religious liberalism in sisters in islam discourse: an analysis on

Loading...

RELIGIOUS LIBERALISM IN SISTERS IN ISLAM DISCOURSE: AN ANALYSIS ON IDENTIFICATION Munif Zarriruddin Fikri bin Nordin ([email protected]) Suhanim binti Abdullah ([email protected]) Marzalina binti Mansor ([email protected]) Department of General Studies, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah.

Abstract Liberalism supported and strived by Sisters In Islam (SIS) aims to bring changes of thought to the Muslim society. But the changes are against the mainstream thought of Muslim in Malaysia. This paper aims to identify religious liberalism found in Sisters in Islam (SIS) Discourse in Malaysia. The research is based on textual analysis. It main focus is to analyse religious discourse and after that explain, interpret and discuss the elements of religious liberalism in SIS Discourse. The texts that have been analysed are articles on Islamic laws, feminism and individual freedom written by SIS in Malay Language from 2006-2009. The texts had been analysed using ahsan al-qawl (selection of the best words) approach. The results show that there are characteristics of religious liberalism in the identification of SIS such as to uphold liberalism, to struggle for thought reformation, to criticize syariah laws, to criticize fatwa, to urge for laws reformation and to fight for freedom of speech. The result helps to increase the understanding among muslim about the dangerous of religious liberalism in SIS Discourse.

Introduction Liberalism has a long history since its started during Renaissance in the end of the 15th century. Actually, liberalism existed as a response to the church domination, thus tried to give freedom to mankind in terms of religion, politics, economy and human value (Sulaiman, 1995). Liberalism of religion flourished in the sense of liberal philosophy and liberal religion during the 20th century, including the strived for equality of gender and race. The focuspoint in this stage is to reinterpret the teaching of religion in the name of liberalism (Kamaruzaman, Ahmad Mahyuddin and Indriaty, 2009).Gustaro Gutierrez, a theologian who spread liberalism by introducing the term ‘liberation theology’ in 1973. From the methodology aspect, there are three stages; social analysis, hermeneutic analysis and liberalization practice (Kamaruzaman, Ahmad Mahyuddin and Indriaty, 2009). According to Fadhlullah Jamil (2009), liberalism of religion in Malaysia started existing at the beginning of 1970s. For example, the existence of Chandra Muzaffar Discourse as Chandra was the leader of reformation movement known as ALIRAN (Aliran Kesedaran Negara). The thought of liberalism was spread slowly in the early of 1980s by anti-hadith movement and Jamaah Malaysia (JAM) in the Kassim Ahmad Discourse (Fadhlullah, 2009). Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1047

In 1993, liberalism had strengthen its root by registration of SIS as a non-government movement leaded by Zainah Anwar (SIS website, 2011). The majority of SIS’s members are from women professionals and the objective of this movement is to fight for feminism and human rights.According to Marzuki Mohamad (2009), SIS started to show liberalism identity when it criticized the implementation of family laws and criminal laws in Islam. SIS claimed that the laws are against human rights, injustice and give bad effects to women. As a strong and well-known movement, SIS had co-operation with non-Muslim individual and nonMuslim organizations to organize Islamic Liberal Forum. The objective is to fight against implementation of Islamic laws, such as laws which banned bad action, unlawful behaviour and unethical action. According to SIS, the laws are against human rights and individual freedom (Marzuki, 2009). Statement of Problem Researchs on liberalism, including liberalism of SIS aims to bring changes of thought to the society. But the changes are against the way of thought of Malay society in Malaysia. Fadhlullah Jamil (2009) found that liberalism of SIS is against the liberal principles of Islamic teachings. A study by Abdul Rahman Abdullah (1998) chose three types of thought which are dominance among Malaysians; traditionalism, modernism and reformism. Thus, liberalism is a new form of thought existed in Malaysia. Shamsul Amri Baharuddin (2007) said that liberalism is the western process to fight against Malaysian society physically and epistemologically. Based on the situation, Majlis Fatwa Kebangsaan banned Liberal Islam on July 2006. The action taken was based on the prinsipal called Hirasat al-Din wa Imarat al-Dunya. The action tend to stop the false teaching that will cause harm to the muslim’s belief. (Marzuki, 2009). Definition of Concept Religious Liberalism According to this research, Liberal Islam is the thought which gives a sense of liberalism to Islam. Among the characteristics of liberalism are freedom of speech, equality of gender and religious pluralism. The objective is to change Islam from a stagnant point to become a modern and contemporary religion.

