Surfing the labour market - International Labour Organization

Loading...
Surfing the labour market:

CV

CV

CV

CV

CV

Job search skills for young people

FACILITATORS’ GUIDE AND TOOLKIT

Surfing the labour market Job search skills for young people Vallì Corbanese and Gianni Rosas

International Labour Office

FACILITATOR’S GUIDE AND TOOLKIT

Copyright © International Labour Organization 2012 First published 2013

Publications of the International Labour Office enjoy copyright under Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. Nevertheless, short excerpts from them may be reproduced without authorization, on condition that the source is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation, application should be made to ILO Publications (Rights and Permissions), International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, or by email: [email protected] The International Labour Office welcomes such applications. Libraries, institutions and other users registered with reproduction rights organizations may make copies in accordance with the licences issued to them for this purpose. Visit www.ifrro.org to find the reproduction rights organization in your country.

Corbanese V., Rosas G. Surfing the labour market: Job search skills for young people, Geneva 2012 ISBN 978-92-2-126490-3 (print) ISBN 978-92-2-126491-0 (web pdf)

ILO Cataloguing in Publication Data

The designations employed in ILO publications, which are in conformity with United Nations practice, and the presentation of material therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the International Labour Office concerning the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors, and publication does not constitute an endorsement by the International Labour Office of the opinions expressed in them. Reference to names of firms and commercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by the International Labour Office, and any failure to mention a particular firm, commercial product or process is not a sign of disapproval. ILO publications and electronic products can be obtained through major booksellers or ILO local offices in many countries, or direct from ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Catalogues or lists of new publications are available free of charge from the above address, or by email: [email protected] Visit our website: www.ilo.org/publns

Design and printing by the International Training Centre of the ILO, Turin - Italy Printed in Italy

The Facilitator’s Guide Introduction ..........................................................................6 How to use the Guide ..........................................................9

Session

Conducting a self-assessment and exploring careers........................................................14

Session

Discovering occupations ..................................................24

Session

Preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications ...............................................30

Session

Planning the job search ....................................................42

Session

Preparing for job interviews .............................................52

Session

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period on the job .................................................64

The Toolkit Session

Conducting a self-assessment and exploring career options ...........................................74

Session

Discovering occupations ..................................................90

Session

Preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications ...............................................98

Session

Planning a job search the first period on the job .........116

Session

Preparing for job interviews ...........................................120

Session

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period on the job..............................................................134

Other Resources Resource 1 – Glossary of key employment terms .......140 Resource 2 – Guidelines for facilitators .......................143 Resource 3 – Instruction methods: Advantages and disadvantages ..............147 Resource 4 – Sample Training Needs Analysis Questionnaire............................149 Resource 5 – Sample of a session plan ........................152 Resource 6 – Sample of validation questionnaire........153

5

Introduction

The International Labour Organization (ILO) has long been engaged in creating greater opportunities for young women and men to secure decent employment and income. Supporting young people to match their work aspirations and skills with existing labour market opportunities is an important component of the ILO’s work on youth employment. Targeted job search methods can help young people find employment in today’s increasingly competitive labour market, which is characterized by information asymmetries and limited job openings compared to the number of young jobseekers that enters the labour market every year. This explains why the transition from school to work can be particularly stressful. Acquiring the skills and techniques needed to plan and navigate the job-search period can help lessen a feeling of being overwhelmed. By using a variety of job search methods, young people can contact a greater number of employers, thus increasing their chances of being granted an interview. Job-search assistance programmes have gained widespread attention in the past years, primarily because evaluations of youth employment programmes around the world have shown a large number of positive results, either in terms of improving the young people’s opportunities of finding a job or their cost effectiveness. Based on the lessons learned, several countries have introduced job search skills training in schools and vocational education and training institutions. This training is being increasingly included in broader packages of youth employment programmes that aim at improving young peoples’ prospects of finding decent work. Counsellors in employment offices of several countries offer job-skills training as a first

6

labour market measure, followed by individual employment planning and finally, comprehensive assistance in the form of labour market training and/or measures to boost labour demand. Job search skills initiatives have become an integral part of national strategies that aim to create employment for young people. However, lack of information together with low awareness of existing techniques, has led many young people to step into the labour market without having the basic information needed to prepare a curriculum vitae and contact prospective employers. The aim of this package is to help increase awareness of the number of skills needed to look for a job and to encourage young people to take the initiative. Young people need to be encouraged to learn how to identify the skills they already possess and what occupations could interest them, as well as how to prepare an effective curriculum vitae, get ready for a job interview and manage their first period in the workplace. These skills greatly increase young people’s chances of finding decent work. This guide has been designed to support those organizations (education and training institutions, employment services, etc.) that can help young job seekers learn the skills needed to efficiently look for, and find a job. The staff of these organizations can also provide counselling services, and prepare individual employment plans. The guide consists of a guide for facilitators, a toolkit that provides examples, individual and group activities and a set of other resources, including a glossary of key employment terms, guidelines to support facilitators in the design, implementation and validation of job-search skills training workshops and other questionnaires and formats.

7

This tool has been developed on the basis of the experience gained by the ILO through the implementation of several technical assistance programmes on youth employment in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, North and West Africa, and Asia. Many of these programmes included job-skills training activities as part of comprehensive youth employment programmes. The finalization of this package would have not been possible without the invaluable feedback of many counsellors and trainers who were involved in the implementation of the above-mentioned youth employment programmes. We are also grateful to the counsellors and trainers who tested the various drafts of the job-search skills package in the context of broader youth employment programmes. We are also thankful to Donna Koeltz, Senior Employment Services Specialist of the ILO, for her useful comments and suggestions to the final draft of the same package.

8

How to use this guide Objective

The main purpose of this guide is to offer an effective career instruction tool that facilitators can use with students and young adults looking for work or exploring their future career paths so that they can make informed career decisions.

Target group

The training activities are designed to help young people (students, workers or jobseekers) between the ages of 15 and 24, to learn more about themselves, find work and pursue careers that are satisfying, fulfilling and aligned to their skills and abilities. There is no minimum requirement for participating in the orientation job-search skills workshops, apart from the ability to read and write. An understanding of the characteristics and needs of participants is crucial when planning and conducting job search workshops. Facilitators will have to tailor the workshop according to what is most effective for participants and maximize their learning experience. Such understanding will also allow them to form homogeneous groups for the workshop.

9

Facilitator’s profile

The Guide is a reference tool for education and career counsellors, teachers and trainers, but also for youth leaders and peers. Facilitators are not required to possess prior knowledge, but they need to have good facilitation and training skills and to be creative and imaginative. This is particularly important for the selection and adaptation of learning resources to the needs of the audience and the national context. Facilitators need to be particularly skilled in helping young people take stock of their strengths and identify career goals.

Structure and content

The guide is organized around six sessions that can be delivered in approximately thirteen training hours. The tips included in each session provide facilitators with the support required to successfully deliver each of the training activities. To tailor the guide to participant’s needs, one or more training sessions can be expanded, shortened or even skipped. For instance, if participants have already a fair idea of the career path they would like to pursue, session 1 and 2 may be merged into a session or skipped altogether to focus more on planning the job search, writing effective curriculum vitae and sitting job interviews. Resource 3 of the package provides a template of training needs analysis questionnaires that the facilitators may use to assess needs of participants prior to the workshop.

10

The activities can be combined to fit the specific learning styles of participants within the time available for conducting the workshop. Time management is necessary to avoid falling behind schedule and to have enough time for participants to reflect on what they have learned from each training activity. Examples of activities are provided to the facilitator for the design of individual and group exercises. The learning units include self-discovery and the exploration of possible career paths, write effective curriculum vitae, plan a job search, undergo a job interview, and manage the first period on the job.

11

Learning strategy The learning strategy focuses on fostering the skills that are instrumental to make career choices (e.g. communication, learn to learn, decision-making, problem-solving). In this regard, the design of the learning activities should include information, tips and practices that are tailored to the local context. Facilitators should engage participants through group discussions, hands-on activities, question-and-answer sessions and problem-solving. They should allocate sufficient time for discussion and practice by young participants. The subject of job-search skills is vast. Facilitators will have to select the topics they want to include in the training workshop. They will also need to decide the instructional techniques to be used in each training session. Resource 2 of the package provides guidelines for facilitators on the design, implementation and validation of training workshops. For each session, the guide identifies learning objectives, describes activities and estimates the delivery time. Before delivering the workshop, facilitators are suggested to:

Œ  Ž  

12

read through the whole guide (to get an understanding of the topics covered and of the activities proposed); identify the guide’s sections and tools that need to be adapted to the national context and to the needs of the audience; develop a plan for each session, highlighting the objectives, content, activities and learning resources (a template is provided in resource 4); Prepare the learning resources to be used with and distributed to participants; Prepare an end-of-workshop validation tool (a template is provided in resource 5).

Activities

Facilitator’s notes on the topics and the suggested learning process are included in the guide. The activities proposed in this guide are given as examples. Templates for individual and group exercises are part of the toolkit. Facilitators should adapt the examples in the guide, toolkit and other resources to the national and local contexts, as well as to participants’ needs and learning style. At the beginning of each session, facilitators should take some time to discuss with participants the learning objectives and the results of the prior assignment. They should conclude each group activity with a debriefing session where participants are given the opportunity to share their experience and views.

Adaptation

The material contained in the package is meant to be a reference for the facilitator. It highlights the main issues and suggests tips and examples to be used for the delivery of the workshop. To complement and adapt the learning activities presented in this Guide, the facilitator should gather information on the national classification of occupations, job descriptions and labour legislation (e.g. provisions for minimum working age, working hours, minimum wage and social security arrangements). The facilitator should also provide participants with the contacts (address, telephone number, email and web address) of institutions and organizations that can share information on jobs and work requirements, enterprises and industries, and other pieces of information that are relevant to the world of work. These institutions include labour offices, labour inspectorates, employers’ organisations and trade unions.

13

Conducting a self-assessment and exploring careers

Session

Learning objectives:

Conducting a self-assessment and exploring careers

By the end of the session participants will be able to: l Identify their work values, skills and attitudes; l Relate their interests and aspirations to career

options.

Delivery time:

120 minutes

Activities

Œ  Ž

14

Understanding attitudes and prioritizing work values Discovering interests Identifying skills for work

Chapter

Introduction

Session

Part of the first session should be aimed at introducing participants to the overall objectives of the workshop and at getting a “feeling” for the audience (i.e. understanding participants’ expectations and needs). This will allow facilitators to better tailor the workshop content and learning activities. The facilitator may wish to consider running a training needs questionnaire prior to the workshop (a sample is provided in resource 3). Participants also need to be introduced to the learning sequence (number and content of sessions and expected learning outcomes) and to the learning strategy that should be focused on a learner-centred approach requiring participants to “learn by doing”

Learning more about oneself

Conducting a job search is like planning a trip. First, young people need to find out what they want to do and where they want to work. This, in turn, will help them clarify their career goals and make career choices. The first step participants have to make is self-discovery. This helps them identify attitudes, work related values, interests and skills and the way these relate to the world of work. There are several tools that may be used to help young people get a sense of the types of jobs they may be interested in. The facilitator may identify the tools that are commonly used in the country by, for instance, employment services/job centres or education and training institutions. These tools should be adapted to the needs of the participants. .Alternatively, the facilitator can adapt the tools that are proposed in the toolkit. The facilitator should inform participants that the use of “tests” on attitudes, values and skills are mere instruments (different from school tests and exams)

15

Conducting a self-assessment and exploring careers

with no right or wrong answer. They are designed to help users clarify ideas about themselves and the world of work. In addition, the facilitator should be aware of the fact that some young people may face personal problems that affect their job prospects. If this is the case, the facilitator should refer these participants to expert counsellors - either at the employment services/job centres or in schools - who can conduct psychometric testing and can help individuals address their problems and set realistic vocational goals. The facilitator should ask participants to discuss the results of the self-assessment exercise. It may be better to let participants decide whether they prefer to discuss the self-assessment with one of their peers, with the facilitator or in the plenary.

Activity 1.1. Understanding attitudes and prioritizing work-related values

Activity 1.1 “Understanding attitudes and prioritizing work-related values” helps participants understand their attitudes and focus on the aspirations they expect to fulfil through work. The first task of this activity asks participants to decide how often each of the “attitude” statements applies to them (mostly, sometimes, almost never). The scoring system provided at the end allows them to see whether their overall attitude is positive or needs improvement. A positive attitude is as important as skills and knowledge to find and keep a job. The following tips to a positive attitude may be offered by the facilitator when reviewing the results of the activity: l Look for the best in every situation: where is the

plus? Is there an opportunity? l Avoid using quick fixes as solutions to problems; l Learn from one’s own mistakes. Plan a different

way to handle them in future;

16

Chapter

Session

l Know strengths and weaknesses and see the latter

as limitations rather than flaws. The next step revolves around prioritizing work-related values, e.g. the features of work that are key to the fulfilment of people’s aspirations. Participants are asked to go through a list of values and to prioritize the top four (with four being the highest and one the lowest priority). The responses will help participants get a basic understanding of the type of job that better responds to their aspirations. For instance, a person who attaches the most importance to “creativity” would better fulfil his/her aspirations as a writer, photographer or illustrator rather than as a bookkeeper or office clerk. This scoring of work-related values is also important when assessing a job offer (see session 6).

Activity 1.2(a) Discovering interests

Once participants have gained a better idea of their attitudes and work-related values, the facilitator can introduce an activity aimed at understanding individual interests (things people like/dislike, they are good or bad at). Activity 1.2 in the toolkit offers two alternative examples that the facilitator may wish to use and/or adapt to help young people discover their interests. The first example Discovering interests ask participants to go through twenty-four statements and check those that are true for them. Each of the statements is labelled in the right-hand column with a letter (“P”, “A”, “S”) that corresponds to a profile (practical, analytical and social). The predominant profile will result from the highest scored letter for each participant. A brief description of each profile is provided at the end of the exercise with samples of the related broad occupational area. At the end of the activity, the facilitator may ask three participants to read out their profile and to indicate how this relates to some jobs.

17

Conducting a self-assessment and exploring careers

The facilitator should conclude the activity by checking whether participants are satisfied with the identified profiles. If some of them cannot locate their interest within any of the profiles, this could indicate they have not developed a clear preference yet. They facilitator should clarify that participants may be suited for jobs that combine different profiles.

Activity 1.2(b) Things I like to do

Alternatively, the facilitator may carry out the activity Things I like to do that uses another tool built on the basis of the theory of vocational choice.1 According to this theory, most people are one (or a combination) of six personality types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional (see Box 1.1). The characteristics of each personality type are best matched to a particular work environment. For instance, artistic people are likely to be more satisfied with jobs that value creativity and expression. If they were to choose their colleagues, they would choose among the most compatible (i.e. other artistic people) or complementary (i.e. investigative and social) profiles. In reality, each personality is the result of a combination of more than one type (i.e. composite personality).

1 Many of the tools that are used in career exploration workshops are based on the theory of vocational choice of John Holland. See Holland, J.L., Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments, Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., third edition, Odessa, January 1997.

18

Chapter

Session

Box 1.1

Personality types

Realistic: A realistic personality has mechanical and athletic abilities, enjoys working outdoors and likes to work with tools and machines. S/he generally prefers to work with things more than with ideas or people. Investigative: Investigative people usually have mathematical and scientific abilities, enjoy working alone and like to solve problems. They generally favour working with ideas or things more than with people. Artistic: This type of personality enjoys creating original work and has a good imagination. S/he usually enjoys working with ideas more than with things. Social: A person with social skills is interested in human relationships and likes to help others with problems. S/he likes to work with people more than with things. Enterprising: Enterprising people have leadership and speaking abilities, are interested in economics and politics and like to be influential. They like to work with people and ideas more than with things. Conventional: This personality type has clerical and arithmetic ability, prefers working indoors and likes to organize things. S/he enjoys working with words and numbers. Source: Adapted from the theory of vocational choice of John Holland, http://www.salisbury.edu/careerservices/Students/Holland/

The exercise asks participants to select the activities they like best in each of the six categories labelled with the initial letter of the personality type (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional). The highest scoring letters will allow building a composite personality, which can be better related to jobs. The handout Matching personality types with jobs describes each personality type, the competencies these persons usually have and gives examples of the jobs each personality type likes to do. At the end of the activity, participants with different profiles can pair up to compare their personality, the competences these require and the example of jobs they may be happier with.

19

Conducting a self-assessment and exploring careers

Identifying skills

Another step in self-assessment and career exploration is the identification of skills. There are different types of skills that altogether determine the competence of an individual (see Box 1.2). These skills comprise the ability to read, write and make basic calculations (foundation or basic skills), the capacity to undertake technical tasks that belong to specific occupations (vocational skills), and the ability to accomplish a number of duties – e.g. acquire new knowledge, work in a team, solve problems, make decisions – that apply to a wide variety of work environments (core employability skills).

Skills that make up “competence”

Box 1.2

A skill is the ability, acquired through learning and/or practice, to undertake a manual or mental activity. Competence is a broader concept and it includes the mix of knowledge, skills and attitudes that an individual uses to perform adequately in a job. FOUNDATION SKILLS (or basic skills): These are skills necessary to ensure that individuals are able to function productively in employment, the community and in their personal life. They include literacy and numeracy, as well as skills leading to the understanding of both social rights and obligations. VOCATIONAL SKILLs (or occupational skills): The ability to perform tasks and functions particular to a job, occupation or industry. Also called occupational skills and technical skills, they include the ability to undertake occupational-related tasks. Some jobs use the same or similar vocational skills, but the job requirements may be different from one company to another. CORE EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS (or non vocational skills): Non-vocational/non-technical skills are needed to perform at work and in society. They apply to work generally, rather than being specific to an occupation or industry. Core employability skills include: the ability to work with others and in teams, solving problems and using technology; communication skills and learning-to-learn skills. Source: Rosas G., Corbanese V., Glossary of key terms on learning and training for work, ILO, 2006.

20

Chapter

Session

Skills can be acquired through several means, including school, paid and volunteer work, community projects and other activities with community-based organizations. The facilitator may provide an example of the skills necessary to undertake the tasks of a job by describing how s/he acquired the skills of the job s/he is doing. A summary of skills for work is provided in Box 1.3.

Box 1.3

Skills for work People skills

Manual skills

Data/information skills

q q q q q q q q

q q q q q q q

q

Manage money, make a budget

q

Record facts, classify information

q

Analyze data, audit and maintain records

q q

Pay attention to details

q q

Gather information

Help and care for others Manage conflicts Interview people Be kind and understanding Negotiate Show patience Be pleasant and sociable Supervise, teach/train

Creative/artistic skills

q q

Write short stories or articles Express yourself through music, poetry or art

q q

Perform and act

q

Achieve high scores in games

Use computer to create presentations

Assemble kits Build or repair things Work well with hands Operate tools, machinery Use complex equipment Drive or operate vehicles Inspect and maintain equipment or vehicles

Verbal/Communication skills

q q q

Talk easily with others

q q q q q

Be logical

Express yourself clearly Create and talk about new ideas

Work well with others Write clearly and concisely Speak in public

Investigate and clarify results

Research and write reports

Leadership skills

q q q q q

Make decisions

q q q

Take risk when necessary

Direct work of others Solve problems Motivate people Find agreement within a group

Show self-confidence Organize/chair meetings

Set up own networks

21

Conducting a self-assessment and exploring careers

Activity 1.3 Skills for work

The facilitator may use or adapt activity 1.3 (Skills for work) that is included in the toolkit to help participants identify the skills required to perform different jobs. This activity is built around the descriptions of six well-known occupations and the types of skills required for performing at work (basic, vocational and core employability skills). Participants can be asked to select two job descriptions and identify the competence that each job requires, i.e. to “extract” from the description the knowledge, skills and attitudes that underpin performance. The facilitator should provide an example on how to identify information participants need to carry out the activity. This will also help later on, when participants will be asked to describe their skills in concise terms and relate them to the needs of a prospective employer (session 3, writing a CV). This activity also requires participants to identify the information that points to physical attributes and environmental factors of the specific job. For instance, the job of “Forest officer” requires walking on rough terrain, while working as hairdresser involves using chemical substances and requires manual dexterity. The facilitator should point participants to the need of considering the personal and environment factors that may limit the choice of certain occupations or jobs (see also session 2 “Discovering occupations”).

