The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the GCC Region: Lessons

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Roundtable on Effective and Efficient Financial Regulation in the MENA Region December 6-7, 2010 Doha, Qatar

The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the GCC Region: Lessons and Reform Priorities May Khamis International Monetary Fund

The global economy has suffered a “big bang” of synchronized shocks

GCC banks were less affected by the crisis than their counterparts in advanced economies • Limited exposure to sub-prime assets • Focused on traditional lending and savings mobilization, and generally less integrated in global financial markets • Prompt and forceful policy action helped contain the impact of the crisis.

Transmission to the GCC was through the contraction in global economic activity and the decline in oil prices, plunging asset prices, and financial deleveraging Global trade and net financial flows

Price of Crude Oil

GCC economies have not been immune to global financial dislocations Equity Market Indices

Average correlation within GCC: Jan. 1, 2007–Sep. 10, 2008 Sep. 10, 2008–Jun. 17, 2009 Average correlation with S&P: Jan. 1, 2007–Sep. 10, 2008 Sep. 10, 2008–Jun. 17, 2009 Sources: Bloomberg; and IMF staff estimates.

0.86 0.90 -0.56 0.85

GCC economies have not been immune to global financial dislocations Credit Default Swap Spreads

The external shock has also exposed domestic financial sector vulnerabilities arising from rapid credit growth Credit and Non-Oil Growth 30

Broad Money (% change)

Bank Lending to the Private Sector 140

Percent, average real growth in 2003-2008 40

25

Real Non-oil GDP (% change)

120 100

20

Private Credit (% of Non-oil GDP, RHS)

30

80

25

15

35

20 60

15

10 40 5

20

0

0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

10 5 0 Bahrain

Kuwait

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

U.A.E.

The boom was associated with large exposures to real estate and construction Share of Construction and Real Estate Loans

Real Estate Prices

Percent, 2002 vs. 2008

March 2008=100

50

130

45

125

40

120

35

Bahrain Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia U.A.E.

115

30

110

25

105

20 15

100

10

95

5

90

0

BH

KW

OM

QA

SA

UAE

Mar- Apr- May- Jun- Jul-08 Aug- Sep- Oct- Nov- Dec08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08

. . . and increasing leverage of banks Credit Growth and Capital Adequacy

Banks’ Capital Adequacy Ratios Percent 25 20

2003 2008

15 10 5 0 Bahrain

Kuwait

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

U.A.E.

. . . as well as leverage of the non-financial corporate sector Debt-to-equity ratios for listed companies

. . . and it was funded partly by external sources Banks’ Foreign Liabilities/Total Liabilities (In percent)

GCC countries have faced the global crisis from a position of strength and used their resources to stabilize the financial sector

Country Bahrain Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia U.A.E.

Deposit guarantees1



 

Central bank Long-term liquidity Government Capital support deposits injections      

     

Bank asset purchases

 

Stock market purchases

Monetary easing

 

  





Source: Data provided by country authorities. 1

Includes expansion of retail deposit insurance and guarantee of wholesale liabilities.

 

In spite of a series of shocks, there has been no systemic breakdown and the impact on bank profitability has been moderate so far Banking Sector Performance and Soundness Nonperforming Loans

Bahrain Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia U.A.E.

Capital Adequacy

Provisioning Rate

Return on Assets

Return on Equity

2007

Latest

2007

Latest

2007

Latest

2007

Latest

2007

Latest

2.3 3.2 3.2 1.5 2.1 2.9

3.9 9.7 2.8 2.0 3.3 4.6

21.0 18.5 15.9 12.2 20.6 14.0

19.6 17.8 15.5 15.7 16.5 18.6

74.0 77.0 111.8 90.7 142.9 100.0

… 51.1 113.8 83.2 89.8 79.0

1.2 3.2 2.1 3.6 2.8 2.0

1.2 0.8 2.2 2.6 2.0 1.5

18.4 25.0 14.3 30.4 46.5 22.0

10.6 6.7 14.2 20.7 25.8 12.1

Source: Country authorities. 1

Latest data is as of end-2009 for Bahrain and Saudi Arabia,September 2009 for Kuwait and Qatar, June 2009 for Oman; and November 2009 for the U.A.E.

But financial dislocations and risk aversion have impeded domestic credit intermediation Banks’ Central Bank Reserves

Credit to the Private Sector

Dec ember 2007=100

Percent, year-on-year

. . . and tightened external credit to banks External financing for the banking sector (US$ billion)

. . . and to nonbanks External financing for the non-banking sector (US$ billion)

Non-oil economic activity slowed GCC Real non-oil GDP growth Percent 10 9 8

in 2000 prices 90 Real Non-Oil GDP Growth Real oil prices (rhs)

7

80 70 60

6

50

5 40

4

30

3 2

20

1

10

0

0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

The outlook is positive, but there is need for action on a number of fronts • Cyclicality related to oil prices or other factor (e.g., capital inflows) – Supportive fiscal policies are the first line of defense – Adopt macroprudential tools to contain the excesses generated by the oil cycle Prudential tools with a macro overlay that take into account the system’s stability and spillover effects across markets and institutions, and to the real economy, rather only the soundness of individual institutions The GCC region has already had some success in implementing macroprudential policies

The outlook is positive, but there is need for action on a number of fronts • Supervision – Adopt prompt corrective action and enhance compliance by banks – question long-standing banking practices, such as name lending – Address risk from multiple, unconsolidated exposures for family conglomerates – Strengthen corporate financial disclosure

The outlook is positive, but there is need for action on a number of fronts • Regulation – Implement relevant global regulatory initiatives, four of which are particularly germane to the region • Reducing cyclicality: countercyclical capital requirements and forward looking provisioning • Stronger liquidity standards • Addressing risks of systemically important financial institutions

• Improving bank resolution frameworks, including cross-border

The outlook is positive, but there is need for action on a number of fronts • Domestic debt markets – Provides long term financing for large corporates – Improves corporate governance and financial disclosure

– Diversifies sources of financing for the private sector

The Outlook is positive, but here is Need for Action on a Number of Fronts • Financial and macroeconomic statistics – Much information exists in the internal data and management systems at individual banks – The challenge for the authorities on the financial front is to improve data aggregation, timeliness, and interpretation for purposes of policy action – Regarding macroeconomic statistics, timeliness, quality, and periodicity need to be improved at the country level, while, simultaneously, efforts should be made to speed up their harmonization at the regional level

Thank You

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The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the GCC Region: Lessons

Roundtable on Effective and Efficient Financial Regulation in the MENA Region December 6-7, 2010 Doha, Qatar The Impact of the Global Financial Crisi...

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