or Measurement Pronoun- Verb Agreement Pronoun-Past Tense Verb Agreement Pronoun-Past Participle Verb Agreement

Comparative Modifiers

#29 #30 #31 #32

The Short Comparative Modifiers The Short Superlative Modifiers The Long and __ly Comparative Modifiers The Long and __ly Superlative Modifiers

Verb Tense / Mood / Voice #33 #34 #35 #36 #37 #38 #39 #40

Present Tense Verbs Present Perfect Tense Verbs Past Tense Verbs Past Perfect Tense Verbs Future Tense Verbs Future Perfect Verbs Mood Voice

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Mechanics Worksheets Sequence of Instruction Commas

#41 #42 #43 #44 #45 #46 #47 #48

Speaker Tags Appositives Series Introductions Geography Direct Address Conjunctions Letters

Capitalization

#49 #50 #51 #52 #53 #54 #55 #56

Persons Places Things Holidays / Dates Titles Organizations / Businesses Language / Peoples Events / Historical Periods

Quotation Marks / Underlining

#57 #58 #59 #60 #61 #62 #63 #64

Direct Quotations Movies / Television Shows Books / Magazines Songs / Poems Plays / Works of Art Book Chapters Magazine Articles Short Stories / Documents

Additional Punctuation

#65 #66 #67 #68 #69 #70 #71 #72

Contractions Semicolons Parentheses Singular Possessive Apostrophes Plural Possessive Apostrophes Colons Periods Exclamation Points

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Sentence Lifting Sequence of Instruction Number

Mechanics

Spelling

Grammar

1

Commas with speaker tags Commas to offset appositives Commas in a list

i before e

Change y to i

Simple Subjects Declarative Sentences Compound Subjects/ Interrogative Sentences Simple Predicates/ Exclamatory Sentences Compound Predicates/ Imperative Sentences Compound Sentences

Change y to i

Complex Sentences

Starting /k/ sound Ending /ch/ sound Final silent e

Compound-complex Sentences Proper nouns Collective nouns

Final silent e

Direct objects

Double l, f, s, z

Indirect objects

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15 16

17 18 19 20 21

Commas with introductions Commas with dates/ geographical places Commas with nouns of direct address Commas to join Commas in letters Capitalize special persons Capitalize special places Capitalize special things Capitalize holidays and names of dates Capitalize titles Capitalize organizations and businesses Capitalize languages and peoples Capitalize special events and historical periods Quotations within Quotations Underline movie and television shows Underline book and magazine titles Quotations for song and poem titles Underline plays and works of art titles

i before e /j/ sound /oy/ sound

all, till, full syllables Noun Clauses Consonant doubling Gerunds Consonant doubling Nominative case pronouns

Ending /k/ sounds

Object case pronouns

__ough

Reflexive and intensive pronouns

“ance”, “ancy”, “ant” First person point of view “ance”, “ancy”, “ant” Second person point of view “ance”, “ancy”, “ant” Third person point of view “ence”, “ency”, or “ent” “able” or “ible” endings

Gender pronouns Relative pronouns

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Sentence Lifting Sequence of Instruction Number

Mechanics

22

Quotations for book “able” or “ible” chapter titles endings Quotations for “able” or “ible” magazine article titles endings Quotations for short “able” or “ible” stories or document endings titles Contractions /ion/ sound Semicolons /ion/ sound

23 24

25 26 27 28 29 30 31

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

Appositives Singular possessives Plural possessives Colons Initials, abbreviations, and acronyms Exclamation points Commas with speaker tags Commas to offset appositives Commas in a list Commas with introductions Commas with dates/ geographical places Commas with nouns of direct address Commas to join Commas in letters Capitalize special persons Capitalize special places Capitalize special things Capitalize holidays and names of dates Capitalize titles

Spelling

Grammar Indefinite pronouns Indefinite pronouns who or whom

/ion/ sound Plurals Plurals Plurals Plurals

Pronoun antecedents Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives Adjectives Infinitives Predicate adjectives Participles Participial phrases

Plurals i before e

Appositive phrases Modifiers

i before e

Modifiers

/j/ sound /oy/ sound

Modifiers Modifiers

Change y to i

Helping verbs

Change y to i

Linking verbs

Starting /k/ sound Ending /ch/ sound Final silent e

Active voice Passive voice Transitive verbs

Final silent e

Past participles

Double l, f, s, z

Present verb tense

all, till, full syllables Present progressive verb form Consonant doubling Present perfect verb tense

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Sentence Lifting Sequence of Instruction Number

Mechanics

46

Capitalize Consonant doubling Present perfect progressive organizations and verb forms businesses Capitalize languages Ending /k/ sounds Past verb tense and peoples