22

Chapter

Session

23

DO YOU Discovering

occupations

Session

Learning objectives:

Discovering occupations

By the end of this session participants will be able to: l Search for information on careers and occupations; l Match their individual profile to jobs

Delivery time:

60 minutes

Activities:

Œ  Ž

24

Discovering occupations: information interview Discovering occupations: how to read a job advertisement Matching skills to the requirements of the job

Session

Discovering occupations

There are several ways to explore the occupations that match the knowledge, skills and attitudes of young people, as well as their aspirations and preferences.

Talk to somebody who is doing the job

One way to discover what is involved in an occupation is to talk to someone who does the job. This can be as informal as talking to a friend, or as formal as contacting people who are working in the field of interest. This research method, called information interview, helps give young people a better sense of the skills, opportunities, but also the drawbacks, that working in a particular field might present. This occupational exploration technique may help young people learn about occupations, build contacts and market themselves, which is of critical importance for their career choice and job search.

Activity 2.1 Discovering occupations: Information interview

When talking to friends or acquaintances about the job of interest, it is important to prepare the interview carefully so as to get the maximum amount of information out of it. Activity 2.1 Discovering occupations: information interview in the toolkit can be used by the facilitator to help young people develop their own list of questions to be asked during an information interview. Participants are asked - in teams of three - to write on coloured cards two questions for each of the six categories on a prepared flipchart (occupational field, career development, conditions of work, preparation for the job, job search advice and best/worst thing about the job). The facilitator may expand the questions prepared by participants by using the sample questions appended in the toolkit. The facilitator should prompt participants to use their questions with respondents (i.e. people that are working in the occupation of interest) to gather information on the areas of interest and to pay attention to personal and environmental factors that may limit the occupational choice.

25

DO YOU Discovering

occupations

Reading job advertisements

Another way of exploring occupations is to go through jobs advertised in local newspapers and other media. This helps discover their essential requirements - e.g. tasks and duties of the job as well as knowledge, skills and attitudes - that are required by employers.

Activity2.2 Discovering occupations: How to read a job advertisement

Activity 2.2 (How to read a job advertisement) in the toolkit helps young people understand how to read job advertisements and extract the information they need on job requirements. This exercise proposes two sample advertisements, one posted in a daily newspaper and the other in the Internet. The toolkit contains a selection of advertisements for the facilitator to identify those that respond to the needs of participants. The newspaper advertisement proposed is straightforward and easy to read. The internet vacancy notice, on the other hand, is more complicated. For instance, it does not list the name of the enterprise advertising the job, nor does it describe the skills and/or experience required. The facilitator should provide participants with some tips on how to handle this type of advertisement. For instance: l The e-mail address given for the transmission of

the CV may help identify the enterprise. If Internet access is available, participants may try to search the name included in the email address. Alternatively, participants may contact the local library, the employment service/job centre or the employers’ organizations to consult enterprise directories.

26

Session

l The job is for a part-time office clerk, able to work in

a fast-paced environment. Since the advertisement is making reference to “office clerk” and “office duties”, the facilitator can suggest participants to refer to the National Classification of Occupations (if available) or to contact local employment offices/job centres, employers’ organizations or trade unions from which additional information on occupations can be obtained. For this purpose, the facilitator should prepare a list of names, addresses and phone numbers of local and national institutions that can provide labour market information. Where a National Classification of Occupations is available, the list of main tasks of an occupation can be found there. This type of information can be downloaded from most web search engines as well. The facilitator may provide participants with a list of internet addresses where information on jobs and occupations may be found (for instance the site of the employment service/job centre).

27

DO YOU Discovering

Lists of Occupations

occupations

The classification of occupations includes the description of the main tasks, skills and other requirements. Young people can look up the occupation that describes the job they would like to do as well as the main duties and skills required for it. This information is usually available in libraries and in employment services/job centres. In some countries there are also career handbooks that give this type of information in a user-friendly format. Although very handy for the career explorer, occupational classification systems can contain information that becomes outdated very quickly. It is, however, important to draw participants’ attention to the usefulness of occupational information as a tool for collecting basic information. This can be combined with the information available from other sources such as the employment office/job centre, newspapers, magazines and websites.

28

Session

Activity 2.3. Matching skills to the requirement of jobs

To consolidate learning and prepare the ground for session 3 (preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications) the facilitator may ask participants to carry out Activity 2.3. (Matching skills to the requirements of jobs) as an assignment. The aim of this activity is to:

Œ  Ž

gather information on the occupation of interest (e.g. from the employment office, library, employers), match skills to the requirements of a job, describe the reasons why participants like the job and the knowledge, skills and attitudes they have that match job requirements.

Finally, participants need to ask themselves whether there are personal/environment factors that may limit their job choice.

29

DO YOU Preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Session

Preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications ULUM

C CURRI VITAE

Learning objectives:

By the end of this session participants will be able to: l Write a curriculum vitae l Fill in a standard job application form l Draft a cover letter for a prospective employer

Delivery Time:

180 minutes

Activities:

Œ  Ž

30

Identifying work related experience Writing an effective CV Preparing cover letters

Chapter

Introduction

Session

When searching for a job, it is of the utmost importance to provide succinct information to prospective employers about skills, qualifications and experience. This is usually done through a CV. The acronym CV stands for “curriculum vitae”, which is the Latin expression for “course of life”. In some countries, the term “résumé” is used as synonym. The CV is a short account of one’s skills, qualifications and experience. It is the most flexible and convenient way to make applications. The CV is usually prepared after having conducted a self- assessment (see session 1) and reviewed the occupations of interest (see session 2). The CV is a sort of visiting card that conveys personal and professional details to the prospective employer. Its purpose is to attract the interest of the employer to the application and thus get invited to a job interview. The employer will decide who to invite to the interview after having compared the qualifications and experience included in the CVs of applicants with the job requirements. This is why it is important to take care to draft a good CV that highlights the skills and experience that are more relevant to the job the young person is applying for. Clarity and tidiness are essential to attract the employer’s interest: a sloppy CV would show a lack of basic planning and organizational skills which are highly valued by employers. A CV should be used when: i) the employer requires that applications be submitted in this format; ii) the advertisement does not specify any format; and iii) sending spontaneous applications to employers for unadvertised jobs. The latter type is called unsolicited application. There is no best way to prepare a CV, although there are a number of tips that may be helpful. Before writing a CV, it is important to collect the following types of information:

31

DO YOU Preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

l Self information relates to job talents, work

history, educational background and career goals. It results from the self-assessment process (see session 1); l Job information refers to the main duties,

responsibilities and experience required to undertake the job. Other job-related information can include requirements in terms of hours of work, shifts, salary and other entitlements such as number of days of annual leave. Job information can be obtained from the job advertisements, interviews with key informants and occupational profiles (see session 2). Preferably typewritten, the CV should start with a heading that includes the applicant’s name, address and telephone number. If available, the address of electronic mail should also be added. The CV should clearly state the career objective that tells the employer the sort of work the applicant would like to do. For example, “As someone with a background in carpentry, my objective is to obtain a position in enterprises that produce furniture. This will allow me to share my skills and creativity”. The facilitator should attract the attention of participants to the sections on education and experience. These two sections of the CV are of key importance, particularly for young people who lack work experience. The education section tells employers what the young person has learned and it lists certificates and diplomas, dates of attainment, name of institutions and final grades. The section on work experience indicates duties and skills acquired in the past, especially during previous jobs, as well as achievements. Usually young people find it difficult to fill this part of the CV, especially those who are looking for their first job.

32

Chapter

Session

The facilitator should explain that there are different ways to acquire skills and experience and should help young people think about “activities” undertaken in the past and the skills acquired that may be instrumental to carry out job-related duties. For instance, if the applicant has completed a project in school that involved teamwork, s/he should include this project and the skills acquired in the CV. The skills, experience and achievements resulting from an internship or summer job should also be included in the experience section of the CV. Similarly, and without misleading the employer, young jobseekers could describe social activities, such as volunteer work or hobbies, as work-related experience. Another section can contain other information that, although not strictly related to the job, may be of interest to the employer. For instance, jobseekers may want to indicate the core skills they have identified through the activities described in session 1 of this guide. Other information such as participation in voluntary organizations or sports activities may help the employer gauge skills that are usually related to these activities, including teamwork, leadership, and ability to achieve objectives. The facilitator should distribute a copy of the handout Preparing an effective CV. This handout describes the three main steps that are required to prepare a CV and the main elements the same should contain (summarized in Box 3.1). Participants should be alerted to keep this handout, as it will be useful for most of the activities that will be carried out in this session.

33

DO YOU Preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Main sections of a CV

Box 3.1

The information contained in CVs can change according to the preferences of the person who is writing it. However, there are a number of sections that are present in most of the CVs. These are: Personal information: Includes the full name, address and telephone number of the jobseeker. If available, email address should also be included. Career goal: Describes in one sentence the type of job the person is looking for. The career goal should be linked to the job the person is applying for. Education: Contains information about the jobseeker’s education and training, – listed from the most to the least recent course. Work-related experience: Lists the previous jobs held by the jobseeker. First-time jobseekers can also include internships, school-based projects and other activities that helped acquire skills that are relevant to the job offered by the prospective employer. Volunteer work that relates to the latter job can be included in this section. Interests: Outlines activities that demonstrate something about the jobseeker. These may include sports and hobbies that show the possession of certain skills and attitudes (e.g. playing in a basketball team shows teamwork skills). Volunteer work that is not strictly related to the position on offer can also be included in this section. References: Indicates that jobseeker can provide reference names of persons who know him/her upon request. These names are not usually included in the CV, but provided at a later stage of the selection process.

Activity 3.1 Finding hidden experience

The objective of Activity 3.1 is to help young people – with little or no work experience – identify their “hidden” experience and skills. The facilitator should explain that some activities undertaken in the past may not seem to have resulted into any learning or experience that relate to the job one would like to do. The activity asks participants to help a young person prepare the work-related experience section of a CV. In small groups, participants will read the story of this person, discuss her/his experience, identify the skills acquired, match them with the experience and decide

34

Chapter

Session

which prior experience should be included in the CV. Once the activity is completed, the facilitator will review, together with participants, whether the most suitable experience was chosen for the CV. Before closing this activity, the facilitator should remind participants of the importance of using action verbs when writing the CV.

Types of CVs

There are several types of CVs that jobseekers use to structure the information they want to send to prospective employers. However, the two main formats that are commonly used to apply for jobs are the chronological and the functional CVs. The chronological CV outlines the career history in date order. Usually the most recent job is listed first. For this reason this type of CV is also known as reverse chronological. It is rather detailed, comprehensive and biographical. It works better for jobseekers with a good educational background and some work experience. It works less well for jobseekers with little or no work experience, those who have had career breaks or when education and experience are not much related to the post one is applying for. The functional or skills-based CV displays skills and abilities that relate to a specific job or career and highlights major achievements. The factual, chronological details of education and work history are subordinate. This type of CV works well for first time jobseekers who have little or no work experience. The facilitator should mention that, compared to chronological CVs, functional CVs should be closely tailored to a specific job.

35

DO YOU Preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Activity 3.2 Writing a CV

The facilitator should give participants the templates of the chronological and functional CVs available in the toolkit. Each participant will prepare his/her CV. Once this task is completed, the facilitator will group participants in pairs. Each participant will read the CV of his/her peer and provide feedback. Before concluding this activity, the facilitator will recapitulate the main requirements for drafting a CV (see Box 3.2). The facilitator should point out that if applicants already have work experience, the CV is slightly different and the following tips may be of help:

Œ  Ž



Give a summary, not an objective. Specify three or four skills that match the employer’s needs. These highlights can appear in a short paragraph or in bullet points; Start with experience, not education (the opposite of what a new job seeker should do); List accomplishments, not only responsibilities. Do not just tell employers what you did, tell them the outcome of it. For example “proposed a new budget structure for the sale division and, as a result, met deadlines”. List activities that relate directly to your self-improvement efforts (e.g. continuing education, undergoing further training).

Determine CV length based on accomplishments and keep it focused. An experienced candidate often has enough relevant accomplishments to expand his/her CV to two-three pages. This does not, however, mean the need to spell out every single award, task carried out or accomplishment.

36

Chapter

Session

Some tips to prepare a good CV

Box 3.2

There is no single or perfect way to prepare and present a CV. The following general rules, however, should be followed. A CV should be: individualized: create a CV that is tailored to your skills, qualifications and experience. Do not just put information in somebody else’s format; targeted to the specific job or career area for which you are applying and brings out the relevant skills and experience you have to offer. Make sure the CV is tailored to the job you are looking for; carefully and clearly laid out: logically ordered, easy to read and not cramped; informative but concise: keep descriptions clear and to the point; accurate in content, spelling and grammar. Pay attention to spelling, punctuation, grammar and style.

“Calling cards”

Calling cards for jobseekers serve the same function of business cards: they are a professional and socially appropriate means to share contact information with others - an employer or someone who may be able to provide job leads or job-related help. They can be printed in about half of an A4 paper (better if they are on heavier and stronger paper to make them look like business cards). Calling cards need to include the following information: l The name and surname; l Contact information (the same contact information

included in the CV, e.g. phone, address and email details); l The title of the job sought; l Two or three skills that make the person suitable for

the specific field of work and his/her experience. For instance, more than 10 years experience as an assembler of automotive parts. Calling cards can also be used when contacting employers (see session 4 “Planning a job search”) and, in cases the job sought does not require detailed information, they can replace the CV.

37

DO YOU Preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Application forms

Another way to apply for a job is through application forms. These forms are prepared by the employer to collect the essential information and requirements that are needed for the job. Some employers prefer candidates to fill an application form, either on paper or directly on the web-pages of their company. These forms help employers get comparable information on a number of applicants. Although the type of information is usually the same of a CV (e.g. name, date of birth education, work experience), application forms have specific formats with pre-determined sections the applicant needs to fill to provide the information that is considered essential by the employer.

Activity 3.3: Compiling job application forms

The facilitator should advise participants to read the whole application form first and to follow the directions carefully. Jobseekers will have to answer every question that is included in the form. If a question does not apply, the jobseeker will write “N/A”, not applicable. Activity 3.3 in the toolkit asks participants to fill an application form on the basis of the information contained in the CV that was prepared earlier. Each participant will have to review the application with a peer, who will play the role of the employer. The latter will give feedback on how to improve the preparation of job application forms.

Writing cover letters

38

The facilitator will briefly recapitulate the work done from the beginning of this session and mention that once the CV is ready, jobseekers need to prepare a letter to be sent to the prospective employer together with the CV. Cover letters (also called motivation letters) are the first contact with enterprises. Usually, they are the first thing that employers read. If these letters attract the interest of employers, then they will read the CV.

Chapter

Session

Cover letters give jobseekers the chance to show how their skills, qualifications and experience, as well as motivation, match the job available in the enterprise. With the right information, a well-prepared, concise and well-written cover letter can make a good first impression and, together with the CV, it can help get a job interview. This is why it is important to take time and learn about the company or organization one is applying to. A letter that is targeted to the company and the job shows the interest of the jobseeker to work for the company The facilitator should mention that there are different ways to write cover letters. In addition, the content of the letter changes according to the purpose for which it is written. Boxes 3.3 and 3.4 below provide information on the main content of a cover letter and some useful tips that may help participants in its preparation.

Main content of a cover letter

Box 3.3

Cover letters usually contain the following ten elements: 1.

Full address and phone number of the writer;

2.

Date of preparation of the cover letter;

3.

Full name and position of the addressee with address of the company;

4.

Opening (Dear Ms./Mr.);

5.

A first paragraph that introduces the writer and the reason for sending the letter;

6.

A second paragraph that describes skills and experience that are relevant to the job;

7.

A third paragraph that proposes a meeting to discuss the CV or an appointment for a job interview;

8.

The final paragraph that thanks the main addressee;

9.

Signature of writer and indication of full name;

10. Indication that a CV is enclosed to the letter

39

DO YOU Preparing a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Tips for preparing effective cover letters

Box 3.4

The most effective cover letters should contain the elements that are briefly summarized below: 1.

Provide your full name, address and phone number;

2.

Address the letter to the appropriate contact person, either the employer or a human resources officer. Use name and title;

3.

Refer to how you heard about the potential job in the company (e.g. newspaper article, advertisement, someone you know);

4.

Refer to the job you are interested in;

5.

Refer to what the company does and how your skills, ability and experience can be a valuable addition to the work of the company;

6.

Make sure the employer knows what action to take (e.g. will you call the employer or should the latter contact you?);

7.

Keep the letter to one page. Type and print it on a good quality A4 paper;

8.

Proof-read the letter and ask someone else to read it, too. Correct the mistakes and print a clean copy;

9.

Enclose a copy of your curriculum vitae;

10. Send your cover letter and CV. Allow plenty of time for delivery; 11. Keep a copy of the letter for your files and take note of the date of delivery.

40

Chapter

Activity 3.4 Writing a cover letter

Session

Activity 3.4 in the toolkit aims to help young participants prepare a generic cover letter that accompanies their CV. For this individual activity, participants may imagine they are replying to one of the job advertisements that were used in session 2 (Discovering occupations) or just use their creativity to include the information they are missing (e.g. name of the employer/human resources officer, name of the person that gave information about the job opening). After having completed the cover letter, each participant should share it with a peer who will have 5 minutes to read the same letter and comment on its content. Before concluding session 3, the facilitator should distribute the handout that lists the top ten mistakes people usually make while preparing CVs. Another handout to be shared with participants is the CV checklist. This can help make sure that all the essential elements are included in the CV.

41

Planning the jobthe search Planning job

Session

Learning objectives:

search

Planning the job search

By the end of this session participants will be able to: l Select and use a combination of job search

techniques; l Research and contact employers

Delivery Time:

120 minutes

Activities

Œ 

42

Exploring networks Contacting potential employers

Chapter

Introduction

Session

An effective job search is an important tool in building a successful career. Preparing for and conducting an effective job search may seem like a lot of work, but the more prepared jobseekers are the more likely it will be that they find a job that corresponds to their aspirations and matches their skills. For many people, job search means applying to advertised job postings. However, conducting only this type of job search may mean missing half of all possible jobs, as traditional job search only taps into a small portion of the actual job market. The facilitator should make clear from the onset that the more effective means of finding a job is through a mix of different job search techniques.