Identification Identification means to determine and display the identity of an individual or a group. Fairclough (2003) said that identity is always being paired along with discourse, and it is said to be the effects from the discourse. Identity strengthens the belief, practise and ideology in a social interaction, and also tries to influence the people and gains the support from them. According to Freud (1922), identification is known to psycho-analysis as the earliest expression of an emotional tie with another person. Learning will most likely occur if there is a close identification between the observer and the model and if the observer also has a good deal of self-efficacy. A little boy will exhibit a special

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1048

interest in his father; he would like to grow like him and be like him, and take his place everywhere. We may say simply that he takes his father as his ideal. The Theory Identification Theory Identification theory is based on Freud (1922) and later explained by Angela (1987). Identification is a psychological process whereby the subject assimilates an aspect, property or attribute of the other and is transformed, wholly or partially, after the model the other provides. It is by means of a series of identifications that the personality is constituted and specified. Identification theory had been used to analyse liberalism identity of SIS, including the belief, practise and ideology based on liberalism. The psychological process means the assimilation of individual, especially the leader and people with the same interests. The display of SIS identity can be traced in their discourse.

Religious Liberalism Theory The theory is based on the characteristics of religious liberalism by Kurzman (1998), including a.open explanation on democracy b.separation of religion and politic c.women rights d.freedom of thought e.human development In this research, the focus is an open explanation of Quran and Sunnah, women’s rights and freedom of thought. The results will connect the three characteristics of liberalism with postmodern era, deconstruction and deabsolutization by Collins and Mayblin (2006). The Theory of Thought Influence and Spread This is called a Social Cognitive Theory by Bandura (1986). The theory introduces a framework to comprehend, predict and change human behaviour. The theory describes learning in terms of interrelationship between behaviour, environmental factors and personal factors. According to Social Cognitive Theory, the learner acquires knowledge as his or her environment converges with personal characteristics and personal experience. New experiences are evaluated vis-a-vis the past; prior experiences help to subsequently guide and inform the learner as to how the present should be investigated. In this research, Social Cognitive Theory had been used to analyse the influence of SIS thought through action stated in the discourse which had been spread widely to the public. The theory has

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1049

also been used to spread the thought and to know whether the public can be influenced by the thought. Methodology This is the textual analysis research that studies religious discourse in order to explain, interpret and discuss religious liberalism found in SIS discourse. The texts that had been analysed are the writing on Islamic laws, feminism and individual freedom by SIS in Malay language from 2006 until 2009. The three themes had been chosen in order to highlight the thought, practice and strategy using by SIS to connect liberalism with Islam. The themes can be traced in the mission, objectives and programmes by SIS which had been stated in the website. The phase of time from 2006 until 2009 had been selected because it represents the last quarter of liberalism in SIS discourse. The writing had been taken from the menu ‘SIS In The News’ in the website. Year 2006

2007

Title 1)Sisters In Islam kesal dilempar pelbagai tuduhan 2)Sisters In Islam tidak membenci kaum Adam 3)SIS kaji terperinci poligami

Date 29 November 2006

Source Utusan Malaysia

4 December 2006

Utusan Malaysia

29 December 2006

Berita Harian

4)Kelantan paling ramai poligami

20 December 2006

Utusan Malaysia

1)77 peratus berpoligami kerana takut berzina 2)Bolehkah kita matang berbincang tentang poligami? 3)Undang-undang tidak seragam punca kes cerai tidak selesai. 4)Soal jawab: Akidah luntur punca masyarakat Islam mundur 5)Kenyataan Sisters In Islam dipertikai

7 January 2007 7 January 2007

Mingguan Malaysia Utusan Malaysia

7 January 2007

Utusan Malaysia

14 January 2007

Berita Harian

31 January 2007

Berita Harian

6)Sisters In Islam perjelas pandangan Dr. 9 February 2007 Norani 7)Cadangan pemakaian cawat besi 22 February 2007 diskriminasikan wanita 8)Menjelaskan realiti Islam 2 April 2007

Berita Harian

9)Camilla beranikan diri tulis novel Islam

Utusan Malaysia

2 April 2007

10) SIS gesa kerajaan selesaikan isu tukar 6 April 2007 agama 11)Tubuhkan Jabatan Nafkah Anak 22 April 2007 12)Talian TeleNisa bermasalah

membantu

wanita 27 April 2007

Utusan Malaysia Utusan Malaysia

MalaysiaKini.com Mingguan Malaysia Utusan Malaysia

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1050

2008

2009

13)Jangan emosi pejuang isu ‘bocor’

16 May 2007

Utusan Malaysia

14)Larang wakil rakyat hina wanita bertanding 1)GMI tetap anjur program bantah ISA 5 Januari ini walau tiada permit 2)Wanita perlu miliki 3R harungi cabaran hidup 3)SIS: Tiada fakta gincu dorong rogol