47

48

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

57 58 59 60 61 62 63

64

Spelling

Capitalize special __ough events and historical periods Quotations within “ance”, “ancy”, “ant” Quotations Underline movie “ance”, “ancy”, “ant” and television shows Underline book and “ance”, “ancy”, “ant” magazine titles Quotations for song “ence”, “ency”, or and poem titles “ent” Underline plays and “able” or “ible” works of art titles endings Quotations for book “able” or “ible” chapter titles endings Quotations for “able” or “ible” magazine article titles endings Quotations for short “able” or “ible” stories or document endings titles Contractions /ion/ sound Semicolons /ion/ sound Appositives /ion/ sound Singular possessives Plural possessives Colons Initials, abbreviations, and acronyms Exclamation points

Grammar

Past progressive verb form

Past perfect verb tense Past perfect progressive verb form Future verb tense Future progressive verb form Future perfect verb tense Future perfect progressive form Adverbs Adverbs

Plurals Plurals Plurals Plurals

Adverbial phrases Adverbial phrases Adverbial clauses/subordinating conjunctions Adverbial clauses/subjunctive moods Adverbial clauses/subjunctive moods Coordinating conjunctions Correlative conjunctions

Plurals

Prepositional phrases

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COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS Language Standards Direct Individualized Grade 5 Students: Instruction Instruction Conventions of Standard English 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences. b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses. c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions. d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.* e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor). 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.* b. Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence. c. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?). d. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works. e. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

7, 8

62-64

34, 36, 38 33-40

45, 46, 49, 50, 53, 54 39, 40, 43, 47, 51 43, 47, 51

8

63

43 44

35, 37 36 36, 38

52-56

46-48 1-64

Knowledge of Language 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems.

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COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS Language Standards Direct Individualized Grade 6 Students: Instruction Instruction Conventions of Standard English 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive). b. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.* d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).* e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.* 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.* b. Spell correctly.

3, 21, 22

14-15 16

25, 26

17-23, 26

23

25

42, 67

2, 4, 6, 34, 36, 38 1-64

Knowledge of Language 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/ listener interest, and style.* b. Maintain consistency in style and tone.*

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COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS Language Standards Direct Individualized Grade 7 Students: Instruction Instruction Conventions of Standard English 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences. b. Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas. c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.* 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt). b. Spell correctly.

1, 3 13-16

1-7

27 1-64

Knowledge of Language 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.*

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COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS Language Standards Direct Individualized Grade 8 Students: Instruction Instruction Conventions of Standard English 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences. b. Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice. c. Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood. d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.* 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break. b. Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission. c. Spell correctly.

13, 28, 30, 31 40

39, 40

39

1-4, 60, 61

41-48

1-8, 37, 33-40, 59 1-64

Knowledge of Language 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a. Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).

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382

COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS Language Standards Direct Individualized Grades 9-10 Students: Instruction Instruction Conventions of Standard English 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Use parallel structure.* b. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations. 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses. b. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation. c. Spell correctly.

1, 3, 12, 28, 31, 32, 57-61, 64

66

26, 56

70 1-64

Knowledge of Language 3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. a. Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

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COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS Language Standards Direct Individualized Grades 11-12 Students: Instruction Instruction Conventions of Standard English 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested. b. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed. 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Observe hyphenation conventions. b. Spell correctly.

1-64

Knowledge of Language 3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. a. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

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Language Progressive Skills, by Grade Language Standards

Direct Instruction

Individualized Instruction

9-12, 25-28, 23

1-4, 9, 25, 37-54 37-54 1-7

The following skills, marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1–3, are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking. L.3.1f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement. L.3.3a. Choose words and phrases for effect. L.4.1f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. L.4.1g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to/too/two; there/their). L.3.3a. Choose words and phrases for effect. L.4.3b. Choose punctuation for effect. L.5.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. L.5.2a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.† L.6.1c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person. L.6.1d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents). L.6.1e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language. L.6.2a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements. L.6.3a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.‡ L.6.3b. Maintain consistency in style and tone. L.7.1c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers. L.7.3a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy. L.8.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood. L.9–10.1a. Use parallel structure. Subsumed by L.7.3a †Subsumed by L.9–10.1a ‡Subsumed by L.11–12.3a

Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ©2008 Pennington Publishing

17-20

72 33-38 43, 47, 66

3, 35

25-28

17-26

23, 25-28

25

42, 67

2, 4, 6, 34, 36, 38 1-64 1, 3, 12, 28, 31, 32, 57-61, 64

39, 40

60, 61

385

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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics Table of Contents Sections Pages 1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………….. 1‒2 2. Learn How to Teach This Program...

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