The traditional job search

The traditional job search method involves responding to newspaper/magazine advertisements or to vacancies posted on job boards; registering with the employment offices/job centres and private employment agencies; participating to job fairs or other employment promotion programmes.

Responding to published job advertisements

Responding to the job advertisements published in newspapers, magazines, web sites or posted in the employment offices or job announcement boards (e.g. in schools or shops) is one of the most common strategies for finding work. However, for any given job vacancy there are many people applying and competition is fierce. The facilitator can give participants the following tips to increase the likelihood of getting a job interview. l Identify the best job-listing resources. These may

be the classified ads of a national/local newspaper, or specialized magazines and journals. In some countries, there are newspapers that are specialized in advertisements, including job vacancies. The local employment office/job centre

43

Planning the jobthe search Planning job

search

(see Box 4.1) generally has the most up-to-date and complete listing of job vacancies. In these offices, job announcements are either posted on bulletin boards or are made available through computers on the premises of the employment office/job centre or online. In countries where the use of internet is widespread, there are also specialized websites offering job listings. l Select the best job openings to pursue and make

sure that the requirements of the job match the skills, interest and aspirations the participant has; l Review carefully the job notices and research the

companies/organizations that are advertising jobs; l Tailor the CV and cover letter to the job position

offered.

Public employment services and private employment agencies

Another traditional way to search for work is to rely on public or private agencies that provide employment services for those seeking work as well as for employers seeking employees. The Public Employment Services (PES) in most countries provide a wide range of services, such as labour market information, job brokering, career guidance and counselling as well as access to programmes to ease job (re)entry. Private Employment Agencies (PrEAs) play a major role especially in recruiting professional and managerial candidates (Box 4.1). A temporary work agency is a company that finds and retains workers. Companies or individuals looking to hire someone temporarily contact these agencies and describe the skill they are looking for. A temporary employee is then found in the database of the agency and is contacted to see if s/he would be interested in taking on the assignment. Many temporary agencies specialize in a particular occupation, such as

44

Chapter

Session

accounting, health care, or secretarial jobs. The employer pays the temporary work agency for a service and can decide to stop that service at any time.

Employment offices

Box 4.1

Employment offices have the following functions: i) provide assistance to unemployed persons and help jobseekers enter or re-enter the world of work; ii) ensure that vacancies are filled as soon as possible by the best qualified worker and that the demand for skills is matched by an appropriate supply of labour; and iii) formulate and implement measures to create new jobs. These offices are usually operational in several parts of the country and are connected through networks. They can belong to the state or to private companies. In the first case the network is coordinated by a central institution known as the Public Employment Service. In the second case, the networks belong to Private Employment Agencies. To have access to the service of employment offices it is generally necessary to register as a jobseeker in one local employment office (in some countries called job centres). The employment office gathers and records information of each jobseeker (e.g. knowledge, skills, prior work experience, career preferences) and on job vacancies notified by employers. The requirements of each job vacancy are then checked against the individual characteristics of the jobseekers registered to find the best possible match. The employment office arranges interviews with the jobseekers. Apart from labour market information, job brokering and career guidance, certain employment offices organize programmes for gaining work experience such as internship, in-company training, labour market training and job fairs to introduce job seekers to enterprises.

Job/career fairs

Job and career fairs can provide great opportunities to young people who are looking for work. Job fairs are usually organized by employers’ organizations and employment offices. Job fairs can also be organized by educational and training institutions to introduce students to enterprises. During a job fair the representatives of enterprises set up information booths to meet and interview a large number of job seekers. Participation in job fairs allows jobseekers to gather information about enterprises and job openings,

45

Planning the jobthe search Planning job

search

as well as to meet with potential employers and make personal contacts that could lead to a job. Job fairs are generally advertised in newspapers, magazines and the Internet.

Tips for participating in job fairs

Box 4.2

l Prior to the job fair, prepare and print enough updated CVs or calling cards to hand them over to representatives of the enterprises. 3 Find out which enterprises will be attending. 3 Research the enterprises that are of interest and decide who to talk to during the fair. 3 Prepare to answer basic interview-style questions about skills and career aspirations. 3 Have a list of questions to ask such as: n What type of job openings are there in your company? n What kind of skills are you looking for in a prospective employee? n What kind of education and experience do your employees have? n What type of training does your company offer? n What is a typical career path in your company? l During the job fair take enough time with each enterprise representative to get the information needed, but do not overstay: 15 or 20 minutes for each employer are sufficient. 3 Ask enterprise representatives for their business cards or take note of their names, address, telephone number and e-mail address. l After the job fair, take notes on the enterprises you were interested in and write a follow-up letter attaching an updated CV.

The non-traditional job search

46

Most job openings are not advertised. This creates a kind of “hidden” job market. The information about available jobs is circulated through networks of co-workers, business associates, friends and acquaintances. To help young people understand how to search for a job effectively, the facilitator may discuss how job openings evolve (see Box 4.3).

Chapter

Session

Evolution of job openings Stage 1 - There is no job now

Box 4.3 Stage 2 - No formal opening exists, but insiders know of the possibility

good

The need is there, but it is not addressed.

3 Gain an inside track by making contacts before there is a job opening.

3 Someone is leaving, but has not announced it yet.

Employers always employees.

look

for

25% of jobs are filled at this stage.

3 Someone is about to be moved to another position. By stage two, 50% of jobs are filled.

Stage 3 - The job opening exists, but has not yet been advertised 3 Referrals and applications are encouraged, often from insiders or business contacts. By stage three, 75% of jobs are filled.

Stage 4 - The job is advertised Openings only reach this stage if they are not filled previously. 3 The job is open to everyone. This creates more competition for fewer openings. Only 25% of job openings reach this stage.

Source: Job search techniques and networking, Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

Networking

There are three main strategies that jobseekers can use to tap into the hidden job market: research and contact potential employers, use their own network of family, relatives and acquaintances, and prepare a letter for mass mailing of CVs. The majority of jobs are obtained through some type of networking. Employers prefer to hire someone who has come to them through a contact, instead of advertising. Through networking, jobseekers can create an ever-expanding web of contacts in a

47

Planning the jobthe search Planning job

search

particular career field or industry and develop channels that provide information, advice and potential opportunities. Each person in the network has unique knowledge, experience and contacts that might be useful. In addition, the majority of people have networks of their own. By tapping into a person’s know-how, jobseekers may also be tapping into the know-how of many others. Participants may already have their own network. These networks can be illustrated through a number of concentric circles as shown below. At the centre of the circle there are persons who are closest to participants (e.g. family members, relatives, neighbours and family friends). The next circle comprises the employers and co-workers of those who are in the core circle, but also class mates and teachers. The outer circle comprises community leaders, librarians and other persons but are not so close to them. Family, friends, relatives and neughbours

Employers, co-workers, teachers, team mates

Community leaders, librarians and other professionals

48

Chapter

Activity 4.1. Exploring networks

Session

To help young participants tap into their own network, the facilitator may either present activity 4.1(a) Exploring networks or prepare a flipchart that highlights the activities required to build a network for job searching purposes. These activities are: l Inform everyone you know that you are looking for

a job. You never know who may know somebody that works in the field; l Talk to members of your family, friends and

relatives to get their suggestions on persons/enterprises to contact; l Meet with teachers in the career field you are

pursuing, if possible. Many of them keep contacts with their respective industries; l Schedule a meeting with an employment/career

counsellor to explore networking contacts that the employment office/job centre may have; l Develop a networking plan. Collect names,

addresses and phone numbers of people you know directly and also of acquaintances. Once the networking plan has been prepared, participants may schedule information interviews to know more about the jobs and enterprises, or proceed directly to contact employers as proposed in Activity 4.1(b) Contacting employers.

49

Planning the jobthe search Planning job

search

Sending out unsolicited CVs

Another way to tap the hidden job market is to send CVs or calling cards to a number of enterprises that have jobs of interest. The first step is to identify the enterprises where these jobs may be available. To begin the job search, the facilitator may suggest a visit to the employment office/job centre to locate information about enterprises. If a register of enterprises is not available or it is not updated, the facilitator may direct jobseekers to employers’ organizations that usually have leaflets and brochures of companies. In this material, companies list their address, telephone number, products/services and other useful information. Once the top companies have been identified, participants draft a cover letter and CV for each. In this way applicants may be able to get their CV or calling card on file with a good number of prospective employers and in a relatively short period of time.

Activity 4.1. Contacting potential employers

Whichever job search method is used, knowing how to research and contact enterprises is crucial to a successful job campaign. In order to tailor the CV and cover letter, as well as to prepare effectively for an interview, jobseekers need to know as much as possible about the targeted enterprises. The information interview (see session 2, Activity 2.1) can be a useful way to find out more about the kind of industry or enterprise young people would like to work for. While this technique is not designed for finding a job, the contacts made may lead to unadvertised job openings.

50

Chapter

Session

During the information interview activity - or during the networking exercise, if this has been carried out participants have generated a list of potential employers. At this stage, the facilitator may introduce participants to an assignment to be done outside the training facility. Activity 4.1 will help them research enterprises, make contact with potential employers and to enquire about “hidden” job openings. This exercise entails researching enterprises, getting in touch with one or two of the contacts generated during the information interview and enquire about “hidden” job openings.

51

Preparing for job interviews

Session

Learning objectives:

Preparing for job interviews

By the end of this session participants will be able to: l Communicate their skills and knowledge to

potential employers; l Respond effectively to common job interview

questions

Delivery Time:

180 minutes

Activities :

Œ 

52

Practicing interview questions Participating in job interviews

Session

Introduction

Part of the time allotted to session 5 needs to be used to process the results of activity 4.1. ( Contacting enterprises). The facilitator should discuss with participants the difficulties they faced in researching and contacting employers. The majority of participants will not have found any job openings at this stage, given the small number of enterprises contacted during the activity. The facilitator should emphasize that it may take several months of searching before finding a job in a specific industry or organization, even when the economy is good. The facilitator should remind participants that everyone can experience rejections while looking for a job and they should not get discouraged. The job search has many “ no’s” and seldom a “yes”. Jobseekers need to find the one “yes” that gets them into a job. This session is designed to help young participants convey their skills and experience to potential employers and practice job interviews.

Jobs interviews

The facilitator should mention that there are several types of interview. The main ones are:

Screening interviews that may be conducted either face to face or over the phone. The aim of these interviews is to identify those candidates who will be invited to an interview. Participants should be ready for a phone interview from the moment they apply for a position. Often, enterprises ask questions the first time they contact a candidate to begin assessing his/her qualifications. Young jobseekers should have a list of positions they have applied for, the details of the enterprises that posted the vacancies, the job description and any other pertinent information. They should emphasize succinctly and directly the abilities they have for the position. For phone interviews, it is a good idea to

53

Preparing for job interviews

keep a CV (or a calling card) at hand for quick reference.

One-to-one interviews are the most common ones. There is only one interviewer who asks questions to assess the job applicant’s skills, knowledge and abilities as they relate to the job on offer. Panel interviews are conducted by several employees of the company, who represent different divisions or departments. Participants should also be warned to direct answers to the person who asked it, but maintaining eye contact with the other members as well. Second interviews follow initial ones and aim to get to know those candidates who passed the initial selection phase. They usually take longer than the initial interview. The focus of the second interview is to ensure that the candidate has the necessary skills and that s/he can fit well in the position. During a second interview, candidates need to switch the focus from emphasizing their specific strengths to marketing themselves. Listening carefully to the interviewers helps determine any underlying concern. Young candidates should stress their ability to work as members of a team and prove they have acquired sufficient information about the company.

54

Session

Activity 5.1 Job interview Q&A

The purpose of an interview is for the candidate and the employer to get acquainted, learn about each other and explore the possibility of working together. Aside from researching the enterprise by the means already discussed (business catalogues, web pages, information available at the employment office/job centre), participants may ask the enterprise to send information and a job description of the position before an interview. Additional information to be collected include the type of business, the internal organization of the enterprise (departments, units and their role in the enterprise), the products and services offered, and the number of employees. Participants can prepare for an interview by thinking about their skills, qualities, experience and school work. They should outline the aspects they would want to share during interviews. Having key information fresh in mind enables young people to articulate their strong points more effectively during interviews. Nobody can ever be sure what will be asked during an interview. However, some common questions are likely to arise. Activity 5.1 is designed to help young people anticipate and respond to these. Participants can be asked to review a list of common interview questions and to practice their responses based on what is included in the CV. Box 5.1 provides some tips the facilitator may wish to share with participants to improve their responses to common interview questions.

55

Preparing for job interviews

Tips for interview questions

Box 5.1

What to say l Introduce yourself with a smile and firm handshake. Maintain good eye contact during conversation. l Demonstrate to the recruiter what you can do for the enterprise, based on your research. l Answer questions with: “Yes, for example (accomplishment/result statement)” or “ No, however (accomplishment/result statement)”. l Show interest in what the interviewer is saying. l Give positive answers to negative-based questions. The “Tell me about yourself” questions The “Tell me about yourself” question allows the job seeker to share with the interviewer the most important thing they want to know, e.g. why they should hire you. These questions touch upon several topics but usually include the following:

1. Personal and education information 3 This part is used to give the interviewer relevant information concerning your life and educational background. This can include information such as where you live and what you like. The education should be either the latest obtained or the major field of education, if this is relevant to the job.

2. Early career/experiences 3 This part is used to share past experience that is relevant to the job position. Remember your “hidden” experience (see Activity3.1).

3. Recent work history and experience 3 This should give the employer the accomplishments/results that indicate why you are the best candidate for the position.

56

Session

Discriminatory questions

The facilitator should inform participants that there are certain questions enterprises are not allowed to ask, as they can discriminate against certain groups of people because of their individual characteristics. The grounds of discrimination are generally specified in the national law and the facilitator should research them to provide more precise information to participants. Generally, however, questions about marital and family status; personal questions regarding height and weight (if not relevant to the requirements of the job); disability; citizenship and national origin; race, colour and religion suggest discrimination. Box 5.2 below describes the main areas in which questions may be inappropriate as they could discriminate against certain candidates. In section five of the toolkit, there is a handout that gives examples of questions that are, and are not, allowed. The facilitator should adapt these questions to national rules and regulations on discrimination in employment and occupation.

57

Preparing for job interviews

Discriminatory interview questions

Box 5.2

The purpose of a job interview is to gather important information while building a friendly rapport with the candidate. There are, however, some questions that are not allowed during the interviewing process. These usually revolve around information on family and marital status, gender, personal matters, health status and physical abilities, national origin and citizenship, and race, skin colour or religion. Family and marital status The purpose of these “family” inquiries is to explore what some interviewers believe is a common source of absenteeism and tardiness. These questions are often put to women, making the inquiry clearly unlawful. However, even if such inquiries are made to both men and women, they may still be inappropriate. Such information has been used to discriminate against women because of society’s general presumption that they are the primary care givers. If the interviewer’s concern is regular work attendance, a better question would be, “Is there anything that would interfere with regular attendance at work?” Gender Questions that relate to gender, or assumptions about a person’s abilities based on gender, are not allowed. Questions about abilities should be based on skills and abilities. Personal Questions about personal characteristics are, in principle not allowed. For instance, questions relating to minimum height and weight requirements are unlawful if they screen out one sex or a population group. Unless the interviewer can show that height or weight requirements are essential for the job performance, such inquiries are not allowed.

58

Session

Box 5.2 (continued) Health and physical abilities Inquiries about a person’s disability or health are unlawful if they imply or express a limitation based on disability/health conditions. Interviewers cannot make such inquiries or request medical examinations before making a job offer. However, an interviewer may inquire about an applicant’s ability to perform certain job functions and, within certain limits, may conduct tests for all applicants to determine if they can perform essential job functions. National origin/ citizenship Inquiries about a person’s citizenship or country of birth are unlawful and imply discrimination on the basis of national origin. A person who immigrated legally to the country cannot be discriminated against on the basis of citizenship. Interviewers cannot ask applicants to state their national origin, but they can ask if they have a legal right to work in the country. Race/Colour/Religion Questions about race, skin colour and religion are not allowed. This applies also to indirect questions that can lead to the identification of the same characteristics. For instance, asking about availability to work during the weekends can discourage applicants whose religion prohibits Saturday or Sunday work. If the nature of the job requires weekend work, the interviewer should indicate that a reasonable effort is made to accommodate religious beliefs or practices. Source: Adapted from “30 interview questions you cannot be asked”, HR World, http://www.hrworld.com/features/30-interview-questions-111507; Alberta Human Resource Development, Jobseeker’s Handbook: An introductory Guide to finding work, 2004

The facilitator should also be prepared to advise participants that, should an interviewer asks a question that is likely to be discriminatory, they may choose to refuse to answer in a non- confrontational manner. For instance, they could state that they read about a law that prohibits questions of this type during job interviews, or that there is nothing about their personal status that would get in the way of carrying out the tasks of the job. This lets participants avoid answering the question directly.

59

Preparing for job interviews

They can also request to change an interview or application process that is not allowed by filing a complaint. As the procedure to file a complaint for discrimination is different from country to country, the facilitator should find out which process is applicable in the national context, and provide participants with relevant information. The trade unions and the employment service may help in gathering this information.

Preparing for a job interview

To help young people prepare for a job interview, the facilitator should discuss with participants the handouts of Activity 5.2 (What to do and 15 things to avoid in a job interview). The first rule is never to be late for an interview. The address and location should be checked beforehand, to avoid delays. If, for any reason, the person cannot make it to a scheduled interview, s/he needs to notify the person who organized the interview at the earliest possible moment. Attire and behaviour need to be impeccable and professional. Successful candidates are those that can balance listening and speaking. Those who talk too much or too little do not get hired, because if one talks too much s/he appears as somebody who would ignore the needs of the enterprise. If one talks too little, s/he appears as if they are hiding something. Candidates for a job position should always provide accurate information about their educational record and work history, including positions and duties performed.

60

Session

Activity 5.2. Role play: job interviews

The facilitator should remind participants that the key to a successful job interview is preparation and practice. The facilitator may introduce a role play where two/three of the participants will act as candidates for a job position, others ? in a panel of three − will act as interviewers and the rest of participants (again in groups of three) will act as referees and grade the performance of their peers. The facilitator may also consider inviting real interviewers to carry out interviews during the role play. This would make the activity more realistic and allow participants to ask questions on what employers are looking for in a job candidate. As participants are already familiar with the story described under Activity 3.1 and have practiced how to read job advertisements during Activity 2.2, the role play can be organized by asking two or three participants to play the role of the young woman during the job interview. Alternatively, the facilitator may identify one or two of the participants who have already prepared a tailored CV and an application letter for a real job advertisement. The facilitator should get a copy of the job advertisement and of the CV submitted to adapt the instructions for the interviewers and observers, as well as to suggest targeted questions to the participants who will play the role of interviewers. To make the role play more realistic, the facilitator may also ask persons unknown to participants to carry out at the interviews. A template for organizing and running this role play is included in the toolkit.

61

Preparing for job interviews

At the end of the role play, the members of the interview panel and the groups of observers will report their impressions of the applicants (what they did well, what can be improved, general impressions, final scoring) to the plenary. The facilitator should also distribute the interview checklist to use prior to sitting a job interview.