9 December 2007 3 January 2008

Mingguan Malaysia Harakahdaily

3 June 2008

Berita Harian

24 June 2008

MalaysiaKini.com

4)Waspada terhadap golongan sesat di 30 October 2008 kalangan umat Islam 5)Sisters In Islam pertikai keputusan Majlis 24 November 2008 Fatwa 6)Yoga haram, yoga halal 25 November 2008

Harakah

7)Henti pertikai fatwa haram yoga

25 November 2008

Utusan Malaysia

8)Pindaan Akta wajibkan suami bayar nafkah 1)Perniagaan ubah hidup ibu tunggal

4 December 2008 28 January 2009

MalaysiaKini.com Sisters In Islam

2)Temu ramah: Al-Islam bersama Pengurus Program SIS Norhayati Kaprawi 3)SIS tolak dakwaan PUMPP dan Pemuda PAS 4)Perjuangan gender hapuskan diskriminasi 5)Musawah bahas kesaksamaan wanita

6 February 2009

Al-Islam

14 February 2009

MalaysiaKini.com

22 February 2009 24 February 2009

Utusan Malaysia Utusan Malaysia

6)Mahkamah benarkan SIS membuat 25 August 2009 semakan penghakiman pengharaman buku

Utusan Malaysia Surabaya Post

Bernama

The total of the texts which had been analysed is 32. The table below shows the number of the texts. Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total

Month January-December January-December January-December January-December

Number of Texts 4 14 8 6 32

The basic texts that had been analysed is a sentence in a paragraph, including sentences which show the identification of liberalism in one paragraph. Identification analysis means to analyse the outer parts of the texts based on the mission, objective and statement given by SIS. The paragraphs that fulfill the criteria and contain the data of the research has to be coded and given the number. The paragraphs that do not fulfill the criteria and do not contain any data of the research had to be abandoned, but the paragraphs had also to be given the number. The data had been analysed using ahsan al-qawl (selection of the good words) that had been proposed by Munif (2008) in order to study religious discourse. Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1051

Results And Discussions Identification of SIS in 2006 In 2006, there are four texts written by SIS that had to be analysed. In text 1, there are two dominant identifications of SIS; to fight for truth and to fight for women equality. In text 2, there are also two dominant identifications of SIS; to fight for women equality and to interpret the opinion. In text 3, the dominant identification of SIS is to study the family institution. In text 4, the dominant identification of SIS is to fight for women equality. Table 1: Identification of SIS 2006 Text 1 (2006)

2 (2006)

3 (2006)

4 (2006)

No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Identification To fight for truth To fight for women To check the laws To uphold justice To uphold toleration To urge for laws amendment To struggle for women To stop discrimination against women To ask for justice To uphold peace, toleration and justice Social activists To appreciate To make corrections To interpret opinion To uphold opinions/views To fight for women

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To support Islamic scholars To struggle for muslim men and women To fight for women and Islam To uphold justice of laws To uphold human right To fight against injustice To uphold Islamic teaching To serve for society To prepare activity To give inspiration feminine activist To fight for women To study on Muslim society To study on family institution To fight for women To criticize the laws To fight for Malay and Muslim To fight for Islam To study on society To fight for women

Paragraph PI,P2,P3 P4,P5,P7 P4 P4,P10 P6 P7 P8,P9 P10,P11 P12 P13 P14 P1,P20 P2 P3,P6,P7,P13,P15 P4,P5 P8,P9, P10,P11,P12 P13 P13 P14 P16,P17 P16,P17 P18,P20 P18 P19 P19 P20 P20 P1 P1 P2,P3,P4,P5,P6,P7 P1,P2,P3,P4 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6

Frequency 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 5 2 5 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 4 1 1 1 1 1

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1052

7. 8.

To study on family institution To do financial planning

P6 P7

1 1

The example below shows one identification in 2006, that is to study family institution of Muslim society in the country. 2006 (3):P4 “Paling penting ialah untuk melihat faktor pendorong perkahwinan poligami dan mengetahui tanggapan umum terhadap perkahwinan itu,” katanya pada sidang akhbar mengenai kajian poligami yang akan dijalankan SIS di Pejabat SIS di sini semalam.” From the example, SIS showed its function and identification as an organization which studies on the family institution in the country. SIS conducted a research on the effects of polygamy to the family institution. It was a comprehensive research, done since the early 2007 which involved researchers from local higher learning institutions. The data collection had been done by interviewing 6,000 respondents in Malaysia who practice polygamy and their family members. The cost of the research was RM 600,000. 2006 (4): P7 “Sementara itu, hasil kutipan tayangan amal filem Indonesia, “Berbagi Suami” pada 4 Januari depan bertempat di Cineleisure Damansara di sini, akan digunakan sebagai dana untuk kajian itu. Tayangan amal itu akan dirasmikan oleh Menteri Kebudayaan, Kesenian dan Warisan, Datuk Seri Dr. Rais Yatim.”