What employers are looking for

The facilitator may conclude this session by summarizing what employers generally look for in job applicants and what participants may expect from employers (see Box 5.3). The latter include confidentiality, accurate information, timely communication, fair treatment, and non discrimination (see Box 5.4)

What employers are looking for in job applicants

Box 5.3

Top 10 Qualities Sought by Employers

Experience Ratings

1. Communication skills (verbal and written);

Relevant work experience .............. 4.0

2.

Honesty/integrity;

Any work experience ...................... 3.6

3.

Teamwork skills (works well with others);

4.

Interpersonal skills (relates well to others);

5.

Motivation/initiative;

6.

Strong work ethics;

7.

Analytical skills;

8.

Flexibility/adaptability;

9.

Computer skills;

10 Organizational skills.

62

Internship experience .................... 3.9

(5-point scale: 5=Extremely important; 1=Not important)

Session

What to expect from employers

Box 5.4

3 Confidentiality: Keeping all information, including personal records and computer database strictly confidential. An employer should never disclose any information about applicants or workers without their prior consent. 3 Accurate information: Provide accurate information about their companies and employment opportunities. This includes, but is not limited to, positions available, responsibilities, career advancement opportunities and benefits. 3 Timely communication: Inform applicants on the status of the hiring process and communicate hiring decisions within the agreed-time frame. 3 Fair treatment and non-discrimination: Avoid discrimination when recruiting and to follow principles of equal opportunity.

63

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period on the job

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period on the job

CO

NTR

AC T

Session

Learning objectives:

By the end of this session participants will be able to: l Evaluate job offers and the conditions of work

offered; l Manage the first few months on a new job

Delivery Time:

120 minutes

Activities:

Œ

64

Evaluating job offers

the job

Chapter

Session

Introduction

The last session of the workshop is aimed at providing young participants with the tools to evaluate job offers and conditions of work as well as manage the first year on a new job.

Evaluating a job offer

When the research on the job requirements and potential employers has been properly carried out, taking the final decision when a job offer is finally made should be a relatively easy. The facilitator should inform participants that usually most enterprises give candidates a few days to consider the offer. During this period, participants may want to review the information gathered on the job and the enterprise to make their final decision. This may help participants choose between job offers. The background information collected on the enterprise during the job search process can help young people decide whether they want to accept the offer. Factors to consider include the enterprise’s years of operations, size (in terms of number of workers) as well as the enterprise’s compliance with labour standards set by national legislation. The facilitator may wish to emphasise the following: l Size of the enterprise: Large firms generally offer

in-service training programmes, a variety of career paths and the possibility to move to different sectors. They may also have more advanced technologies. However, many jobs in large firms tend to be highly specialized. Jobs in smaller firms may offer broader responsibilities and a chance to contribute to the enterprise’s success. l New versus well established business: New

businesses may have a higher failure rate, but for many people, the opportunity to share a success can offset the risk of job loss.

65

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period on the job

Staff turnover: High turnover of staff (frequent changes of employees) may point to dissatisfaction with the nature of the work or the enterprise. Information may be gathered by talking to persons who worked for the enterprise in the past.

Salary and other conditions of work

Information about salary and other conditions of work in the occupation of choice should already be available to participants, as it is one of the key elements to consider when choosing a career. If the offer contains also salary and other conditions of work information, what remains to be decided is whether these are fair and in line with the labour legislation in the country. The best place to gather information on salary and other conditions of work are the employment service/job centre, the trade unions, employers’ organizations, and trade and professional associations. The facilitator may also wish to suggest that young participants ask family members, friends, or acquaintances who were recently hired in similar jobs. Participants should also have information on hours of work, whether overtime pay or compensatory time off is envisaged, and which social insurance benefits are included in the employment contract. This information can also be obtained from representatives of the trade unions.

Labour legislation

Making a decision on a job offer may be very difficult for young people at their first job experience, especially when they have little knowledge of what constitute fair conditions of work. The main provisions for working conditions relate to: l Employment contract and social security; l Hours of work, pay and annual leave; l Occupational health and safety.

66

the job

Chapter

Session

The facilitator could distribute the glossary of employment terms that is included in the toolkit (resource 1) or use it to design an activity that aims to aquaint participants with key issues relating to the employment relationship. The information to prepare this activity or adapt the handout can be found in the labour law, in the occupational health and safety regulations and in the collective agreements, when available in the country. The facilitator may also to contact trade unions, employment services and the labour inspectorate to collect such information or obtain information booklets, brochures and leaflets on workers’ rights that may be distributed to participants. S/he can also give some information on international labour standards and their provisions that have been included in national legislation (see Box 6.1 below). For the design of this activity, the facilitator should review the definitions and check that they are in line with national labour legislation. S/he will ask participants to go through the list of definitions and identify those they are not familiar with. At the end of the activity, the facilitator can randomly ask some participants to explain a few employment terms. S/he will conclude this activity by reminding participants of the importance of being aware of these definitions, rights and entitlements. Only through knowledge can each participant be able to check that her/his rights and entitlements are being respected.

67

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period on the job

International labour standards relevant for young people

Box 6.1

International Labour Standards consist of Conventions and Recommendations. Together, these instruments provide practical guidance for countries seeking to facilitate young people’s full and productive integration into the labour market. International Labour Conventions are international treaties, subject to ratification by ILO member States. Recommendations are non-binding instruments that set out guidelines helping to orient national policy and action. Countries that ratified these Conventions have to adapt national legislation according to the principles included in the international labour standards. These standards cover the key issues of educational capacity, enhancing employability, entrepreneurship and the creation of productive jobs for young people. They also lay down important provisions on how young people enter the work force and on their conditions of employment such as minimum age of admission to employment, pay, working time, night work and medical examinations, occupational safety and health, and labour inspection. The two fundamental Conventions for the abolition of child labour contain provisions aimed at protecting young persons against hazardous or exploitative activities or conditions of work. The Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138), requires the setting not only of a general minimum age for admission to work – which cannot be less than 15 years of age and should be progressively raised to 16 years – but also of a higher minimum age of 18 years for admission to work likely to jeopardize the health, safety or morals of young persons. The Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182), aims for its part at putting an end to the involvement of all persons under 18 years of age in the harmful activities it lists. In addition, many ILO standards call for specific protective measures for young workers – i.e. workers who have not attained 18 years of age – in terms of working conditions and occupational safety and health. Some are especially designed for that purpose, such as Conventions and Recommendations on night work or medical examination of young persons. A number of instruments of general application provide for special measures for young workers. This is the case, for instance, of the instruments on occupational safety and health, which contain provisions to prevent or limit the exposure of young persons to specific occupational hazards. For more information on international labour standards relevant to the work of young people see www.ilo.org/youth

68

the job

Chapter

Session

Activity 6.2. Evaluating job offers

Activity 6.2 includes two alternative tools to guide participants through the decision to accept the job offer. The first tool ask participants to rank the factors relating to the enterprise, the job, the opportunities offered, salary and other conditions of work. The second alternative is constructed on the prioritization of work-related values that participants have identified as part of their self-assessment (see activity 1.1. Prioritizing work related values). Both activities require participants to organize the information they have on the job, the employer, and labour legislation to compare the features of the job offer with their job aspirations.

Accepting and rejecting job offers

If candidates decide to accept the offer, they should ask for a written confirmation by the employer. If they decide to reject the job, this should be done by expressing, in writing, the appreciation for the offer received and politely decline it. It is always better to leave potential employers with a good impression.

Starting a new job

The length of time it takes young workers to adjust to a new job varies from person to person and from job to job. People will respond to, and judge, new employees differently. Much will depend on the impression the new worker makes on colleagues, supervisors and managers and the perceptions they develop in the first few months. New employees have to learn how to establish themselves in the job, learn the way things are done in the enterprise and figure out what they need to do. The facilitator needs to emphasize that often newly recruited employees try too hard to impress co-workers and supervisors. The natural tendency may be to charge ahead, but to do this before one has gained acceptance and understood the enterprise operations may be counter-productive.

69

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period on the job

Understanding the enterprise and learning to work with others

Every company has its own culture. This translates into rules and norms, often unspoken and informal, about how employees should behave and carry out their tasks. The facilitator should suggest that participants observe colleagues, pay attention to the things they spend their time on and understand what people’s expectations are, particularly in terms of shared work ethics and social norms. Co-workers are looking for someone who has good judgement and can work well with others. They want to see readiness to learn combined with respect for the experience of senior co-workers. A common frustration among young employees is the mismatch between expectations and the realities of the job. Social and teamwork skills are very important at work. Box 6.2 below offers some tips that be useful to manage the first few months in a new job.

70

the job

Chapter

Session

How to manage the first few months on the job

Box 6.2

Ask questions Since you are new in the job, it is better to do something right the first time around than have to do it again.. Asking co-workers and supervisors how things are done in the enterprise will help you avoid mistakes. Also ask questions about the rules that govern the enterprise environment, for instance the proper way to use email. Asking questions will also help you avoid difficult situations at work. For instance, in almost every workplace there is someone who wants to share his/her work with colleagues. Asking questions about who can delegate work to others and rules governing team work can help avoid uncomfortable situations. Face your mistakes Everyone makes mistakes at work. When this happens, do not ignore the mistake but take responsibility and come up with a solution to fix it. Blaming others never works. The first step is to admit the mistake to your supervisor and present him/her with a plan to correct it, which specifies how long it will take and if there are any costs involved. Manage your time effectively The ability to complete tasks in a timely manner demonstrates that you know how to manage your time effectively. Effective time management skills are developed through experience and practice. Keeping a “to do” list, prioritized by order of importance and keeping your work station well organized may help. Turn negative to positive change in the workplace Negativity at work can be harmful, but sometimes it brings existing problems to the surface. To turn negativity into something that can actually help bring about positive change in the workplace, you need to make sure that criticism is constructive and offers solutions to existing problems. Deal with difficult situations Workplaces bring together many different personalities. Some colleagues you will find easy to work with and others not. The general rule is to be polite with everyone, trying to avoid people who like to chat during working hours or spread gossip or who like to complain a lot, without, however, offering solutions to problems.

71

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period on the job

Concluding remarks

At the end of the workshop, the facilitator should give participants some time to organize the information provided during the learning sessions, ask any additional questions and ensure that they have all the contacts they may need. A good end-of-workshop activity could be the organization of a question- and- answer- session with a real employer and their employees. At the end of the workshop the facilitator should ask participants to validate their learning experience. The questionnaire in resource 5 offers an example that can be adapted by the facilitator. The results of this exercise will help the facilitator improve future learning events.

72

TOOLKIT

73

Self-assessment and career exploration

Session

- Self-assessment and career exploration

Activity 1.1 Understanding my attitude and prioritizing work values

Task 1: Understanding my attitude. For each of the statements provided below, check whether it applies to you mostly, sometimes or almost never. Write the score for each answer in the column labelled “My answer”. When you have scored all your answers, sum up the total and check which type of attitude you have.

Mostly

Sometimes

Almost never

I give myself credit

1

2

3

I look for the positive side in situations.

1

2

3

I know my strengths.

1

2

3

I identify my weak areas and see them as challenges to work on.

1

2

3

I learn from my mistakes.

1

2

3

I am confident about what I can do.

1

2

3

I know what I want from life.

1

2

3

I can put my wishes into words.

1

2

3

I can set limits or boundaries so others respect them.

1

2

3

I speak up when I disagree with someone, or when I believe something is wrong.

1

2

3

74

My answer

Chapter

Session

Mostly

Sometimes

Almost never

I listen to, and try to understand, other people’s point of view.

1

2

3

I deal with anger constructively.

1

2

3

I control my temper.

1

2

3

I can handle criticism well.

1

2

3

I usually see myself as the person I want to be.

1

2

3

I can resolve conflicts both within myself and with others.

1

2

3

I compare my behaviour today with what I did in the past instead of with other people’s behaviour.

1

2

3

My answer

Total

Score

Attitude

What you need to do

17-24

Good

You have a positive attitude, no action is required

25-43

Fair

Your attitude is okay, but you need to focus more on your positive side

43-54

Negative

You need to pay attention to your attitude so as to focus on its positive and constructive aspects

Source: “Human Resources and Skills Development Canada: Looking for a Job, Quebec, 2002

75

Self-assessment and career exploration

Task 2: Prioritizing work-related values. Read the work-related values listed below. Select the four values that you consider most important for you. Score, in order of importance, each of the work-related values below, from 1 (lowest priority) to 4 (very high priority). Your priority 1.

Quality of work

2.

Contribution to work and society

3.

Social status attached to the job

4.

Intellectual challenge

5.

Salary level and other financial benefits

6.

Job security

7.

Innovation

8.

Ability to learn

9.

Work-environment

10.

Team work

11.

Relationship with co-workers

12.

Variety of tasks to accomplish

13.

Objectives and goals to attain

14.

Independence at work

15.

Creativity

16.

Career progression

17.

Hours of work

Task 3: Keep your work value scoring card, as it will become useful when taking a decision about job offers (Session 6).

76

Chapter

Session

Activity 1.2(a) Discovering interests

Read the following list and for each statement tick the box if it is true. Count how many times you have ticked the boxes “a” “p” and “s”, respectively. Your profile will be that with the highest scored letter (“Practical”, “Analytical” and “Social”). A short description of the profiles and some examples of jobs that fall under each profile is provided below. If you end up with equal totals for two or more letters, you may be suited to jobs that combine interests from different groups.

TRUE 1. I’d rather make something than read a book.

P

2. I enjoy problem-solving games.

A

3. I like helping other people.

S

4. I enjoy reading and learning about new topics.

A

5. I like working with my hands.

P

6. I like being the leader in a group of people.

S

7. I prefer to know all the facts before I tackle a problem.

A

8. I like to take care of other people.

S

9. I enjoy designing, inventing or creating things.

P

10. I enjoy expressing myself through art, music, or writing.

A

11. I would like a job where I can deal with people all day.

S

12. I like working with materials and equipment.

P

13. I enjoy learning new facts and ideas.

A

14. I find co-operating with other people comes naturally to me.

S

15. I like finding out how things work by taking them apart.

P

16. I would rather work with machines and things than with people.

P

17. I can usually persuade people to do things my way.

S

18. I enjoy building and repairing things.

P

77

Self-assessment and career exploration

TRUE 19. I enjoy the research part of my projects.

A

20. I like being with people.

S

21. I enjoy thinking up different ideas and ways to do things.

A

22. I like hearing other people’s opinions.

S

23. I enjoy learning how to use different tools.

P

24. I find it easy to follow written instructions.

A TOTAL A TOTAL P TOTAL S

Your profile Practical: You are a hands-on person. You like to work with tools and machines, make things with your hands, fix and maintain equipment or find out how things work. Jobs you might be interested in are those related to manufacturing, construction, repair and servicing, trades, technology and engineering. Analytical: You are an information-oriented person. You like to research, perform experiments, work with numbers or solve problems. Jobs that could be of interest include law, government, finance, accounting, transport and tourism. Social: You are a people person. You like to work with people, care for and help others, encourage them, work as a team member or lead and supervise others. Jobs that may be suitable to “people persons” include health care, education and training, social work, counselling and sales and services

78

Chapter

Session

Activity 1.2(b) Things I like to do

Task 1: Identify all the activities you think you like to do and check(v) them in the right-hand column. For each square, total the checks and circle the letters with the highest scores.

R

I

Make mechanical repairs

¨

Find solutions to complex problems

¨

Organize a hunting, camping or fishing trip

¨

Apply math to practical problems

¨

Plant a garden Use metal working or machine tools

¨

Study scientific theory

¨

¨

Take a physics course

¨

Take a woodworking course

¨

Work in a research lab

¨

Work on a car

¨

Take a statistics course

¨

Set up a computer system

¨

Solve technical problems

¨

TOTAL

TOTAL

A

S Work for charity

¨

Take a self-improvement course ¨

¨

Study psychological theory

¨

¨

Create portraits or photographs

Train others to do a job or obtain a skill

¨

¨

Read or write poetry, novels

Settle arguments between others

¨

¨

Take a course in interior, or other design

Teach in college or public schools

¨

¨

Act in a comedy or play

Convert an idea or story into a play or for the theatre

¨

Play in a band, group or orchestra

TOTAL

TOTAL

E

C ¨

¨

Take an inventory of supplies and products

¨

Operate a computer

¨

Operate your own business or service

¨

¨

Attend a sales meeting

¨

Check paperwork or products for errors or flaws

Make decisions

¨

Keep records of expenses

¨

Influence others

¨

Write business letters

¨

Perform calculations in bookkeeping or business

¨

Operate business machines

¨

Fill out detailed forms

¨

Learn strategies for success in business

¨

Supervise the work of others Participate in a political campaign

TOTAL

TOTAL

79

Self-assessment and career exploration

Task 2: Read the descriptions of the personality type for which you have the three highest scores. Check if any of the job examples provided in your three top profiles would interest you.

Matching personality types with jobs Realistic

Investigative

A realistic personality has mechanical and athletic abilities. S/he enjoys working outdoors, with tools and machines. S/he generally prefers to work with objects more than with ideas or people.

Investigative people usually have mathematical and scientific abilities, enjoy working alone and like to solve problems. They generally favour working with ideas and things more than with people.

Competencies: Repair furniture; use wood-shop power tools such as power saws, lathes or sanders; read blueprints; make simple electrical repairs; make simple plumbing repairs; change car's oil or tire; make scale drawings.

Competencies: Use a computer to study a scientific problem; interpret simple chemical formulas; understand the half-life of a radioactive element; use algebra to solve math problems; describe the function of the white blood cells; use logarithmic tables; perform a scientific experiment or survey.

Example of jobs: Carpenter, woodworker, mechanical repairer, electrician, plumber, car mechanic, textile worker, tailor, dentist, aircraft pilot, police officer, engineer, power plant operator, geologist, veterinary.

Example of jobs: Computer programmer, biologist, mathematician, radiologist, pharmacist, dentist, safety engineer

Artistic

Social

This type of personality enjoys creating original work and has a good imagination. S/he usually enjoys working with ideas more than with things.

A person with social skills is interested in human relationships and likes to help others with problems. S/he likes to work with people more than with things.

Competencies: Write a speech; write advertising copy; sketch people so they can be recognized; design an advertisement; create an artistic representation; act in a play; decorate a suite of offices; do a painting, watercolour or sculpture.

Competencies: Help others; explain things to others; coach others; entertain others; give advice; make people feel at ease; talk with all kinds of people; Teach others; lead discussions.

Example of jobs: Writer, journalist, restorer, ceramist, pastry chef, advertiser, model maker, type copyist, painter, musician, music teacher, illustrator, singer, language teacher.

80

Example of jobs: Nurse, police officer, fire worker, cosmetologist, social worker, elementary school teacher, political scientist, occupational health and safety inspector, librarian, counsellor, psychiatrist, occupational therapist.

Chapter

Session

Enterprising

Conventional

Enterprising people have leadership and speaking abilities, are interested in economics and politics and like to be influential. They like to work with people and ideas more than with things. Competencies: Lead people; measure own performance; motivate others; able to deal with difficult people; manage a sales campaign; organize the work of others; able to sell; speak in public; plan a strategy to achieve goal. Example of jobs: Sports instructor, salesperson, purchasing agent, real estate agent, manager, administrator, public relations officer, lawyer, judge.

This personality type has clerical and arithmetic ability, prefers working indoors and likes to organize things. S/he enjoys working with words and numbers. Competencies: Gather information over the phone; file correspondence and other papers; post credits and debits; keep accurate records of payments or sales; use a computer; write business letters; arrange for a business meeting. Example of jobs: office clerk, bookkeeper, transport operator and mover, secretary, administrative assistant, computer operator.

Task 3: Describe your composite personality type to a fellow participant, together with your competences and the most suitable examples of jobs.

81

Self-assessment and career exploration

Activity 1.3 Skills for work

Task 1: Read the detailed descriptions of the different types of skills required to perform at work.

Different types of skills required to perform at work Foundation (or basic) skills: Reading: Identify relevant details, facts, and specification; locate information in books/manuals, from graphs; find meaning of unknown words. Writing: Write ideas accurately with proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation; check, edit, and revise a written text for accuracy. Mathematics: Use numbers, fractions, and percentages to solve problems; use tables, graphs, diagrams, and charts; use a computer to enter, retrieve, change, and communicate numerical information; visualize an object by looking at a blueprint, drawing, or sketch; imagine how a system works by looking at a schematic drawing.

Vocational (or occupational) skills: Mechanical - work by applying mechanical principles to practical situations using machines, hand tools, or equipment; project planning and design, construction, mining. Artistic work in the entertainment or publishing industries (for example writing fiction or poetry; painting, sketching, creating computer graphics, singing, dancing, choreographing, composing, acting, directing theatre, movie, television, or radio programs) Scientific Skills – working with chemicals, rocks, metals, mathematics, movement of the earth and stars, living organisms such as plants and animals; work in medical and research organizations. Plant and Animal Skills - work in farming, fishing, forestry, or horticultural businesses, (for example transplanting seedlings, harvesting crops, operating farm equipment, using hand tools, applying pesticide and fertilizer, planning and scheduling, cultivating, mowing, irrigating). Protective Skills - work in law enforcement, fire-fighting, guarding or protecting animals, property, or people, for example guarding, reporting, patrolling, inspecting, investigating, searching, monitoring alarms, using equipment (e.g., X-ray, metal detector, or surveillance). Industrial Skills - work in a manufacturing setting to produce goods by operating machines, inspecting, managing inventory, weighing/measuring/sorting objects. Sales Skills - work in retail, wholesale, or outside sales (for example keeping accurate records, handling money, quoting prices, working with customers, marketing, handling promotions/trade shows). Service Skills - work within the service industry; this may be in the field of hospitality, personal service, recreational service, food service, customer service. Care Skills - work with people to provide mental, social, physical, or vocational services, for example counselling, rehabilitating, nursing and performing patient care.

82

Chapter

Session

Core employability (or non- vocational) skills: Communication: Organize and communicate ideas clearly orally and in writing; select language and gestures appropriate to audience; listen to what a person says, noting tone of voice, and other body language; respond in a way that shows understanding. ICT skills: the ability to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools (hardware and software. Learning-to learn: acquire and apply independently new knowledge and skills required for meeting changing needs. Problem-solving: Recognize a problem; find a solution; determine how well the solution works; revise as needed. Decision-making: Identify goal(s); generate alternatives and gather information about them; weigh pros and cons; choose best alternative; plan how to carry out choice. Teamwork: Cooperate with other people having different ethnic, social, or educational backgrounds; contribute to the work of a group of people with ideas and effort; do own share of work.

83

Self-assessment and career exploration

Task 2: Read the descriptions of six well known occupations and select the two that are most interesting for you.

CARPENTER

HOTEL RECEPTIONIST

Carpentry is a diverse and multi-dimensional trade that demands skill and knowledge in all areas of woodworking. There are two main categories: structural carpenters who build and maintain structures, and detail carpenters who concentrate on interior work. Carpenters perform numerous tasks. They may be required to install prefabricated structures such as window frames, doors or shelves, build foundations, install beams and sub-flooring, or erect walls and roofing systems. They also build stairways and wall partitions, install fixtures in kitchens and bathrooms, apply drywall, plaster or insulation material to both ceilings and walls, and install mouldings, parquet flooring and tiles.

This is a job where personality is of the utmost importance. Hotel reception work suits people who are friendly, outgoing and cheerful. It is essential to enjoy interacting with other people, guests and colleagues alike, and to have the good communications skills this entails. These skills include verbal and written communications as well as body language. Receptionists must be willing to please and serve customers, and so the work suits people who enjoy a lot of contact with people and helping them to enjoy their visit. Sometimes receptionists find themselves being constantly interrupted, so they need to be patient and helpful, even with the occasional difficult guest.

Carpentry is both physically and intellectually demanding. Much of the work requires physical effort and working with your hands to lift, saw, hammer and carry materials. It also calls for foresight, concentration, mathematical skills and an ability to read and interpret plans, blueprints, drawings and sketches to determine specifications and requirements. You must be able to organize your work carefully and carry out tasks with little or no supervision. Interpersonal communication and problem-solving skills are important when dealing with co-workers and clients

84

Receptionists also need to be able to think on their feet, come up with creative solutions to problems or be able to direct guests to another department or person who can help them. They need to able to handle a wide variety of tasks at the same time and remain calm under the pressure the situation can cause. Hotel reception work involves a good deal of administration too, so it suits people who are well organised and have an administrative flair. An aptitude for using office equipment is useful tool

Chapter

ELECTRONICS (TECHNICIAN) As electronics is now incorporated into virtually every sector of the economy, it offers a wide range of job possibilities. Some of these occupations are focused on assembling, testing, repairing and inspecting consumer, commercial and industrial equipment and other electrical products and systems. Others involve designing, developing and testing the production and operation of electrical and electronic equipment and systems. Everything from satellite systems to ski lift controls requires workers with training in electronics.

Session

HAIRDRESSER Hairdressers should have good hand skills for cutting and styling hair. An interest in art and fashion is useful, to be able to appreciate different styles and keep up to date with changing styles. An interest in science is desirable, to understand the use of chemical products in hairdressing.

Hairdressers need a friendly manner and should be capable of getting on well with people of all kinds. They must be good listeners and be able to talk easily to clients. Hairdressers need patience and concentration for their work. A careful approach is required, particularly when Technicians are involved in the installation, working with scissors, razors and chemical set-up and repair of computer networks and products. Fitness and stamina are important, hydraulic systems, establish communication links to remote locations or design and install as hairdressers stand all day. They ought to electrical systems. Depending on their area of be free from skin complaints, such as eczema, as the chemical products used tend expertise, these workers need to know and to aggravate these conditions. Hairdressers understand many different electronic should be clean and well groomed, with a concepts with background in the applied general appearance that gives their clients sciences. As technology continues to grow confidence. Hairstyles change with fashion and evolve everything could one day be electronically based, which makes electronics and . hairdressers must keep up to date with new styles, hairdressing products and be an occupation of the future. willing to put them into practice. The workplace includes commercial companies, government utilities, consulting engineering firms, educational institutions, resource base industries, high technology design and manufacturing and communications companies all hire people with training in electronics.

85

Self-assessment and career exploration

FOREST OFFICER

PHYSIOTHERAPIST

Forest officers need to be able to plan, organise and supervise the work of others. Ability to plan ahead for the long-term is essential; the forest officer may have the satisfaction of creating a lasting resource for future generations, but must be aware that mistakes are also long lasting.

Physiotherapists help and treat people of all ages with physical problems caused by illness, accident or ageing. Physiotherapy is a healthcare profession which sees human movement as central to the health and well-being of individuals. A tactful and sympathetic personality, patience, and tolerance are essential qualities.

The work involves careful collection and analyses of facts and figures, so numeracy is essential.

Physiotherapists should be able to work well with their hands and have the ability to give manipulative treatments. Lifting and supporting patients can be physically strenuous and individuals should have the stamina and physique required to carry out these duties. The skills used by physiotherapists include manual therapy, therapeutic exercise and the application of electro-physical modalities. Physiotherapists must also have also an appreciation of psychological, cultural and social factors which influence their clients

Written and spoken communication skills are required for negotiating, answering enquiries, liaising with outside organisations, managing and supervising staff, writing reports and correspondence. Some scientific knowledge and an interest in the environment are also required. Physical fitness is important; the work involves a lot of walking, often over rough terrain.

86

Chapter

Session

Task 3 For the two occupations selected, identify the knowledge, skills and attitudes the job requires based on the example provided K N O W L E D G E

WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW?

S K I L L S

WHAT DO I NEED TO DO?

A T T I T U D E

HOW DO I NEED TO BE HAVE?

CARPENTER

HAIRDRESSER

PHYSIOTHERAPIST

FOREST OFFICER

RECEPTIONIST

ELECTRONICS

87

Self-assessment and career exploration

Example K N O W L E D G E

S K I L L S

WHAT DO I NEED TO WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW? BE ABLE TO DO?

CARPENTER

88

Tools and equipment types; Carpentry materials handling techniques; Calculation of material requirements; Reading and interpreting plans, drawings and specifications; Determine specifications and requirements; Window frames, doors and windows construction techniques; Ceiling framing, and roof construction methods; Parquet flooring and tiling mounting techniques.

Carry out measurements and calculations; Handle carpentry materials; Use carpentry tools and equipment Install window frames, doors or shelves; Build foundations, install beams and sub-flooring; Erect walls and roofing systems; Build stairways and wall partitions; Install fixtures in kitchens and bathrooms; Apply drywall, plaster, insulation material to both ceilings and walls; Install mouldings, parquet flooring and tiles; Read and interpret plans, blueprints, drawings and sketches; Organize work carefully; Carry out tasks with little or no supervision; Communicate with clients, supervisors and co-workers; Solve problems.

A T T I T U D E

HOW DO I NEED TO BEHAVE? Be positive and confident; Know own strengths and weakness; Learning to learn; Be able to manage conflict and anger

Chapter

Session

Task 4: Individually, identify personal and environmental factors that may limit your choice of the occupations you have selected.

Examples:

Carpentry is physically demanding and exposes workers to dust and other materials that may cause allergies and respiratory ailments. Hotel receptionists usually work in shifts, during week-ends and on national holidays. This may have an impact on social and family life.

89

DO YOU Discovering

occupations

Session

- Discovering occupations

Activity 2.1 Discovering occupations: Information interview

Task 1: You will be divided into teams of three persons each. Each team will receive 12 coloured cards, 2 of each colour. The teams are asked to formulate 2 questions for each of the six categories highlighted below to gather occupational information from persons who are performing a job of interest. Once this task is completed, each team will post their questions on labelled flip-charts.

1.Occupational field (yellow)

4.Preparation for the job (red)

a)

a)

b)

b)

2.Career development (green)

5.Job Search advice (white)

a)

a)

b)

b)

3.Working conditions (blue)

6. Best/worst thing about the job (pink)

a)

a)

b)

b)

90

Chapter

Session

Suggested questions for an informational interview 1. Occupational field: 4 What jobs are available in this field? 4 What is the nature of the work? 4 What are the main duties and responsibilities? 4 Please describe a typical day or week. 4 What skills and abilities are most important in

this type of work? 4 What are typical entry-level job functions?

2. Career development: 4 What is the typical pattern of career development? 4 What is the future outlook of this profession? 4 What is the highest position that someone can

attain in this job?

3. Working conditions: 4 What are the requirements of the job? Which

environment factors affect the job? 4 What are the typical working hours? 4 Do you work in shifts, nights, holidays? 4 What is the average salary for someone doing this

type of work in this area? 4 Benefits 4 Are there any health and safety risks in this job?

91

DO YOU Discovering

occupations

4. Preparation for the job: 4 What advice would you give to someone

starting out in this occupation? 4 How does one prepare for this type of work? 4 How can I acquire the required skills?

5. Job search advice: 4 How did you find this job?/ How can I find a job

in this field? 4 What types of companies hire people in this

type of work? 4 How can I identify both advertised and

unadvertised opportunities? 4 How might I improve my CV for this field? 4 What kinds of experience would you suggest for

pursuing a career in this field? 4 Given my experience, do you think I’m on the

right track? What advice could you give me

6. Best/worst thing about the job: 4 What do you like most about your work? 4 What do you like least about your occupation? 4 What are the main advantages and

disadvantages?

92

Chapter

Session

Activity 2.2 Discovering occupations How to read a job advertisement

Task 1: In pairs, read through the two job advertisements below, one advertised through a daily newspaper and one through the internet. Using the template provided at the end of the handout, list for each advertisement the “must have” and “would like” requirements.

th

The Roseway Gazette, 12 March 2007

Personal Assistant An Internet Café business in Roseway Central, Verypretty City urgently requires a mature, hard working assistant to provide administrative and secretarial support. Must be willing to become closely involved in the business, Duties include liaison with suppliers and clients when the owner is abroad on business, excellent communication and organisational abilities. Keyboard skills (55 wpm) and a confident telephone manner essential. Experienced bookkeeper an advantage. Knowledge/experience of customer service and another language.

Internet advertisement

A well-established Lilyway-area boutique graphic design firm is seeking a part-time office clerk to assist with daily office duties. Must be able to work in a fast-paced environment and multitask. Please e-mail your resume and your availability to [email protected]

93

DO YOU Discovering

occupations

Roseway Gazette advertisement Must have

Would like

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4. Internet advertisement

Must have

Would like

lin01.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

94

Chapter

Session

Suggested answers: Roseway Gazette advertisement Must have

Would like

1. Keyboard skills – 55 wpm

1. Bookkeeping experience

2. Confident telephone manner

2. Fluency in another language

3. Communication skills

3. Experience in dealing with customers and suppliers

4. Administrative and organisational skills 5. Willingness to take on responsibility

Internet advertisement Must have

Would like

1. Keyboard/typewriting skills

None

2. Good communication skills 3. Ability to use various computer programmes 4. Ability to organize and meet deadlines

Sample job advertisements

Œ

WELDER ZIEGLER LTD., a Caterpillar dealer, has an opening in our Nevercity branch for a Welder to work on heavy construction equipment. No experience required, unpaid training period offered on-the-job. Ziegler offers competitive pay and a complete benefits package, including safety equipment. Candidates send resumes to: Ziegler Inc. Attn: Human Resources/Welder, 13 Lily St, Nevercity

95

DO YOU Discovering

occupations



Ž



Activity 2.3 Assignment: Matching skills to job requirements

96

NURSES and NURSING AIDES: Healthy Hospital is one of the top 10 Hospitals in Utopia. It serves over 4,000 patients annually. The elderly care department is designed for functionality that respond to elderly persons’ nursing needs. The elderly care department is searching for 2 floor nurses and 3 nurse aides. Nurse candidates must have at least 1 year current experience, preferably in elderly care. No prior experience is required for Nursing Aides, but availability to work in shifts is a must. For consideration, please forward resumes to: Healthy’s Hospital, Utopia. Nevercity Do-it-Yourself Centre currently has full-time openings for CARPENTERS AND FURNITURE FITTERS. Applicants must be able to design, build and fit woodwork and furniture (for kitchens, bedrooms, gardens, dining and sitting rooms). Ability to plan and organize work, help and advise clients is essential. For confidential consideration, please post resume into www.nevercity.com, referencing Req. # 301. Eatwell, a nationwide chain of restaurants is looking for 2 COOKS for its facilities in Roseway and Lylipond. Only candidates with experience in planning and preparing a variety of food (meat, seafood, desserts) and in organizing and displaying buffets will be considered. Please apply to Eatwell restaurants, Roseway Road.

Task 1: Individually, select an occupation you may be interested in try to find as much information about it as you can, either through information interviews or other information resources (National Classification of Occupations, employment service information, Internet and so on). At the very least, you should be able to gather the information detailed in the template below.

Chapter

Session

Œ  Ž   ‘

Title of the job (Carpenter) Types of companies offering the job (Furniture building companies, building and construction enterprises) Main duties and responsibilities (Using woodworking tools, assembling and fitting wood furniture) Skills and knowledge required (Carry out measurements, handle carpentry materials, use carpentry tools and equipment) Average salary and other conditions of work (at entry level: 10,000 gross month; 40 hours/week, possibility of shifts; paid sick and holiday leave) Health and safety risks (Dust exposure, falls from heights)

NB: If you opt for the information interview, ask your friends, family or acquaintances if they know anybody who is doing that job. Once you have identified your respondent, fix an interview and ask the questions that are in your personal list (see Activity 2.1). At the end of each interview, summarize the key points. Keep track of the persons you have contacted during the exercise ( names, addresses, telephone numbers) as they may be useful during your job search. Task 2: Describe in a concise manner your knowledge, skills and attitudes and match them to those of the jobs for which you have collected information (point 4 in the template above). Look at the main duties and responsibilities of the job (point 3 in the template above) and describe why you would like this job. Finally, are there personal and environment factors that would prevent you taking the job?

97

DO YOU Preparing

a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Preparing an effective CV 1. Preparation Before you start writing, take some time to do a self-assessment. Write down your skills and abilities as well as your work-related experience and social activities. This will make it easier to prepare a thorough CV.

2. Drafting Name, address, telephone number and e-mail address All your contact information should go at the top of your CV. Avoid nicknames. Use a permanent address and telephone number where you can be easily reached. If available, add your e-mail address. Choose an e-mail addressthat sounds professional.

Career objective This objective should tell potential employers the sort of work you aspire to do. Be specific about the job you want. For example: “My career objective is to obtain an entry-level position as a nurse in a hospital to apply my nursing skills and knowledge”. Tailor your objective to each job you target by matching the skills you possess with the job you are looking for.

Education and training New graduates with little or no work experience should list their educational information first. Indicate your qualifications, the institution that issued it and the year. Add the average grade attained and mention school honours/awards.

Work-related experience Give a short overview of skills acquired through work-related experience. Focus on achievements and use action words (achieved, acquired, addressed, managed, etc.) to describe your job duties. Include your experience in reverse chronological order — that is, put your last job first and work backwards to your first, relevant job. Include: Title of position, Name of organization

98

Chapter

Session

Preparing an effective CV (continued) Location of work Dates of assignments Describe responsibilities with emphasis on work-related skills and achievements.

Other information You may want to add: Core skills and competencies (for example planning, problem-solving, team working skills). Participation in social activities and sports (e.g. in volunteer organizations) that may interest the employer although not strictly related to the position you are applying for.

References Ask two or three persons you know if they are willing to serve as referees before you give their names to a potential employer. Do not include these names in your CV but indicate: “References to be given upon request”.

3. Review Have your CV reviewed by somebody who has experience in drafting CVs. You can also take the following steps to ensure the quality of your CV: Do a spell check before anyone sees it. Get a friend to review the text. Ask another friend to proofread it. The more people who see your CV, the more likely misspelled words and awkward phrases will be corrected.

4. Finalize Use white, A4 standard size paper (maximum two pages). Print on one side of the paper only. If you are typing your CV, use a 10-14 font size and stick to it, avoid italics, script, and underlined words. If you are writing the CV by hand, ,make sure it is clear, and easy-to read. Do not use horizontal or vertical lines, graphics, or shading.