From the example, SIS showed its function and identification as an organization which is capable to do financial planning. As a creative and active organization, SIS will organize the charity film show entitled “Berbagi Suami”. This Indonesian film is about the problems of polygamy in a family. The money collected from the show will be given to support the research on polygamy which costs RM600,000. Identification of SIS in 2007 In 2007, there are fourteen texts written by SIS that had been analysed. The dominant identification of SIS in text 1,2, 5 and 6 is to study on polygamy. In text 3, the dominant identification of SIS is to study on the implementation of laws. In text 4, the dominant identification of SIS is to study Islam. In text 7, the dominant identification of SIS is to fight for women equality. In text 8, the dominant identification of SIS is to explain the truth of Islam. In text 9, the dominant identification of SIS is to analyse the muslim society. In text 10, the dominant identification of SIS is to fight for justice and equality. In text 11 and 12, the dominant identification of SIS is to fight for women equality. In text 13, there are two dominant identifications of SIS; to fight for women’s right and to upgrade a society. In text 14, the dominant identification of SIS is to stop discrimination against the women.

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1053

Table 2: Identification of SIS 2007 Text (1) 2007

No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

2 (2007)

1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

3(2007)

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 1. 2.

3.

6 (2007)

4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1.

7 (2007)

1.

8 (2007)

1.

4 (2007) 5 (2007)

Identification To study on polygamy

Paragraph frequency P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P6,P7,P8, 14 P9,P10,P11,P12,P13,P14 To study on the rights of women and P4 1 Children To fight for women’s rights P5 1 To reform the laws P8 1 To fight for women P11 1 To fight for the rights of women P12 1 and children To fight for women’s rights P1,P2,P3 3 To study on polygamy P1,P2,P3,P5,P6,P7,P10, 19 P11,P12,P12,P14,P15, P16, P17,P18, P19,P21, P22,P23 To study on women’s dilemma P2 1 To criticise on the implementation P4 1 of laws To fight for human rights P4 1 To fight for women P5,P6,P7,P13 4 To report the problem of a society P8 1 To fight for immigrant’s rights P9 1 (Tionghua group) To fight for homosexual group P9 1 To struggle for human rights P9 1 To study on the societies P10,P20 2 To study on man behaviour P13 1 To struggle for justice P19 1 To fight for women P1,P2 2 To criticise on the implementation P1 1 of Laws To study on the implementation of P2,P3,P4,P5,P7 5 laws To fight for women’s rights P6 1 To uphold truth P8,P9 2 To fight for children’s rights P8,P9 2 To study on judgement system P10,P11 2 To study on polygamy P51 1 To study on Islam P52,P53,P54,P55,P56 5 To study on polygamy P4,P5,P6,P7,P8 5 To practise the true Islam P9 1 To study on polygamy P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P6,P7, 9 P8,P9 To fight for women P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P6,P7, 10 P8,P9,P10 To explain the truth of Islam P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P6,P7, 37 P8,P9,P10,P11,P12,P13,

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1054

9 (2007)

10 (2007)

2. 3. 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4.

11 (2007) 12 (2007) 13 (2007) 14 (2007)

1. 1. 1. 2. 1. 2. 3.

P14,P15,P16, P17,P18, P19,P20,P21, P22,P23, P24,P25,P26,P27,P28, P29,P30,P31,P32,P33, P34,P35,P36,P37 To fight against injustice P38,P41,P42,P43 To fight for justice P39,P40,P44,P45,P46 To analyse Muslim society P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P6,P7, P8,P11, P12,P13,P14 To fight for women P9,P10 To struggle for justice and equality P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P6,P12 To struggle for justice and equality P7 of all the races To struggle for women’s justice and P8 equality To struggle for justice and equality P9,P10,P11 for all religions To fight for women P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P6,P7,P8 To fight for women P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P6,P7,P8 To struggle for women’s right P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,P6 To upgrade a society P7,P8,P9,P10,P11,P12 To fight for women P1 To struggle for women’s right P2 To stop discrimination against P3,P4,P5,P6,P7,P8,P9 women

4 5 12 2 7 1 1 3 8 8 6 6 1 1 7

The example below shows one identification of SIS in 2007, that is to fight for children’s right. 2007 (3):P4 ‘Bagaimanapun menurutnya, semasa menjadi Ketua Hakim Mahkamah Syariah Terengganu, beliau pernah menjatuhkan hukuman penjara selama 14 hari kepada seorang lelaki yang enggan membayar nafkah kepada anak-anaknya.’ From the example, the identification of SIS is to fight for children’s right after a divorce between husband and wife. SIS supported the action taken by Datuk Ismail Yahya as a chief judge sending to prison the husband who refused to pay nafkah to his child after the divorce.