99

DO YOU Preparing

a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Activity 3.1: Identifying work-related experience

Task 1: With a partner, read Paula’s story, the work-related skills of the job she would like to apply for and the list of activities she did in the past. Paula’s story Paula is 22 years old and is searching for her first job. She would like to work as cook in the hotel industry. She spoke to an employment counsellor who advised her to prepare a CV. When she started drafting, she did not find it so difficult to write the sections with her contact information, job objective and education and training. She found it more complicated to draft the section on work experience. She just completed a three-year vocational training course on cooking and, therefore, has not yet had any work experience. She recalled that the counsellor told her to think about her “hidden” experience, i.e. activities done in the past that helped her learn skills that can be related to the work she is looking for. Paula started to write down the following activities, but found it hard to identify skills and experience. Her experience

Œ  Ž

100

Completed a three-month internship in the kitchen of a restaurant where she learned how to work with other colleagues and how to manage, in a timely way, the orders received by customers. Worked for a month as cashier in a supermarket. Did six-months’ voluntary work in a home for the elderly where she was responsible for keeping three people company, including her grandmother.

Chapter

Session



 ‘

Organized a successful dinner for the graduation ceremony of her school with the tasks of purchasing food, supervising other three students in charge of cooking and organizing the presentation of food and drinks. Held a summer job as cleaner in the local bank. Worked for three months at the local grocery store with the responsibility of collecting orders, selecting the food and delivering it to the two city hospitals.

Work-related skills for cook A. Plan catering for an event or function B. Organize and prepare food C. Present food D. Receive and store kitchen supplies E. Clean and maintain kitchen premises F. Plan, prepare and display a buffet G. Develop cost-effective menus H. Work with colleagues and customers

Task 2: Using the template below, help Paula identify the experience that may be relevant to the job she is looking for and match it to the job requirements.

Relevant experience

Work-related skills

101

DO YOU Preparing

a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Activity 3.2: Writing effective CVs

Task 1: Read the chronological and functional sample CVs provided below and select the one that best corresponds to your needs. Task 2: You have 20 minutes to prepare your CV. Task 3: In pairs, you have 5 minutes to read the CV of your peer and provide feedback on his/her CV. Task 4: Individually, select from your CV the information needed to compile a “calling card”.

Sample CV - Chronological

Full Name Current Address: Address City Phone number – email Permanent Address: Address City Phone number – email

Career Objective: Describe, in a short sentence, the job you would like to find and the professional objective you want to achieve.

Example: A retail management position where my skills in sales and marketing and enthusiasm for innovation will be used for improving customer service and expanding the company’s profitability.

Education: Title of certificate/diploma/degree Name of educational and training institution and month/year of attainment of certificate/diploma

102

Chapter

Session

Sample CV - Chronological (continued)

Title of certificate/diploma/degree Name of educational and training institution and date the certificate/diploma was obtained. Relevant Subjects Indicate the subjects that are relevant to the job you are applying (e.g. Fundamentals of Management, Finance, Bricklaying, Tiling).

Work Experience: Most recent job Job title, (period from month/year to month/year) Name of the company, city Description of main tasks , describe them as outcomes, – e.g. assisted, developed, organized, completed

Second most recent job Job title, (period from month/year to month/year) Name of the company, city Description of main tasks

Skills: Language(s) Indicate foreign language(s) spoken and the level of knowledge. Computer: Indicate names of the programmes you can use and your degree of competence.

Activities: Include any activity (cultural activities, sports, voluntary service, etc.) that may relate to the skills required for the job advertised. Add the statement “References available upon request” to show that the above-mentioned information can be verified.

103

DO YOU Preparing

a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Sample functional CV Name Address City Phone number - email

Career Objective Describe with a short sentence the job you would like to find and the professional objective you want to achieve.

Example: A retail management position where my skills in sales and marketing and enthusiasm for innovation will be used for improving customer service and expanding company’s profitability.

Summary of Qualifications Describe, in one short sentence, the qualifications you have acquired

Example: Extensive and diverse health care experience in emergency care in hospital settings. Good background in designing, implementing, and directing patient care programmes. Experience with hospital information systems.

List main area of work - example HEALTH CARE In bullet points, describe the main tasks you undertook in previous jobs (formulate them as outcomes – e.g. administered, managed, completed).

Example Assessed, planned, implemented, and evaluated care for diverse patient populations. Designed, administered, and directed teaching programs. Worked extensively with medical technology.

104

Chapter

Session

Sample functional CV (continued)

List the main area of work - example ADMINISTRATION Administered all operations for in-patient and ambulatory patient care units. Managed unusual incidents related to personnel functions and medical care. Acted as liaison between medical and nursing staffs. Supervised two to four nursing aides. Participated in auditing medical records. Administered in-service training programmes.

Education Title of certificate/diploma/degree Name of educational and training institution and month/year of attainment of certificate/diploma

Employment Name of the company, city Job title (period from month/year to month/year) Example: The National Institute of Health, Medical Centre “Healthy Style”, Shining Sun city, Nursing aide(May yyyy-present).

Add the statement “References available upon request” to show that the above-mentioned information can be verified.

105

DO YOU Preparing

a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Task 2: You have 20 minutes to prepare your CV. Remember to use action words (examples are provided below).

Key words for CVs The following words may help with preparing and revising your curriculum vitae. They convey involvement and accomplishments and make your CV more readable and effective Experienced in

Managed

Conducted

Edited

Handled

Initiated

Formulated

Drafted

Remained as

Innovation resulted in

Instrumental in

Coordinated

Recipient of

Demonstrated

Expertise and demonstrated skills in

Administered

Assisted with

Honoured as

Consulted

Evaluated

Installed

Adept at

Negotiated

Planned

Recommended

More than. …years experience

Budgeted

Recommendations accepted by Analyzed/Assessed Succeeded to Developed Instructed Performed Experience involved/included Knowledge of/experienced as Specialized in Reported directly to Direct/Indirect control (Sub-)Contracted

Assigned to Delegated Advised Investigated Presented Interacted with Established

Extensive training, involvement in

Proficient/ competent at

Temporarily assigned to

In charge of

Improved

Proven track record in

Promoted to/from

Organized

106

Implemented

Initially employed Operated as Served Familiar with Provided technical assistance

Chapter

Session

Task 3: In pairs, you have 5 minutes to read the CV of your peer and provide feedback on his/her CV.

Task 4: Individually, select from your CV the information needed to compile a “calling card” following the example provided below. Full Name

Paula Motvaz

Address

55, Roseway Ridge,

City

Rosevalley-on-the-river

Phone number

+234111111

E-mail

[email protected]

Career Objective

Retail manager

Skills and experience

Skills in sales, marketing and customer service with 10 years experience in the retail industry

107

DO YOU Preparing

a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Activity 3.3: Filling job application forms

Task 1: Individually, read the job application form provided below. Using the CV you have just prepared , you have 10 minutes fill in as many sections as you can (do not forget to sign it). Task 2: You will be asked to review your application with a peer who will play the role of the employer.

Job application form Surname

First Name

Date of Birth

Place of Birth

Sex

What is your preferred field of work? KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGES. What is your mother tongue? READ OTHER LANGUAGES

Easily

WRITE

Not Easily

Easily

Not Easily

SPEAK Easily

Not Easily

UNDERSTAND Easily

Not Easily

List any office machines, equipment and software you can use: Education NAME OF SCHOOL AND PLACE

ATTENDED FROM/TO

TYPE

CERTIFICATES

Mo./Year Mo./Year

EMPLOYMENT RECORD: Starting with your present post, list in reverse order every employment you have had. Use multiple sheets, is required. FROM

TO

EXACT TITLE OF YOUR POST

DESCRIPTION OF YOUR DUTIES

NAME AND ADDRESS OF EMPLOYER: NAME OF SUPERVISOR REFERENCES: List two reference persons. FULL NAME

DATE:

108

FULL ADDRESS

BUSINESS OR OCCUPATION

SIGNATURE_________________________________________

Chapter

Session

Activity 3.4: Writing a cover letter

Task 1: Individually, and on the basis of the sample cover letter provided below, you have 15 minutes to write a cover (motivation) letter to respond to one of the job advertisements presented in Activity 2.2 How to read a job advertisement. Task 2: Share cover letters with a peer. You have 5 minutes to read and comment on the content. Sample Cover Letter 2-B Magnolia Av, Lullaby (000) 233333 (home phone) [email protected] (e-mail) (Date – dd/mm/yyyy)

Ms. Tanja Kovacev, Manager Accounting Department XYZ Company 10 Lily Road Lukac Dear Ms. Kovacev, I am writing to introduce myself at the suggestion of Professor Marco Tudov of Lullaby University. He indicated that you are very interested in talking to accounting students regarding possible career opportunities in your company. As you may see in the enclosed curriculum vitae, I have a strong academic background in accounting combined with over five years’ work experience in accounting and bookkeeping. My recent internship at the Central East Bank allowed me to further develop and strengthen my technical and analytical skills. During this internship, I was a member of the team that successfully completed a major project converting a manual accounting system into a computerized one. Professor Tudov indicated this type of conversion is a major concern for your organization over the next year. I believe that I could make a significant and valuable contribution to the project of your company. I would be delighted to discuss with you how my educational background and prior work experience may help meet the needs of your company. I will be contacting you within the next few days to talk about the possibility of arranging a meeting. Thanking for your time and consideration. Sincerely, ___________________ Paula Gradenski (Signature)

Enclosure: Curriculum Vitae

109

DO YOU Preparing

a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

Handout 7: Tips for writing CVs and avoiding the top ten mistakes It is very important that the CV you send to prospective employers is clear, focused and well written. Here some tips to avoid the most common pitfalls. 1. Avoid typos and grammatical mistakes The CV has to be grammatically perfect and without errors, otherwise employers will think that you cannot write or that you prepared it without caring too much. 2. Do not give generic statements or descriptions Employers have to be able to understand what you have done and accomplished. For example, a generic sentence like “worked with employees in a restaurant” could be re-written as follows: “recruited, trained and supervised more than 20 employees in a restaurant with USD2 million of annual turnover”. The latter sentence is result-focused and is more likely to catch an employer’s attention. 3. Tailor your CV For each application, you should review the CV so that it highlights your educational background, skills and experience that is most relevant to the position. Whenever you try to develop a one-size-fits-all CV to send to all employers, you almost always end up with something employers will discard immediately. Employers want to feel you have written your CV specifically for them, and expect you demonstrate how and why you match the position.

110

Chapter

Session

4. Highlight accomplishments rather than tasks Avoid listing job duties on your curriculum. Employers do not care so much about what you have done as what you have achieved. For example, task-based descriptions like “attended marketing meetings”, or “updated departmental files” should be turned into “developed a marketing campaign through teamwork” and “organized and maintained the department filing system”. 5. Be concise There is no standard length for CVs. However, the rule of thumb is not to exceed two pages. This requires that your sentences give details of key information but in a concise manner. 6. Formulate a clear career objective Employers do read the statement of your career objective. This is why you should avoid vague sentences like “seeking a challenging position that offers professional development.” Use clear statements like “a challenging entry-level marketing position that allows me to use my skills and experience in fund-raising for non-profit organizations.” 7. Use verbs Avoid using sentences like “responsible for.” Instead, use action verbs (e.g. “resolved user queries as part of an IT help-desk serving 4,000 students and staff”).

111

DO YOU Preparing

a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

8. Include important information You may be tempted not to mention activities that, at first glance, do not seem related to the job you are applying for. However, you should always check whether the skills and experience have some pertinence. For instance, you may consider leaving out work you did to earn some money while studying. However, if you have little work experience, this information could tell the employer you have some experience and you acquired work-related employability skills. 9. Choose formats that are neat and clear If you use five different fonts or fancy layouts you may risk tiring or distracting readers’ attention from the content. Show your CV to somebody else prior to sending it, so that they can tell you if they find it neat and visually attractive. , 10. Provide full contact information Double-check even the most minute, taken-for-granted details, such as your telephone number, street address and national insurance number (this may be called something else in the country concerned), and your e-mail address.. This is to ensure that you can be contacted.

112

Chapter

Session

CV checklist This checklist can be used by job applicants to make sure they have not forgotten anything. For each question included in the following checklist, please check whether the information and/or activity has been completed, is yet to be completed or you decided not to include it in the CV or it is not applicable to your case. SECTIONS

QUESTIONS

Personal details

Are all my personal details included in the CV?

Career goal

Have I included my career goal statement to describe my job objective and ambitions?

COMPLETED

TO BE COMPLETED

DECIDED NOT TO INCLUDE

NOT APPLICABLE

Educational Are names and addresses of my schools included in history the CV? Are relevant subjects of my studies indicated in the CV? Are notable achievements included in this section? Workrelated experience

Are the jobs I did in the past listed in this section of the CV? Have I included the skills and duties involved in these jobs? Are details on employers and places of employment specified in the CV? Are dates of employment indicated in this section? Have I included relevant examples of school-based work? Have I included relevant examples of other types of activities (e.g. internships, work with voluntary organizations)?

113

DO YOU Preparing

a curriculum vitae and filling job applications

CV checklist (continued) SECTIONS

QUESTIONS

Interests

Are my interests, social activities and hobbies that highlight useful skills and experience included in the CV?

References

Have I contacted at least two persons who are willing to give me a reference?

CV

Is my CV ready to be sent to employers?

Cover letter

Is the cover letter finalized and ready to be sent?

114

COMPLETED

TO BE COMPLETED

DECIDED NOT TO INCLUDE

NOT APPLICABLE

Chapter

Session

115

DO YOU Planning

for the job search

Session

- Planning the job search

Activity 4.1(a) Tapping the hidden job market: Exploring networks

Task 1: Individually, you will be asked to draft a list of the members of your network who may be useful for job searching purposes. Select one or more of the means listed below: l Talk to members of your family, friends and

relatives to get their suggestions on persons and enterprises to contact; l Meet with teachers in the career field you are

pursuing, if possible. Many of them keep in contact with people in their respective industries; l Schedule a meeting with an employment/career

counsellor at the employment service/job centre to explore any networking contacts they may have; Task 2: Once you have a list of at least 5 potential enterprises, gather as much information you can about each of them. Look through the enterprise register kept by the employment office/job centre, or through the information material available in local chambers of commerce or by asking persons who know about the enterprise. Task 3: Select two of the enterprises you have researched and contact them, either by phone or in person, to find out whether there are any job openings. Follow the steps given below:

Œ

116

Review your CV to make sure that it matches what you have found during your research (vacancies open within the enterprise, the skills, knowledge required by the post and so on).

Chapter

Session



Practice what you are going to say, by writing a script along the following lines:

“Hello, my name is ____________. I understand that your enterprise (or the enterprise you work for) does _____ .I would be very interested in working in that particular area. I was wondering if you have, or will have (if your enterprise will have) any job opening”. l If the contact says no, ask if they anticipate any

openings in near future or if he/she knows of anyone in the same line of business who does. l Make sure that you get the full name and title of the

person you are speaking to. l Keep your CV or calling card in front of you in case

your contact asks you questions. l If the contact seems interested, ask if you could

meet with him/her to discuss possibilities in more detail. l If the contact cannot meet with you, ask if you can

send in a copy of your CV. l Whatever happens, thank your contact and re-state

your interest in working for his/her organization.

Task 4: Report back in plenary session on your experience with your search. Keep the information on your contact and his/her organization. You may need it again.

117

DO YOU Planning

for the job search

Activity 4.1(b) Tapping the hidden job market: Contacting employers (assignment)

Task 1: During Activity 2.1. Information interview you compiled a list of persons who are doing a job you are interested in and of the enterprises where the job is offered. Select at least two of these enterprises and collect all the information you can about each of them. You may look at the enterprise register kept by the employment office/job centre, or through the information material available in local chambers of commerce or by contacting persons familiar with the enterprise. Task 2: Contact the selected enterprises, either by phone or in person, to find out whether there is a job opening. If your contact is an employee of the enterprise you are interested in, find out from him/her who is the best person to contact to enquire about job openings. Follow the steps outlined below:

Œ



Review your CV to make sure that it matches what you have found out during the information interview and from the research (jobs offered by the enterprise, the skills, knowledge required and so on). Practice what you are going to say, by writing a script along the following lines:

“Hello, my name is ____________. I understand that your enterprise (the enterprise you work for) does _____ . That is the area in which I am interested in. I was wondering if you have (if your enterprise has) any job openings.” l If the contact says no, ask if s/he anticipates any

openings in the near future or if s/he knows of anyone in the same line of business who does.

118

Chapter

Session

l Make sure that you get the full name and title of the

person you are speaking to. l Keep your CV or calling card in front of you in case

your contact asks you questions. l If the contact seems interested, ask if you could

meet with him/her to discuss possibilities in more detail. l If the contact cannot meet with you, ask if you can

send him/her a copy of your CV. l Whatever happens, thank your contact and re-state

your interest in working for his/her organization.

Task 3: Report back in plenary session on your experience with the job search. Keep the information on your contact and his/her organization. You never know when you might need it again.

119

DO YOU Preparing

for job interviews

Session

- Preparing for job interviews

Activity 5.1 Practicing interview questions

Task 1: The handout below summarizes the questions that are likely to arise during a job interview and provides some tips on how to answer. Individually, you have 10 minutes to read through the handout and highlight in your CV the parts that are useful to respond to the questions.

Interview questions and answers Tell me about yourself. This is an open-ended question used to break the ice. The key is to keep your responses related to the job. Be specific and do not ramble on. Your answer should be about two minutes long. Why are you interested in working with this company? This will show the employer if you have done your research. Be specific and state how what you have learned about the company relates to your career goals. Why have you chosen this particular field? This allows you to demonstrate your enthusiasm and dedication to your field. Describe your best/worst boss Be positive. Speak about your best boss if possible and, if pressed, give negative statements a positive spin such as “I had a supervisor who was often very vague. However, because of this, I learned to value good communication”. What is your major strength/weakness? Strengths are easy, but be sure they are related to the job. As for your main weakness put a positive spin on it. For example “I tend to be nervous around supervisors, although I have gained more confidence since my last job where supervisors encouraged me to ask questions”.

120

Chapter

Session

Interview questions and answers (continued)

Where do you see yourself in three years? Tell the interviewer that you hope to be in the company in whatever capacity you can make the best contribution, based on the skills and experiences developed in the course of the three years. Describe an experience in which you worked as part of a team. Being able both to contribute to and lead a team are of crucial importance. Give this question serious consideration beforehand and develop answers to both situations. Team sport activities are good examples. What are your hobbies? This question may seem irrelevant. Interviewers ask these types of questions to learn about your personality and test your interpersonal skills. In addition, answering questions about your hobbies or interests allows you to highlight some of your strengths. Participating in a sport demonstrates teamwork; ability in a craft shows an attention to detail. Do you have any questions? This is a question you can always anticipate. As a result of your research you should have a number of good questions relating to the job/company. Show that you are prepared.

121

DO YOU Preparing

for job interviews

Task 2 With a partner, you have 15 minutes to practice answering five of the ten job interview questions provided in the box below. Keep track of your answer to see how you can improve your answers. Question 1.

Tell me about yourself....

2.

What experience do you have in this field?

3.

What parts of your education do you see as relevant to this position?

4.

Why do you want to work for this organization?

5.

What are you looking for in a job?

6.

What have you done to improve your knowledge in the last year?

7.

How do you establish a working relationship with new people?

8.

What particular skills and knowledge would you bring to the job?

9.

What makes you the best applicant for this position?

10.

Do you have any questions?

122

Answer

Chapter

Session

Activity 5.2 Role play: job interviews

Note for the facilitator: If a real employer is invited to carry out the job interview during this session, Task 2 of this learning activity needs to be modified accordingly. Task 1: Individually, read though the handout provided below on what to do and things to avoid in a job interview. Handout

What to do

15 things to avoid in a job interview

1.