2007(6): P4 “Syeikh Muhammad Abduh berpendapat bahawa: Walaupun al-Quran membenarkan poligami, ia adalah atas dasar pertimbangan kepada keadaan tertentu saja, sehingga ia diiringi dengan syarat bahawa seorang lelaki boleh beristeri lebih daripada satu hanya sekiranya dia boleh menjaga semua isterinya dengan sempurna dan hak setiap isteri dijamin, iaitu adil dan tanpa berat sebelah.”

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1055

From the example, the identification of SIS is to study on polygamy. SIS supported the statement given by Syeikh Muhammad Abduh that polygamy is allowed in Islam, but not encouraged. Actually. it is hard for a man to perform justice and to look after all his wives and children when he had more than a wife.

Identification of SIS in 2008 In 2008, there are eight texts written by SIS that had been analysed. In text 1, the dominant identification of SIS is to criticize the laws. In text 2 and 3, the dominant identification of SIS is to fight for women’s equality. In text 4, there are two identifications of SIS; to study on Muslim society and to fight for Islam. In text 5, there are 5 identifications of SIS and 4 of them are dominants; to fight against fatwa, to fight for freedom, to study on the society and to criticize the fatwa. In text 6, the dominant identification of SIS is to set up the rules and regulations. In text 7, the dominant identification of SIS is to safeguard the aqidah (belief) of Muslim. In text 8, the dominant identification of SIS is to modify the laws.

Table 3: Identification of SIS 2008 Text 1 (2008)

2 (2008)

3 (2008)

No 1.

Identification To criticize the laws

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

To struggle for justice To urge laws cancellation To criticise police reason To criticize police action To criticize the Ruler To criticize ISA To study on societies To struggle for justice of laws To urge the government To uphold the laws To support mass media To uphold justice To fight for women’s fate To fight for women To fight for women’s right To fight for women’s equality To lead the women To fight for women’s fate To struggle for women

1.

To fight for women

2.

To criticize the laws

Paragraph P1,P2,P3,P4, P5,P6,P7 P1 P7,P8,P14 P8,P9,P11,P12 P10,P13 P13 P15 P15,P16,P17 P17 P17 P17,P19 P18,P19 P19 P1 P2 P3 P4,P5 P6 P7 P7,P8,P9,P10, P11,P12,P13, P14,P15,P16, P17 P1,P2,P5,P6, P7,P8,P9,P10 P2,P3

frequency 7 1 3 4 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 11

8 2

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1056

4 (2008)

5 (2008)

6 (2008)

7 (2008)

3. 4.

To scrutinize the laws To fight for women’s safety

5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3.

To study the problems of women’s Safety To fight for women’s freedom in dressing To study on societies To study on Muslim society To criticize Muslim society To fight for Islamic scholars To study the challenges of Islamic scholars To study on societies To support Islam To save the aqidah (belief) To fight for Islam To criticize the mislead of religion To fight against fatwa To struggle for freedom To study on societies To criticize fatwa To fight for freedom in a society To support modernity To fight for freedom To set up the rules and regulations

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 1. 2. 3.

To study on societies To study on fatwa To study on society’s interests To criticize fatwa To struggle for freedom To criticize the laws To study on religious practices To save the aqidah (belief) To study on laws To support fatwa To practise yoga To support yoga exercise To teach yoga exercise To study on yoga exercise To study on health To struggle for laws To fight for Islam To save the aqidah (belief)

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

To lead a society To implement the laws To lead the religion To practise the laws To fight against the laws To struggle for freedom

P4 P11,P12,P13, P14 P15

1 4

P16,P17 P18 P1,P2,P4,P8 P3,P4,P5 P5 P6 P7 P7 P8 P9,P10,P11,P12 P9,P10 P1,P2,P3 P1,P2,P8 P3,P6,P7 P4,P5,P8 P9 P1 P1,P7,P8 P2,P3,P9,P10, P11 P4 P4 P5 P6,P7 P6 P8 P10 P10 P11 P12,P13 P12 P12 P13 P14 P14 P1,P2 P1,P2 P3,P5,P6,P10, P11,P12 P4,P6 P4 P5 P7 P8,P9 P8,P9

2 1 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 5

1

1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 6 2 1 1 1 2 2

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1057

8 (2008)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

To struggle for laws implementation To fight for children’s rights To set up laws modifications

P1 P1,P14,P17 P2,P3,P4,P5,P6, P9,P13 To fight for women and children P4,P5,P12,P16 To fight for women P6 To practise the laws P7,P8,P10,P11, P12 To criticize husband’s behaviour P12 To struggle for justice P14,P15 To fight for the rights of women and P15 children To plan for reformism P16 To uphold justice P17 To fight for women’s right P19,P20 To struggle for muslim women P19,P20 To implement laws P20