Arrive 10-15 minutes early.

1.

Arrive late to an interview.

2.

Use the waiting time to review employer research information.

2.

Poor personal appearance.

3.

Have pen and paper. Asking to borrow a pen indicates lack of preparation.

Lack of interest and enthusiasm; passive and indifferent.

4.

Ask questions on salary and benefits.

4.

Be positive. Recruiters remember a positive attitude.

5.

Criticism of past employer.

5.

Listen carefully to each of the interviewer’s questions before responding.

6.

Poor eye contact with interviewer.

7.

Asking no questions about the job.

8.

Indefinite answer to question.

9.

Overbearing, ‘know-it-all’ complex.

10.

Inability to express oneself clearly.

11.

Lack of confidence and poise, nervous, ill at ease.

12.

Make excuses, evasive, hesitate on unfavourable factors on record.

3.

6.

If needed, pause and take time before answering difficult questions.

7.

Keep going even if you feel you made a mistake.

8.

Carry extra copies of the CV and references organized in a portfolio.

9.

Do not discuss salary and benefits. If asked, respond without stating specific amounts (I was earning around.... since I was a student, the aim was to get experience and some money for the fees...)

123

DO YOU Preparing

for job interviews

Handout What to do 10.

11.

Keep your answers brief and concise. Unless asked to give more details, limit your answers to two to three minutes per question. Ask questions. Good questions require advance preparation. Just as you plan how you would answer an interviewer’s questions, write out any specific questions you want to ask. For instance: Can you please describe an average day on the job? How will you evaluate applicants? Who will be my colleagues and supervisors? How is an employee evaluated and promoted? Who are your clients? Who are your competitors? What are your expectations for new recruits? What qualities are you looking for in them? How soon can I expect to hear from you? When will you take a final decision?

12.

124

Maintain a conversational flow. By consciously maintaining a conversational flow—a dialogue instead of a monologue—you will be perceived more positively.

(continued)

15 things to avoid in a job interview 13.

Lack of courtesy, ill-mannered.

14.

Sloppy application form.

15.

No interest in company or industry.

Chapter

Session

Task 2: You will be divided into three groups: two-three participants will play the role of job applicants who will sit a job interview in front of an interview panel composed by three participants for each panel. The remaining group of participants will be asked to observe the interview and to grade the performance of the job applicants.

A) Instructions for job applicants You have 15 minutes to prepare for a job interview based on the following instructions. You are asked to play Paula’s role during a job interview with the representatives of the chain of restaurants Eatwell. The enterprise published the following advertisement:

Eatwell, a nationwide chain of restaurants is looking for 2 COOKS for its facilities in Roseway and Lylipond. Only candidates with experience in planning and preparing a variety of foods and drinks as well as organize and display buffets will be considered. Please apply to Eatwell restaurants, Roseway Road. Paula applied and submitted a CV that emphasized the following: 4 Completed a three-month internship in the kitchen

of a restaurant where she learned how to work with other colleagues and how to manage, in a timely way, the orders received by customers 4 Organized a successful dinner for the graduation

ceremony of her school with the tasks of purchasing food, supervising other three students in charge of cooking and organizing the presentation of food and drinks. 4 Worked for three months at the local grocery store

with the responsibility of collecting orders, selecting the food and delivering it to the two city hospitals.

125

DO YOU Preparing

for job interviews

The enterprise informed you that each candidate will undergo a 10 minute screening interview at the premises of the Eatwell restaurant of Roseway Road. You may prepare for the interview by reviewing Paula’s experience and the skills required by the job she is pursuing. Paula is 22 years old. She has lived in Roseway all her life and is very familiar with the neighbourhood and its people.

Work-related skills for cook

She just completed a three-year vocational training course on cooking and is searching for her first job. She would like to work as cook in the hotel industry. Her experience 1.

Completed a three-month internship in the kitchen of a restaurant where she learned how to work with other colleagues and how to manage the orders received by customers

2.

Worked for a month as cashier in a supermarket

3.

Did six-months’ voluntary work in a home for the elderly where she was responsible for keeping three people company, including her grandmother

4.

Organized a successful dinner for the graduation ceremony of her school with the tasks of purchasing food, supervising other three students in charge of cooking and organizing the presentation of food and drinks.

5.

Held a summer job as cleaner in the local bank.

6.

Worked for three months at the grocery store of the local marketplace with the responsibility of collecting orders, selecting the food and delivering it to the two city hospitals.

126

A.

Planning catering for an event or function

B.

Organizing and preparing food

C.

Presenting food

D.

Receiving and storing kitchen supplies

E.

Cleaning and maintaining kitchen premises

F.

Planning, preparing and displaying a buffet

G.

Developing cost-effective menus

H.

Working with colleagues and customers

Chapter

Session

B) Instructions for interviewers You have 15 minutes to prepare for interviewing job candidates on the basis of the following instructions. You are a member of a panel of three interviewers working for the Eatwell chain of restaurants. Your company has advertised two job positions for cooks as follows:

Eatwell, a nationwide chain of restaurants is looking for 2 COOKS for its facilities in Roseway and Lylipond. Only candidates with experience in planning and preparing a variety of foods and drinks as well as organize and display buffets will be considered. Please apply to Eatwell restaurants, Roseway Road. The enterprise is part of a national chain of restaurants that specializes in family events (marriages, birthdays and so on). Eatwell restaurants offer reasonably priced food in a comfortable and family-friendly environment. The Eatwell restaurants cater for the three main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner, both buffet and a la carte) and are open from 6 in the morning till 12 at night. Each restaurant earns most of its revenues from people living and working in the neighbourhood. The enterprise is looking for a person who: 1) is available to work in shifts; 2) works well in a team, and 3) can perform the task highlighted below: 4 Plan catering for an event or function 4 Organize and prepare food 4 Present food 4 Receive and store kitchen supplies 4 Clean and maintain kitchen premises 4 Plan, prepare and display a buffet

127

DO YOU Preparing

for job interviews

4 Develop cost-effective menus 4 Work with colleagues and customers

This screening interview aims to decide which candidate will proceed to the next step of the recruitment process. The panel members have 10 minutes to interview each candidate. Your next candidate is Paula. Paula is 22 years old. She has lived in Roseway all her life and she is very familiar with the neighbourhood and its people. She just completed a three-year vocational training course on cooking and is searching for her first job. She would like to work as cook in the hotel industry. Her experience 4 Completed a three-month internship in the kitchen of a restaurant where she learned how to work with other colleagues and how to manage, in a timely way, the orders received by customers. 4 Worked for a month as cashier in a supermarket. 4 Did six-month’s voluntary work in a home for the elderly where she was responsible for keeping three people company , including her grandmother. 4 Organized a successful dinner for the graduation ceremony of her school with the tasks of purchasing food, supervising other three students in charge of cooking and organizing the presentation of food and drinks. 4 Held a summer job as cleaner in the local bank. Worked for three months at the local grocery store with the responsibility of collecting orders, selecting the food and delivering it to the two city hospitals.

128

Chapter

Session

With the other members of the panel go though the questions highlighted below and select those you wish to ask Paula:

Suggested questions for interviewers 1.

Tell me about yourself, where you studied and what skills you will bring to this job.

2.

Why are you interested in working for this enterprise?

3.

Why have you chosen this particular field?

4.

What is your major strength/weakness?

5.

Suppose a client complains ing about the food you have prepared. What would you do?

6.

Can you describe the main task of your previous job?

7.

Describe an experience in which you worked as part of a team.

8.

Suppose that a colleague is late in taking over from you and you are supposed to finish some other tasks, what would you do?

9.

How do your school achievements relate to this job?

10.

Do you have any questions for us?

At the end of all interviews, the panel will decide whether the candidates passed the screening interview and report in plenary their impressions on the applicants (what they did well, what can be improved, general impressions).

129

DO YOU Preparing

for job interviews

C) Instructions for observers You are asked, as a member of a team of two three participants, to observe two/three candidates undergoing a 10 minute screening interview for the position of cook at the Eatwell chain of restaurant. Before the interviews start, go through the list of suggested points to consider for grading applicants’ performance presented in the handout below. Fill a scoring card for each of the applicants. Please grade the performance of _____________________(name of applicant) from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) 1.

Was the applicant properly dressed and groomed?

1

2

3

4

5

2.

Did s/he introduce him/herself, shake hands and wait before sitting?

1

2

3

4

5

3.

Did s/he demonstrate listening skills?

1

2

3

4

5

4.

Did s/he answer in an effective way?

1

2

3

4

5

5.

Was the applicant able to explain him/herself clearly and concisely?

1

2

3

4

5

6.

Did s/he market his/her skills and knowledge?

1

2

3

4

5

7.

Did s/he ask appropriate questions?

1

2

3

4

5

8.

Did s/he seem relaxed and confident?

1

2

3

4

5

9.

Did s/he convey a professional attitude?

1

2

3

4

5

10.

Was the interview successful?

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL SCORE (please sum up)

130

Chapter

Session

Handout Pre- Interview Checklist Before you go to your interview, check the following Have you researched the organization you are interviewing with?

o

Be prepared with answers to why you want to work in that particular enterprise, and how you would be the best candidate for this position. Do you know the interviewer’s name and position?

o

Find out the name and position of the person you will meet with and get his/ her telephone number in case an emergency arises. Do you have all necessary information for the interview?

o

This includes items such as a resume or personal data sheet, names and addresses of references, pen and note pad. Have you formulated answers for usual interview questions?

o

Consider how the position relates to your skills and aspirations, (specialty area and opportunities for advancement). Did you practice answering interview questions for this position with someone?

o

Do not forget the most obvious research, simply knowing where you are going BEFORE the interview. What is the company address? How long should you plan for travel time? Trial-test the journey to the company to be sure that you know how to get there and how long it will take. Also, remember to give yourself an extra 10-15 minutes in case they ask you to complete a r job application form.

131

DO YOU Preparing

for job interviews

Handout: 6.1 Interview questions that are not allowed Family and marital status Not allowed

Allowed

Are you married or do you have a permanent partner?

Would you be willing to relocate if necessary?

With whom do you live?

Travel is an important part of the job. Do you have any restrictions on your ability to travel?

How many children do you have? Are you pregnant? Do you expect to start a family? When? How many children are you planning to have? What are your child care arrangements?

Do you have personal/family responsibilities or commitments that will prevent you from meeting specified work schedules? Do you anticipate any absences from work on a regular basis? If so, please explain the circumstances.

Gender Not allowed

Allowed What do you have to offer our company?

How do you think you will feel in a job that was always done by a man (or woman in the case the interviewee is a man)

Tell me about your previous experience in supervising staff

How do you feel about supervising men/women?

Have you ever been disciplined for your behaviour at work?

What do you think about dating colleagues? Personal Not allowed How tall are you? How much do you weigh? (Questions about height and weight are always illegal unless it can be proven that there are minimum requirements to do the job).

132

Allowed Are you able to lift a 10 kilos weight and carry it 100 meters, as this is part of the job?

Chapter

Session

(continued)

Handout: 6.1 Interview questions that are not allowed Health and physical abilities Not allowed Do you have any disability? Have you had any recent illness or surgery? Please complete this medical questionnaire. What was the date of your last physical exam? Is your family healthy? When did you lose your eyesight/ leg/ hearing/ etc.?

Allowed Are you able to perform the essential functions of this job with or without reasonable accommodations? (This is allowed if the interviewer thoroughly described the job.) Will you be able to carry out in a safe manner all job assignments necessary for this position? Are you able to lift a 10 kilos weight and carry it 100 meters, as that is part of the job? NB: Medical exams are allowed AFTER an offer has been extended; results should be held strictly confidential except for reasons of safety.

National origin/ citizenship Not allowed Where were you/your parents born?

Allowed

What is your country of citizenship?

Do you have any language abilities that would be helpful in doing this job? (Allowed if language ability is directly relevant to job performance.)

Are you a citizen of this country?

Do you have a work permit?

What is your native language?

Race/Colour/Religion Not allowed All questions are not allowed

Allowed Are you available for work on Saturday and Sunday?

133

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period of the job

Session

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period on the job

Activity 6.1.(a) Evaluating job offers

Task 1: Individually, read through the list provided below and rank your work values from 1 (not important) to 4 (very important). Each of the columns also allows you to insert additional items, if necessary. Circle all the values you ranked 3 and 4. These will provide a picture of what is important for you in a job.

The job

Score

The enterprise

1.

Duties and responsibilities

1.

Technologically innovative

2.

Match for values/interests/skills

2.

High involvement in research and design

3.

Personalities of supervisors and colleagues

3.

Management styles

4.

Variety of work assignments

4.

Opportunities for growth and advancement

5.

Opportunity for individual achievement

5.

Layoffs and restructuring

6.

Opportunity to work independently

6.

Reputation and image of employer

134

Score

Chapter

Session

(continued 1)

The job

Score

The enterprise

7.

Opportunity to apply academic background

7.

Financial stability and growth prospects

8.

Salary and other benefits;

8.

Salary, benefits, and hours of work

9.

Hours of work: (flexible work hours, overtime, working in shifts)

9.

People in top-level positions

10.

Physical environment, health and safety in the workplace

10.

Personnel policies

11.

Conditions of work (health insurance, old age pension and so on)

11.

Training and continuing education

12.

Social significance of job

12.

Required relocations and transfers

13.

Pressure and pace of work; turnover

13.

Public or private employer

14.

Intellectual stimulation

14.

Well established vs. newly-founded company

15.

..................................

15.

.............................

16.

..................................

16.

.............................

Score

135

Evaluating job offers and managing the first period of the job (continued 2)

The industry

Score

The location

1.

Growth history

1.

Opportunity for partner’s career

2.

Future need for goods and services

3.

Climate

4.

Dependence on the business cycle

1.

Cost of living; distance from work

5.

Dependence on government policies and programs

2.

Community life; environment

6.

Long-term future potential

3.

Location of firm headquarters and branches

7.

Record of layoffs or downsizing

4.

..................................... ...

7.

..........................................

5.

.....................................

Score

Task 2: Read the job offer you received, select the items most important to you and see if the two match

136

Chapter

Session

Activity 6.1.(b) Matching job offers to my work values

Task 1: Individually, read through the work values priorities that you prepared for Activity 1.1. Add additional items, if necessary. Circle all the values you ranked 3 and 4. These will provide a picture of what is important for you in a job. Task 2: Read the job offer you received, as much information as you can about the items that are most important for you and see if the two match. Your priority

Quality of work Contribution to work and society Social status attached to job Intellectual challenge Salary level and other financial benefits Job security Innovation Ability to learn Work-environment Teamwork Relationship with co-workers Variety of tasks to accomplish Objectives and goals to attain Independence at work Creativity Career progression Hours of work

137

OTHER RESOURCES

139

Resource 1

Resource 1: Glossary of key employment terms Collective agreements

Collective agreements are made between one or more employers’ organisations and one or more workers’ organisations. They aim to: i) determine working conditions and terms of employment; ii) regulate relations between employers and workers; and, iii) regulate relations between employers or their organisations and one or more workers’ organisations.

Decent Work

Work that is i) productive and ensures a fair income; ii) provides security in the workplace and social protection for workers and their families; iii) offers better prospects for personal development and social integration; iv) grants freedom of speech to allow the people to express their concerns, organize and participate in decisions that affect their lives; and v) ensures equality of opportunity and treatment for women and men alike.

Employee

Employees are all those workers who hold paid employment jobs. They have an employment contract which entitles them to a basic remuneration, typically in the form of wages and salaries. Contrary to the self-employed and employers, this remuneration is not directly dependent upon the revenue of the enterprise. The employer is responsible for the payment of relevant taxes and social security contributions.

htEmployer

Employers are those workers who are self-employed and engage on a continuous basis one or more persons to work for them as employee(s).

Employers’ organisation

Membership-based organizations that lobby for and represent the interest of their members, i.e. employers.

Employment contract

Agreement between the employer and the worker that contains the terms and conditions of employment that were agreed by the above-mentioned two parties. It also specifies whether the employment relation is for an indefinite or definite period of time. It is usually in written form and contains the employer's name and address; the employee name, job title and description of tasks; the place of work; the hours of work and the elements of remuneration. It also contains the date of start and, for contracts for definite time, the end date.

Hazard

A hazard is defined as any activity, situation or substance that can cause harm, either physically or mentally.

Hazardous Work

Any type of work which is - by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out - likely to jeopardize the health or safety or of the worker.

Home Work

Home work is work carried out by a person in the home or in other premises of his or her choice, (other than the workplace of the employer), for remuneration, which results in a product or service as specified by the employer. Home workers do not usually have the degree of autonomy and of economic independence necessary to be considered an independent worker.

140

(continued 1) Hours of work

Standard hours of work, usually eight hours per day or 40 hours per week that are determined by the labour contract and/or collective agreement. Any amount less than the standard working hours is considered part-time work. However, even if you work part-time you have the same rights and duties as a full-time worker.

ILO

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is the United Nation's specialized agency that is devoted to reducing poverty, achieving fair globalization and advancing opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. As a tripartite organization the ILO works with governments, employers' and workers' organizations.

Living wage

A living wage takes into account the actual living costs that might vary between different regions of a country, especially between rural and urban areas. The living wage approach takes into account these differences but also the cost of living and it aims at establishing a flexible minimum remuneration that guarantees that workers can earn enough to allow them a decent livelihood.

Minimum wage

A minimum wage is the minimum sum payable to a worker for work performed or services rendered, within a given period. It can be guaranteed by law, may not be reduced either by individual or collective agreement and is fixed in such a way as to cover the minimum needs of a worker and their dependants.

Night work

Night work is all work which is performed during a period of not less than seven consecutive hours, from ten o'clock at night until five o'clock in the morning.

Occupational safety and health regulations

These regulations aim at placing maintaining workers in an occupational environment adapted to psychological capabilities. They promote the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention of departures from health caused by their working conditions; and the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health.

Overtime

All hours worked in excess of the normal hours. Overtime can be carried out until the maximum working hours either per day or week is reached.

Paid Leave

Paid leave is the annual period during which workers take time away from their work while continuing to receive an income and to be entitled to social protection. Workers can take a specified number of working days or weeks of leave, with the aim of allowing them the opportunity for extended rest and recreation.

Part-time workers

Employed persons whose normal work hours are less than those of comparable full-time workers.

Period of notice and dismissal

Employers pr employees, wishing to end an employment relation have to observe the period of notice which specifies how long the employment relationship has to be maintained until the termination of employment takes effect.

Probation period Trial period during which both sides, employers and employees, have the right to end the employment contract with limited or no notice period. Remuneration

The ordinary, basic wage or salary and any additional emoluments payable directly or indirectly, whether in cash or in kind, by the employer to the worker and included in the employment contract.

141

Resource 1 (continued 2) Rest periods

Periods of free time that are given to workers in order to preserve their safety, health and well-being.

Self-employed

Anyone who procures his/her own earnings through business, contract or freelance activity. More specifically, a self-employed person is someone who has his/her own economic activity usually without paid employees.

Shift work

Shift work is a method of organizing working time whereby workers succeed one another at the workplace so that the establishment can operate longer than the hours of work of individual workers at different daily and night hours.

Social security

Protection that covers access to health care and income security for the old, sick, unemployed, and , as well as in case of or loss of a breadwinner.