1 3 7 4 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1

The example below shows one identification of SIS in 2009, that is to fight against fatwa 2008 (5): P1 Sisters In Islam (SIS) menolak keputusan Majlis Fatwa Kebangsaan mengharamkan amalan senaman yoga kerana tiada sebarang bukti dikemukakan bagi mewajarkan yoga diharamkan. From the example, the identification of SIS is to fight against fatwa which banned yoga exercise among the Muslim. SIS claimed that the fatwa is wrong because yoga is not against Islamic belief. Moreover, yoga is only an exercise for a healthy lifestyle, same as Tai Chi and Qigong.

2008 (3):P2 “Larangan ini dibuat daripada sikap prasangka dan seharusnya berdasarkan kepada penyelidikan dan data. MPKB mengeluarkan dasar atau undang-undang perlu ada fakta” kata penyelaras program SIS, Norhayati Kaprawi kepada Malaysiakini, mengulas laporan wujud larangan terbaru Majlis Perbandaran Kota Bharu-Bandar Raya Islam (MPKB-BRI).”

From the example, the identification of SIS is to criticize the laws which banned women from going out in attractive style, with lipstick and high heel shoes. According to MPKB, this is one of the factor lead to rape. As an organization which struggle for women, SIS tried to give freedom to women in the dressing style. According to SIS, MPKB should first do research to prove the data, then only the laws can be implemented.

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1058

Identification of SIS in 2009 In 2008, there are eight texts written by SIS that had been analysed. In text 1, the dominant identification of SIS is to fight for a divorced mother (single mother). In text 2, the dominant identification of SIS is to fight for women. In text 3, there are two dominant identifications of SIS; to struggle for liberalism and to strengthen Islamic laws. In text 4, the dominant identification of SIS is to fight for women. In text 5, the dominant identification of SIS is to struggle for equality and justice. In text 6, the dominant identification of SIS is to criticize the laws.

Table 4: Identification of SIS 2009 Text 1 (2009)

2 (2009)

No 1. 2. 3. 4.

Identification To struggle for women To fight for women’s right To struggle for justice To fight for divorced women

5. 6. 7. 8.

To study on women’s dilemma To give inspiration (to inspirit) To fight for women’s fate To give motivation

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 1.

To fight for women and children To fight against former irresponsibilities To lead a society To train the divorced mother To train entrepreneur To fight for women

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To fight for Islam To struggle for freedom To struggle for religious freedom To criticize laws implementation To struggle for religious freedom

7.

To uphold the truth

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

To struggle for liberalism To criticize stagnant thought To struggle for thought reformism To study on societies To study on thoughts To struggle for religious freedom To study on Islam

Paragraph P1,P2 P3,P10,P11 P3 P4,P6,P8,P9, P14,P15,P16, P17,P20,P21, P22,P23,P24, P27 P5 P7,P19 P12,P13 P14,P25,P26, P27 P18 husband P18 P23 P26 P28 P1,P14,P29, P30,P33,P34 P1,P3 P1,P2,P18 P3,P4 P4 P5,P42,P43, P45,P46 P5,P7,P21, P24,P25 P7,P8,P9,P12 P8 P9,P13 P10,P10,P17 P10 P12 P13

frequency 2 3 1 14

1 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 6 2 3 2 1 5 5 4 1 2 3 1 1 1

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1059

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

3 (2009)

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Islamic activists To fight for a society To support liberalism To support freedom To instill progress To uphold Rukunegara To uphold science and technology progress To struggle for plural society To fight against discrimination To fight for the people

P13 P14 P16,P18 P16 P16 P17 P17 P18 P20 P20,P26,P29, P50 To criticize Islamic scholars P21,P22 To uphold previous Islamic scholars P22 To uphold freedom of speech P23,P24,P28 To struggle for freedom P23 To fight for women’s right P24,P25,P52, P53, P55 To struggle for freedom of speech P25,P26 To stop discrimination P26,P29 To struggle for Islam P28 To uphold freedom P28 To uphold democracy P28 To uphold justice of laws P30 To stop violence in a family P32 To urge laws implementation P32 To struggle for Islamic family laws P35 To struggle for women P36 To struggle for women’s freedom P38,P54 To struggle for the freedom of women’s P39 dressing. To uphold religious freedom P41 To struggle for reformism P48,P49 To fight for muslim women P50 To fight against discrimination P52 To fight against women abuse P55 To fight for women’s freedom P56 To criticize fatwa P57 To propose the fatwa P57 To uphold justice P1 To struggle for women P1 To uphold reformism P1 To uphold liberalism P2,P3 To fight for liberalism P4 To criticize syariah laws P5 To struggle for freedom P5 To uphold liberal Islam P6 To criticize Islamic teaching P7 To fight for the truth of Islam P8 To struggle for reformism P9 To struggle for women’s right P10

1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 3 1 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1060

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 4 (2009)

5 (2009)

8. 9. 10.

To struggle for women’s justice To struggle for women’s equality To uphold Islamic laws To uphold the reformism of laws To struggle for justice of laws To struggle for reformism of laws To struggle for women’s justice and equality To fight against discrimination of women To struggle for reformation of laws To uphold Islamic laws To fight for women’s equality To fight for women’s justice To urge modification of laws To fight for women To struggle for equality To struggle for women To fight for women’s right To stop the discrimination against women To study on Islamic laws To criticize the implementation of Islamic laws To study on societies To study on women To criticize the laws To study on laws To struggle on women equality and right To fight for women To fight against muslim women’s discrimination To struggle for justice To struggle for the changes of laws To struggle for muslim women equality To struggle for human equality To struggle for equality between man and women To struggle for women equality To urge modification of laws To fight for equality and justice

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

To fight for muslim women To fight for women equality To urge for reformation of laws To fight against discrimination of women To strengthen the women’s position To struggle for muslim women’s freedom To criticize the laws To struggle for women justice To fight for justice of laws

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

P11 P11 P12,P13 P14 P15 P16 P17

1 1 2 1 1 1 1

P1 P1,P2,P17 P3,P4 P3,P4 P5 P6,P9 P7,P9,P13,P20 P8 P10,P10,P11 P12 P12 P13,P15 P14

1 3 2 2 1 2 4 1 3 1 1 2 1

P16 P16 P18 P19 P21 P1,P2,P4,P8 P3

1 1 1 1 1 4 1

P5,P6,P10 P7 P9,P10 P11 P12

3 1 2 1 1

P13 P13 P14,P15,P16, P19,P20,P21, P22 P17 P17,P26,P27 P18 P18 P19 P23 P23 P24 P25

1 1 7

1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1061

20. 21. 22.

6 (2009)

23. 1. 2.

To fight for justice P26 To fight for justice of Islamic laws P27 To fight against the implementation of P28 syariah laws To study on laws P28 To criticize on laws P1,P2,P5,P6, P7,P8,P9 To struggle on justice of laws P1,P2,P3,P4

1 1 1 1 7 4

2009 (1):P8 Berbeza dengan keadaan bapa tunggal, ibu tunggal lebih berhadapan dengan masalah. Membesarkan anak-anak tanpa suami cukup sukar bagi seorang wanita yang bergelar ibu tunggal. From the example, SIS shows its identification to struggle for the divorced mother, as SIS is an organization which fights for women. A divorced woman or a widow tend to be more stress than a divorced man. The effort done by SIS to fight for divorced women should be appreciated because a society always feels suspicious towards divorced women. Futhermore, the divorced women have to face financial difficulties because the ex-husband abandoned the payment of nafkah for the children. 2009 (2):P3 Kemudian SIS keluar dengan kenyataan akhbar pada 29 September 2000 yang antara lain menyatakan kebebasan beragama semestinya mengiktiraf kebebasan menukar agama. Bagaimanakah orang Islam boleh menuntut kebebasan agama untuk mereka yang ingin memeluk Islam, dan pada masa yang sama, memegang pendirian yang menidakkan kebebasan bagi mereka yang ingin keluar dari Islam? From the example, SIS shows its identification to struggle for religious freedom. For SIS, the freedom should be given to a person, whether a Muslim or non-Muslim to change his religion. This opinion is against the mainstream thought of Muslim in Malaysia.

Conclusion SIS is a non-government organization which participates actively in several issues including social, intellectual and laws on Muslim women in Malaysia. The roles and functions of SIS were recorded in SIS Discourse. Between 2006 until 2009, the dominant identifications of SIS are to fight for women, to study on societies, to explain the opinions, to fight against fatwa and to criticize the laws. Identifications which are full of liberalism elements can be found in SIS Discourse. It is in line with the function of SIS as the organization which fights for women’s rights and dignity. The results is in line with Hunt (2009) who identified several types of liberalism identification in Malaysia through intellectual discourse, political co-operation and religious pluralism. The result shows that liberalism practise of SIS have potential to bring harms to Muslim society in Malaysia, as stated by Zamihan Mat Zin (2008). Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1062

References Sulaiman Nordin. 1995. ‘Islam, Sekularisme dan Liberalisme’ dalam Sulaiman Nordin (penyelenggara). Islam, Al-Quran dan Ideologi Masa Kini. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Kamaruzaman Yusoff, Ahmad Mahyuddin Hassan dan Indriaty Ismail (2009, Oktober). ‘Liberalisme Agama dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Pemikiran Islam Liberal’ Kertas kerja pada International Conference on West Asia – Malay World Relations anjuran Institut Kajian Rantau Asia Barat, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia di Bangunan Canselori, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Fadhlullah Jamil. (4 April 2009). ‘Islam Liberal: Perkembangannya di Malaysia’ dalam Siasah. Hal. 15 dan 38 Laman Web Sisters In Islam http://www.sistersinislam.org.my

(2011).