Trade unions

Trade unions are membership-based organisations of employees, normally extending beyond the confines of one enterprise, established to protect or improve, through collective action, the economic and social situation of workers.

Wage

Remuneration or earnings usually expressed in terms of money and fixed by mutual agreement or by national laws or regulations. It is payable by an employer to an employed person for work done or for services rendered.

Workers’ Representatives

Organizations that are recognized as such under national law or practice to represent workers through designation or election of representatives, freely elected by the workers.

Young person

Youth is the period of life between childhood and adulthood. The internationally agreed definition encompasses all people between the ages of 14 and 25.

142

Resource 2

Resource 2: Designing and implementing training workshops: Guidelines for facilitators Understanding the audience

Understanding the nature and characteristics of participants is crucial to the success of a training workshop. With this understanding, facilitators will be able to deliver the workshop according to participants' needs and expectations. Resource 4 of this toolkit, provides a simple example of a training needs questionnaire that may be used to better understand the expectations of participants.

Developing learning objectives

Learning objectives are statements that clearly describe what participants will to be able to do as a result of their learning experience. They describe the intended results of the training event. These objectives help facilitators: decide what they want to accomplish in the workshop and how to do it; mould the workshop according to the needs of the participants; understand whether participants find the workshop relevant and appropriate to their needs; determine content and activities; specify what participants will be able to do at the end of the workshop; and measure the results achieved at the end.

Identifying the workshop design criteria

Once the learning objectives have been identified, facilitators can select and/or develop the training material and instructional techniques to be used during the workshop. Facilitators should have a thorough knowledge of the material they include in their course. They must also be conversant with the main instructional methods. The following guidelines help facilitators choose what they want to include in the workshop and the instructional approaches to be used. This information should be included in the session plans. A sample of these plans is included in this toolkit as resource 5. 1. Define the objectives so that it is clear what is expected to be achieved by the end of the workshop. 2. Prepare an overview of the workshop that outlines objectives and content. 3. Present simple concepts, one at a time. 4. Select the best instructional technique for encouraging the knowledge and skill-building (i.e. role-playing, case studies, and experience-sharing among the participants) and provide alternative learning means (i.e. variety of instructional approaches). 5. Give an adequate number of positive examples of the concept, portraying concrete examples to explain the concepts. 6. If possible, take examples from the ideas or knowledge familiar to the participants to show a connection to real-life cases. 7. Offer opportunities for participants to become involved in the workshop (i.e. through group discussions, hands-on activities, question-and-answer sessions, problem-solving).

143

Resource 2 (continued 1) 8. Allot sufficient time for participants’ discussion and practice 9. Allow sufficient opportunity for feedback or interaction with participants, in order to monitor learning progress. 10. Provide enough exercises to foster the acquisition of knowledge or skill to the extent that it becomes automatic. 11. Give a summary of each session and link the previous to the next topic. Ensure a non-threatening, self-motivating environment. Tips for running workshops

This section provides few tips for running workshops. The advantages and disadvantages of using the main instruction methods are summarized in the resource 3 of this toolkit.

Skilled and knowledgeable facilitators Having a specific purpose in attending the workshop (i.e., to gain knowledge and to acquire skills), and with limited time at their disposal, learners expect facilitators to be skilled and knowledgeable and to be able to transmit their knowledge and skills effectively. It is therefore important that facilitators come to the workshop wellprepared. Real-world application Participants expect the training to provide knowledge and skills that they can directly and immediately apply. It is important that facilitators meet expectations by actually conducting research in the ‘real world’ and find real-life applications of concepts. This will allow them provide practical examples. Facilitators may also use resource persons who are experienced and knowledgeable in the specific field. The more the workshop is relevant, the more participants will be able to relate to, and learn from it. In this way, participants will validate their attending the workshop. They will consider the latter effective and useful. Starting the workshop

The way in which facilitators open the workshop will set the tone for what is to follow. They may use this opportunity, not only to start off by giving a good impression of themselves and the workshop, but also to establish the best kind of learning environment. Facilitators may have no control over attitudes of the participants, but they can surely make these attitudes more positive by winning them over right from the start.

Welcoming participants The facilitators’ welcome is the first activity to be carried out in front of the whole group. It should give participants a positive image of the facilitators. A straightforward, confident welcome is sufficient. For example, they may simply say, “On behalf of the Ministry of Employment, I would like to welcome you to this workshop on job-search skills. I hope that you will find it worthwhile and productive”. Introduce yourself Facilitators should introduce themselves formally. This is the time to establish their credibility. They may give some information about their background, relevant experience, qualifications relating to the workshop and, finally, add a few personal details to build rapport.

144

Resource 2 (continued 2) State the purpose of the workshop Facilitators should explain the purpose of the workshop and give a short statement of what is expected of the participants.. They should briefly describe the main objectives and ask participants what they themselves hope to learn. This will help validate the needs of participants and define which topics need more attention. These inputs can be recorded on a flipchart. Outline the agenda Facilitators should go through the workshop agenda (i.e., what will be done and when, how facilitators plan to go through the sessions, activities, timing, and breaks). Participants should be referred to the timetable of activities that was sent with the invitation letter or, if revisions have been made, hand out a revised timetable. Provide practical information Facilitators should briefly describe where the participants can find the main facilities (e.g. restrooms, telephones, eating and smoking areas). Introduce participants Facilitators may ask participants either to introduce themselves or use an ice-breaking activity. The choice depends on whether facilitators want to obtain information from participants or establish a particular atmosphere. For the former, facilitators may ask each participant to state his/her name and reasons for participating in the workshop. If they feel that many participants feel uncomfortable about introducing themselves they can think of another activity for the introductory session. Breaking the ice

Icebreaking activities, or warm-ups, can help facilitators create an informal atmosphere and make the participants feel more comfortable with the facilitators and with one another. They are designed to help facilitators establish a positive and collaborative environment and to create a climate of openness that facilitates interpersonal relations. Icebreakers are particularly useful in moulding individuals into a group. They are appropriate if participants do not know each other or are feeling somewhat apprehensive about what is going to happen.

Building rapport

Establishing and maintaining rapport is critical to the success of the workshop. Good rapport results in more open interaction between facilitators and participants and among participants themselves. There are several ways in which facilitators can build rapport. The following are just few examples: Use individuals’ names when addressing participants and answering their questions. Treat everyone with courtesy and dignity. Be open and accessible. State that participants are welcome to make their own contributions to the sessions. Handle mistakes sensitively and with tact.

145

Resource 2 (continued 3) Validating the workshop

Evaluation is an important aspect of the training process and should be included in the planning. It provides facilitators with very useful information and feedback on the effectiveness of the training. It ties up directly with the objectives designed at the beginning of the planning process as it will show whether the objectives where achieved. There are four levels of evaluation. The level facilitators choose will depend on the type of information they want. Below are descriptions of the different levels of evaluation, which will guide facilitators in determining the type they will want to carry out.

Reaction evaluation This type of evaluation aims to collect feedback from participants on: i) course content, including clarity of the course objectives, the effectiveness of instructional methods and the length and pace of instruction, ii) skills and knowledge acquired, iii) course material, including training material and visual aids, iii) facilitator(s) and resource persons, and iv) workshop facilities. A sample of a questionnaire for reaction evaluation can be found in resource 6 of the toolkit. Learning evaluation The learning level evaluation examines the knowledge and skills acquired by participants. It is content-specific, and based on the performance of participants during training. The learning level evaluation may be done through: i) participation in class, ii) on-going participant evaluation throughout the activities (e.g. the application of knowledge and skills during role-play, case studies), iii) short-answer tests, iv) essays, and in-class observations. Performance evaluation The performance level evaluation examines the extent to which the knowledge gained and the skills acquired during the training have been transferred (or applied) to a real environment. The information for this level of evaluation may be gathered through: i) direct observation; ii) supervisors’ interviews, iii) performance appraisals, and iv) participants’ reports. Results evaluation The results level evaluation examines the impact training has had on its ultimate target group. Put another way, it analyzes whether the workshop produced the expected results (e.g. it provided an effective response to the job-search problems faced by young people).

146

Resource 3

Resource 3: Instruction methods: Advantages and disadvantages Method

Advantage

Disadvantage

Lecture - The facilitator has full responsibility for presenting facts and principles orally. Formal lectures are mostly used when presenting information to large groups. Communication is virtually one-way (from instructor to students). Informal lectures include active student participation through the use of questions as an effective two-way communication process.

Allows facilitators to transmit information to a large group of participants in a short period of time. It also provides a good introduction and transition to other instructional techniques. For example, facilitators may use a lecture to introduce a case study, summarize the results and the knowledge gained from the case study, make a transition to the next topic, and introduce the next activity.

Places the burden of learning on the instructor and limits the opportunities for participation and peer learning. It also offers minimal feedback on whether facilitators are getting information across or whether messages are understood by participants.

Questioning - With this method, the facilitator imparts knowledge and skills by asking questions. The knowledge and skills transfer can also take place by having participants directing questions to the facilitator.

Encourages participants to become actively involved in the learning process. It gives feedback on whether facilitators are getting the right messages across. With this method, facilitators may gauge the capacity of the participants to apply the concepts being discussed.

It can be time-consuming. Facilitators should ensure that the questioning process does not lead to irrelevant topics and that it contributes to the achievement of the objectives. Another disadvantage is that it can encourage a dominant few to answer questions, and discourage the shyer types from participating.

Discussion - Through discussion, trainees are prompted to participate in an open forum where they can share ideas. The forum may imply a general group discussion or interaction within smaller groups. Discussions must be purposeful, focused and lead to the achievement of the workshop objectives.

Provides excellent peer-learning opportunities. Participants can exchange ideas, learn from others, compare knowledge and opinions and collectively analyze the points of the discussion.

It can be time-consuming and may lead participants into off-track discussions. This is where effective facilitation skills are needed.

Demonstration - This method aims to provide a “clear picture” of a task to be learned. It is based on the principle that one learns best by doing. Participants learn physical or mental skills by performing these skills under supervision.

Allows participants to demonstrate their skills and get immediate feedback on whether the concepts were properly understood and correctly applied. It also enables them to develop skills and fosters self-confidence through practice.

It requires considerable preparation time and careful planning. Facilitators have to make sure that the demonstration and practice are closely linked to actual situations.

147

Resource 3 (continued 2) Method

Advantage

Disadvantage

Case study - A case study is a prepared presentation of facts and/or descriptions of realistic situations that may be based on actual events. Participants are asked to discuss these facts/situations together, and devise the best course of action to take, or the solution to be found.

It helps to develop judgment, decision-making, and problem-solving skills. It also enhances peer-group learning because participants can observe how the case was perceived and approached by each group, thereby providing the entire class with alternative solutions to a given problem.

It requires time to develop a good case study. Some case studies oversimplify a problem vis-à-vis the actual situation, so that the solutions to these case studies are only partially effective, or completely ineffective, in real-life situations.

Role-play - This is a method through which participants act out situations by assuming assigned roles. The knowledge and skills transfer takes place through simulations where participants are asked to play a role (alone or in small groups).

It helps participants identify with the points of view of others, their attitudes, beliefs and feelings. It also provides participants with an opportunity to practice new attitudes, behaviour and skills. Finally, it decreases self-consciousness and builds self-confidence in exhibiting new skills.

Some participants may not feel comfortable with this instructional method. To remove resistance to role-playing, the facilitators should explain the benefits of this method in the learning and practicing of new behaviour or skills and stress the exercise it is not about acting abilities but about the proper application of what has been learned.

Brainstorming - This is an instructional method through which all participants are asked to contribute with their ideas to solve a shared problem by considering a variety of possible solutions. Activities are tailored according to the participants' needs, i.e., the problem is one which they normally encounter in their everyday life.

It allows creative thinking for new ideas, encourages full participation (i.e. all ideas are equally recorded) and draws on group's knowledge and experience. It creates a spirit of cooperation among participants.

It can be unfocused. Participants may have difficulty getting away from known reality. If not managed well, criticism and negative evaluation may occur. Value to participants depends in part on their level of maturity

Resource person - It is also possible for facilitators to make use of resource persons, i.e. someone who is experienced and knowledgeable and has a high degree of expertise in the field. He/she may have acquired these through years of experience or through higher levels of study or research in the field. There are different ways in which facilitators may use resource persons in their workshop.

It can personalize topics and break down the audience's stereotypes.

The resource person may not be a good speaker. In some case, personalities may overshadow content.

148

Resource 4

Resource 4: Sample Training Needs Analysis Questionnaire This questionnaire was designed to gather information on the needs and expectations of participants to the workshop “Surfing the labour market: job search skills for young people”. The results of the questionnaire will constitute the basis for adapting the workshop design, as well as for the development of the training material to be used during this activity. Please answer the following questions and return the questionnaire to the facilitator at your earliest convenience. Instructions on how to respond to specific questions can be found in the body of the text. The data gathered through this questionnaire will be treated confidentially.

149

Resource 4

A. Personal data (1) Mr/Ms

Name:

_________________Surname:___________________ (2) Date of birth: ______/____/______ (dd/mm/yyyy) (3) Address:________________________________ City:_______________ B. Education and training (4) Please indicate your level of education. Primary education

¨

Secondary education

¨

University degree

¨

Other, (please specify) ____________________________

¨

(5) What was the field of your studies?

150

Resource 4

C. Needs and expectations (6) Have you ever looked for a job? ¨Yes

¨No

(7) What are your main expectations of the workshop “Surfing the labour market: job search skills for young people”?

(8) Which topics/areas would you like this workshop to address? (please indicate maximum four areas among those listed below) a) Self-assessment (skills and attitudes)

¨

b) Understanding occupation

¨

c) Discovering career options

¨

d) Writing an effective curriculum vitae

¨

e) Compiling job applications

¨

f) Contacting employers, finding vacancies

¨

g) Sitting job interviews

¨

h) Evaluating job offers

¨

i) Performing in a new job

¨

j) Other (please specify____________________________)

¨

151

Resource 5

(9) Which are your preferred methods of learning? (please indicate all those which apply) a) Lecture

¨

b) Case study

¨

c) Group exercises and discussion

¨

aspnumd) Role play

¨

e) Other (please specify____________________________________________)

¨

(10) Please add any other comment or remark you think would be useful for the further design of the training workshop.

152

Resource 6

Resource 5: Sample of a session plan Session 1 Learning objective Identify own work values, attitudes and skills

Content Introduction (15 min)

Training resources Flip chart that lists:

Participants and facilitator

Purpose of the training activity

Purpose of the training activity

Learning strategy and sequence

Learning sequence

Learning objectives of Session 1

Learning objectives of Session 1

Match individual interests and aspirations to career options

Learning more about oneself (10 min) - Presentation: Importance of self-discovery and self-assessment (attitudes, work-related values and skills) Activity 1.1. Understanding attitudes and prioritizing work-related values (15 minutes)

Flip charts that list Definition of competence (knowledge, skills and attitudes)

Discovering interest (15 minutes) Presentation: personality types and broad occupations Activity 1.2.Discovering interests and activities participants like to do (15 minutes)

Flip chart listing: Examples of matching composite personality types, broad occupational areas and jobs

Identifying skills (15 min) Basic, vocational and core employability skills Activity 1.3 Skills for work (20 minutes)

Preparation of a flip chart listing examples of

Matching work-related values to broad occupational areas

Basic skills Vocational skills Core employability skills.

Closure (5 min) Summary of key learning

153

Resource 6

Resource 6: Validation questionnaire

Workshop: Surfing the labour market: Job search skills for young people Venue: Dates:

Please respond to the questions listed below. Rate aspects of the workshop according to the criteria indicated in each question. Please be candid in your responses. This questionnaire is anonymous and the results will be shared only in an aggregated form. Your feedback is sincerely appreciated. Thank you.

154

Fully

Mostly

More or less

Partly

No

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

After this workshop, I consider that:

Fully

Mostly

More or less

Partly

No

The training activity was well- structured and well- organized

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

The facilitation was professional

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

The training activity focussed on key issues

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

The facilitator/resource persons took into account participants’ feedback

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

The content delivered was appropriate and interesting

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

The group of participants contributed to my learning

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

The learning methods were appropriate

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

The venue suited participants’ needs

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

After this workshop, I consider that:

Fully

Mostly

More or less

Partly

No

Resource 6

The objectives of the training activity been achieved

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

What I have learned will have positive impact on my job search

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

Were the objectives, content and method of the workshop clarified before its start?

155

Overall, I consider this training activity as Very relevant

¨

Relevant

¨

More or less relevant

¨

Barely relevant

¨

Irrelevant

¨

How would you improve this training activity? (Check all that apply)

Reduce content covered

¨

Increase content covered

¨

Update content covered

¨

Improve the instructional methods

¨

Make activities more stimulating

¨

Improve the organisation

¨

Make the training activity less difficult

¨

Make the training activity more difficult

¨

Slow down the pace

¨

Speed up the pace

¨

Allot more time for the training activity

¨

Shorten the time for the training activity

After this workshop, how relevant do you think the following topics are for you?

Irrelevant

¨

Barely

Clarify the training activity objectives

More or less

¨

Relevant

Provide better information before the workshop

Very relevant

¨

Career and occupation exploration

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

Matching own skills to job requirements

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

Writing a CV and cover letters

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

Filling in job application forms

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

Researching and contacting potential employers

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

Responding to job interview questions

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

Managing the first few months on a new job

¨

¨

¨

¨

¨

156

Loading...

Surfing the labour market - International Labour Organization

Surfing the labour market: CV CV CV CV CV Job search skills for young people FACILITATORS’ GUIDE AND TOOLKIT Surfing the labour market Job se...

11MB Sizes 6 Downloads 32 Views

Recommend Documents

The Labour Principles - International Labour Organization
empresas (ISBN: 978-92-2-321823-2 (print), 978-92-2-321824-9 (web pdf), Geneva 2010). ILO Cataloguing in ..... legal com

2016 Labour Overview. pdf - International Labour Organization
Aug 23, 2016 - ISSN: 2305-0276 (web version pdf). ILO Cataloguing ... ILO publications and digital products can be obtai

BRASlL - International Labour Organization
Tabela 4.2 Trabalhadores recebendo o salário mínimo, por categoria ocupacional e sexo, 2008 (percentuais) 91. LlSTA DE

NTVQF - International Labour Organization
RCA. Competency Assessor. CAT. Competency Assessment Tool. CBT. Competency-Based Training. CBT&A Competency-Based Traini

labour code of - International Labour Organization
May 1, 2002 - The Labour code reflects key principles contained in the Constitution of Timor Leste and represents an imp

Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 - International Labour Organization
The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall communicate to the Secretary-General of .... paragraph 2 o

PROPEL-Indonesia - International Labour Organization
CARE-Institut Pertanian. Bogor – IPB (Bogor. Agricultural Institute). Dahri (Secretary). Kamus Baranangsiang IPB. Jl R

pdf 7740KB - International Labour Organization
National nursing: core competency standards: training modules: Philippines / International Labour. Organization; ILO ...

project design - International Labour Organization
PROJECT. DESIGN. MANUAL. A STEP-BY-STEP TOOL to Support the Development of COOPERATIVES and. Other Forms of SELF-HELP OR

Barefoot Economics - International Labour Organization
The objective of Barefoot Economics is to provide a practical evaluation tool to entrepreneurs and all those actively in