Diperolehi

pada

18

Februari

2011

daripada

Marzuki Mohamad. 2009. ‘Manifestasi Islam Liberal di Malaysia: Dimensi Politik dan Undangundang’ dalam Abdul Karim Ali dan Mohd Roslan Mohd Noor (penyelenggara). Islam Liberal: Isu dan Cabaran. Petaling Jaya: Persatuan Ulama Malaysia Abdul Rahman Abdullah. 1998. Pemikiran Islam di Malaysia: Sejarah dan Aliran. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Shamsul Amri Baharuddin. 2007. Budaya Yang Tercabar. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Fairclough, N. 2003. Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge Freud. 1922. Group Psychology and The Analysis of the Ego (translated by James Strachey). New York: Boni and Liveright Angela, R. 1987. Editor’s Note On Metapsychology. Collins, J. dan Mayblin, B. 2006. Introducing Derrida. Appignanesi, R. (penyunting). Cambridge: Icons Books Limited Bandura, A. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall Munif Zarriruddin Fikri bin Nordin. 2008. ‘Aplikasi Analisis Wacana Kritis dalam Analisis Wacana Agama’ dalam Jurnal Bahasa, 8(2): 295-314 Hunt, R. 2009. ‘Can Muslims Enggage In Interreligious Dialogue?. A Study of Malay Muslim Identity in Contemporary Malaysia’. The Muslim World, 99: 581-607 Zamihan Mat Zin. 2008. ‘Ancaman Islam dan Pluralisme’ Kertas kerja di Seminar Isu-isu Semasa Akidah anjuran Jabatan Agama Islam Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur.

Proceeding of the International Conference on Social Science Research, ICSSR 2013. 4-5 June 2013, Penang, MALAYSIA. e-ISBN 978-967-11768-1-8. Organized by WorldConferences.net 1063

Loading...

religious liberalism in sisters in islam discourse: an analysis on

RELIGIOUS LIBERALISM IN SISTERS IN ISLAM DISCOURSE: AN ANALYSIS ON IDENTIFICATION Munif Zarriruddin Fikri bin Nordin ([email protected]) Suhanim binti ...

665KB Sizes 4 Downloads 16 Views

Recommend Documents

Sisters In Islam: News
Pelbagai kajian sudah dilakukan untuk menunjukkan kesan negatif perkahwinan kanak-kanak kepada kesihatan fizikal, mental

POWER IN RELIGIOUS DISCOURSE: A discourse analysis of - Core
lose and is described by Boris Fausto in Folha de São Paulo as the 'therapy for the poor.' Still according to Folha de S

indonesian islam in religious and political struggle discourse
Jun 1, 2015 - This paper looks into the struggle between Islam and politics in Indonesia from. Soekarno-era up to the ..

The Study on Consultation Services of Sisters in Islam - ipedr
Responsibilities (Nafkah): wife/ hadhanah period /Care- taking of children. 332. 27. 5. Children: Out of marriage child

Noraida Endut Copy Editing - Sisters In Islam
differences, between physical custody (hadanah) and what is termed, in many of the. Islamic family laws in Malaysia, leg

Thomas Stamford Raffles' Discourse on Islam in the - Sabrizain.org
Kata kunci: Orang Melayu, Islam, strategi wacana, ideologi, epistemologi. ABSTRACT. This article examines the developmen

Discourse of Religious Pluralism
Semasa dan Hala Tuju Masa Depan,” organized by IKIM, 19-20 July 2011, at Dewan Besar IKIM, Kuala. Lumpur. .... mainstr

An ideographic analysis of the EU multiculturalism discourse in
Union (EU) and Macedonia surrounding the concept of ―multiculturalism. ... ―multiculturalism‖ within the discourse

Conflict Management on Group Religious in Islam (Case - CiteSeerX
relations and say as issues of fiqh ; 3) The development of information technology (IT) as a result of human thinking wh

Henneneutics of wntten texts: religious discourse in Mexican - TSpace
superpower, Luis Spota's La Plaza (19ïï), Miriam Ortiz's Narciso en la cosfa (1998) exposure of life in the coastal vi